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over all broods the keen-eyed, thin-lipped Dogecomes honestly by his burning hatred of the Leonardo Loredano, he whom Bellini painted, Signoria, honestly too by the disgusting brua spirit of Venice incarnate. For the chief tality with which he celebrates his first decisive charm of all this pageant is the glimpse it gives victory, and by the desperate energy whereby, of the inscrutable soul of sixteenth century seeking to transform Maximilian's listless agVenice, whose achievements stand out clearly gression upon Venetian territory into a mad enough on the pages of our histories, but the war to the death, he brings himself, when be thoughts of whose heart are hidden, except has played out his hand, a priceless hostage to from the initiated few. Dr. Thode is of course the dingy Torresella. in the secret, which he does his best to share No less strongly drawn than this stormy with the appreciative reader.
warrior, “heir of all the passions and ambiBut it is time to explain that the ring, named tions of his race,” is the captive Frangipani, Frangipani's, upon the chance sale of which to fretting through years of bitter inaction in the Dr. Thode hangs the whole tale, is a hoop of city he hates. Watching the gay life below finely chased gold, with the legend “ Willingly him, he comes to appreciate as never before thine own” graven upon it in Gothic script. the power wielded by the long, resistless arm It was found in the year 1892 by a peasant of the Ten, able in the midst of wars with half digging near Pordenone in Friuli. Dr. Thode's of Christendom to make their city a haven of romantic interest in the original owner of the peace and luxurious security. He writes ring was immediately focused and deepened by lengthy letters to his wife, Apollonia, and his his happening upon a mention of the presence father,
father, the lawless Bernhardin, — curious of German troops in Friuli. The dates, 1513 mixtures of thanks to God who will some day and 1514, agreed with that indicated by the give him the victory, propitiatory references workmanship of the ring. Unable to find de- to the noble Signoria (who overlooked his cortailed reference to any officer except the com- respondence), fervent expressions of love mander-in-chief, he turned his search, half by “eternal and unchanging " for his dear wife chance, to Count Frangipani. Almost at once and revered father, and carefully explicit he came upon an account of Christoph's loss statements of his need of bed-linen, short-hose, of a relic during the siege of Osopo, “which and good Rhenish ducats for his present neaccident seemed to him to bode only the gravest cessities. Once he writes out, for the diversion disaster.” A letter of the Countess Apollonia of his keeper, an account of a dream he had, to her captive husband, which the indefatigable and he has no doubt much leisure for meditaSanuto has copied, was noted by Dr. Thode tion upon the favors of princes and cardinals a few days later. Its contents made him prac- as well as upon the multitude of his own sins. tically certain that the relic was contained in, For these, in characteristic Frangipani fashion, or perhaps lost at the same time with, a ring he repents, now that he has nothing better to which the Countess had given her husband, and do. He makes a vow to the Madonna of Chian exact duplicate of which she “prays his oggia (which Venice never let him pay), and Lordship” to have graven in Venice that he devoutly carves his motto, “ My hope is set may wear it “ for love's sake and in remem- truly in God," over the grim walls of the brance of me.” The words, she explains, “ give Torresella. Perhaps he even took some part the answer to those other words which stand in the translation of the Germano-Roman in the ring sent me by your Lordship, the Breviary, which was printed in 1518 — three which I have by me."
years after Maximilian's Prayer-book. This is bare fact, a commodity in which Dr. But before this, in the third year of his imThode does not deal. Every stage of his in- prisonment, came Apollonia to Venice, sick vestigation is enriched by anecdote and allu- unto death, but ready “to endure the very sion, and presented against a rich background uttermost” to be with her dearly loved lord. of national or race history. One of the most From this point the romance hastens on to its spirited chapters is that upon the Frangipani tragic finish. Apollonia died broken-hearted, family, — passionate, reckless tricksters, faith- and the count, left to his own passionate deless heroes, standing with Venice to-day, then vices, broke prison and spent the eight years back on the Emperor's side to-morrow, pos- until his death in harassing the Venetian fronsessed by no fixed policy except reconquest of tiers, fighting with the Turks, now as friend, their ancient possessions, and by no fear but a now as enemy, and urging to a white heat the fugitive one for their God. Count Christoph | strife of factions in Hungary, whose throne is evidently the goal of his lawless and ill-fated flanking a central panel of the Holy Family. ambitions.
For this elegant book with its wide margined The scholarly accuracy with which Dr. pages, its curious chapter-headings designed by
, Thode marshalls his folios is relieved and a friend of Dr. Thode, and its choice reprolightened by his almost childlike enthusiasm ductions of Dürer and Bellini, the linen cover over his results. The tracing out of the ring's seems a singularly inappropriate housing. ownership is truly, as the sub-title of his mono
EDITH KELLOGG DUNTON. graph puts it, “ an event in his life," a vivid experience into which he throws all the sentiment of his quaint personality. And if, a better lover than his hero, be cannot suppress an oc
THE PERVERSION OF HISTORY.* casional rhapsody over Apollonia, and perhaps
Mr. Ernest Belfort Bax is the author of reads a bit of himself into the moody Croatian many excellent works on socialism, and in parCount, his story is surely none the worse for ticular early made a name and a place for him. the fault.
self in an examination of the religious and “I read the words - no! I heard them!” ethical aspects of the modern socialistic movehe announces naively of the motto on his treas. ment. Of late he has turned his attention to ured ring. It is this very freshness and dra- history, in monographs upon periods of popular matic enthusiasm in his point of view that revolution and the men who created them. In makes his book unique, and alive in spite of this work he has evidently adopted the method the fact that its complex setting is absolutely of the scholar in the study of his subject, and new ground for the average reader.
that of the partisan in the writing of his book. Another quality rare in the antiquary is our
Great labor in research is exhibited, facts are author's truly epic feeling for the value of di accurately stated and citations are exact, but gression. Not without the predilection of his deductions from those facts are so colored by kind for citations and footnotes, he relegates a bitter socialistic prejudice as to be entirely bis bibliography to a brief appendix ; but he untrustworthy. Mr. Bax's latest effort, a life revels in legitimate episode, and is never in of Marat, is a notable example of this biased too much baste to indulge in a bit of friendly perspective. chat upon side-issues. Of Marino Sanuto, the
Marat, the bête noir of the Girondin hisBoswell of sixteenth century Venice, he tells
torians of the French Revolution, from whom us that his handwriting is not very legible.” other historians have until recently taken their
“: The citations from another chronicler, a love- cue, has commonly been described as a man of lorn captain of Vicenza, are prefaced by the little ability, limited influence, unbounded wholly irrelevant information that it was he ferocity, and a personality disgusting both in who first set down in writing the sad story of its physical and mental characteristics. From the loves of Romeo and Juliet, as it was told this dictum Mr. Bax rescues his hero. Mr. him by a romantic fellow in his troop. Albert Bax is not alone nor is he first in portraying Dürer's visit to Venice is introduced apropos his subject in the newer light. All careful of a possible meeting between him and Apol- modern historians coincide with the view which lonia's brother the goldsmith, while we catch shows Marat to be in fact a man of education, a glimpse of the “ monkish brawl" just con- distinguished as a physician and a scientist. valsing Germany as it cast its shadow over the A disciple of Rousseau, he sacrificed position joyless death-bed of Maximilian.
and wealth to the cause of the people, and by The present edition of “ Frangipani's Ring” the integrity of his conduct, as well as the is a sumptuous one, richly illustrated with very radical character of his political views, main. beautiful photographic reproductions. These tained great influence over the Parisian popuinclude portraits of Maximilian and the Doge lace. He, far more than Robespierre and his Leonardo Loredano — a comparison of which friends, led the Jacobin attack upon the Girongoes far toward explaining Venetian triumphs, dists, standing at first utterly alone in the bit– odd cuts from Maximilian's and the Frangi- ter struggle, and winning his victory by sheer pani Prayer-books, and photographs of Jan courage and force of will. He was honestly Schorel's altar-piece ordered for the church in convinced of the necessity of the violence which Ober. Vellach by Apollonia's daughter and he urged. Earlier histories fail to state with representing, with the kindly lepiency of the
* JEAN PAUL MARAT: The People's Friend. By Ernest old masters, Saints Christoph and Apollonia Belfort Bax, Boston : Small, Maynard & Co.
sufficient emphasis the influence he exerted, or He concludes with a quotation from a “ Fortthe devotion of the people to his person. nightly Review " article by Mr. Bowen Graves.
Mr. Bax brings out all these qualities of “ Threats of bloodshed are, no doubt, only too freperson and conditions of influence, and in do- quent, but always in language such as, to an impartial ing so exhibits unusual biographical ability; mind, excludes the idea of calculation. One day it is
ten thousand heads that must fall, the next it is a hunbut he goes far beyond other writers in his
dred thousand, a third it drops to fifty thousand, a unbounded admiration for Marat's abilities, fourth to twenty, and so on. A few hours before his and in approval of his acts. It is one thing death, he tells us in his journal what he meant by them: to applaud the purity of Marat's motives, an
•I used them,' he says, 'with a view to produce a strong other to approve the motive itself ; one thing impression on men's minds, and to destroy all fatai
security.'" to uphold his honesty of purpose in the use of violence, another to defend the results of that
Thus Marat is here acquitted of any intention
But in anviolence. Mr. Bax yields all his admiration actually to carry out his threats. to all that Marat did or wished to do. He does
other chapter, treating of Marat as a political more than this : he defends every act and every power, Mr. Bax, in order to
power, Mr. Bax, in order to prove the personal incident of Marat's life with the ardor of a
magnetism of his hero, recounts a conversation fanatical partisan, while the results of such de
between Marat and Robespierre in which the fense are published under the guise of a critical
latter said he supposed the “sanguinary deand a scholarly examination of his subject. mands for the blood of enemies of liberty were Moreover, Mr. Bax is either dishonest or illog only spoken in the air, and were not seriously ical in the arguments advanced in Marat's be
meant.” Marat indignantly denied this. half, e.g., Marat denied any honesty of purpose
“ As to its being no mere rhetorical form, he assured or patriotic enthusiasm to the nobles for their
Robespierre that, after the horrible affair of Nancy, he
could have decimated the barbarous deputies who apsurrender of feudal rights on the famous night plauded it; that he would willingly bave sent the inof August 4. That Marat should have been famous judges of the Chatelet to the stake; that again, tbus unjust, is explained by Mr. Bax on the after the massacre of the Champ de Mars, if he had
but found two thousand men animated with the same ground of political necessity; he could not risk
sentiments as himself, he would have placed himself the loss of political influence by approval of
at their bead, poignarded the General (Lafayette) in this act of the nobles, “and hence from the the midst of his brigand-battalions, burnt the despot in politician's point of view, rather than the psy- his palace, and strangled the traitorous representatives chologist's, Marat's caustic criticism appeared
in their seats, as he had declared at the time. • Robes
pierre listened to me with terror,' be says, he grew completely justified.” But inasmuch as Mr.
pale and was silent for some time.'' Bax invariably measures his hero from the standpoint of the psychologist, as he must in
So after having asserted that Marat did not order to defend his acts with any degree of really mean to proceed to extremities, Mr. Bax, success, his inconsistency here weakens his
in his desire to emphasize his hero's political cause.
influence, reverses his previous judgment. Naturally the author's greatest difficulty
These extracts refer to a period when Marat arises from the necessity to explain and con
bad not yet had the opportunity of putting done Marat’s continual in vocation of the use
into effect his threats of violence. When, of violence to secure and maintain social and later, Marat really became a leader in the Seppolitical revolution. It is certain that Marat tember massacres, Mr. Bax shifts the ground believed force necessary to secure these ends, of his defense to an insistence upon the purity and was not only not bloodthirsty, as his
of Marat's motives, and to a favorite comparienemies accused him of being, but was even
son with the acts of Thiers at the time of the personally distressed at the necessity of using Parisian commune of 1871. He says: such means. But Mr. Bax is not fortunate in “ The thousand odd victims (of the September Mashis treatment of this subject. Writing of
sacres) were almost wholly well-to-do hangers-on of
the Court. But who were the twenty or thirty thousand various exhortations in the Ami du Peuple to
victims of 1871 ? Almost wholly workmen, partisans lop off the heads of aristocrats, he says: of a cause avowedly hostile to wealth and privilege,
“There can be no doubt whatever that by such utter- and therefore bated by wealth and privilege. Herein ances as these, Marat, whose single-minded object was lies the ground of the divergence in the world's judgto save the Revolution from the various plots which ment of the two events. If the world' would only be there is no denying were at this time being constantly candid in the matter, and avow openly that it likes hatched against it, was only concerned to keep public well-to-do Royalist plotters, and dislikes Proletarian attention alive to the maneuvres of the Court and its insurgents, we should know where we were, and the satellites."
issue would at least be clear.”
Putting aside other considerations tending to perverted history: he has prostituted it, for it form the world's" judgment upon these two is impossible to believe that a man of Mr. Bax's events, it is at least clear that a policy of ability and scholarship, as exhibited in other violence, solely destructive in its purpose, and writings, is in this instance either unconfailing in its objects, cannot stand in popular sciously dishonest or honestly illogical. It is judgment, with a violent constructive policy unfortunate for the reputation of Marat that that succeeded. Looking only at the purity the author's purpose, evident to the most casual of motive, as does Mr. Bax in defense of Marat, reader, casts an unjust doubt on the real greatit is difficult to see why an equal purity of ness of his hero.
EPHRAIM D. ADAMS. motive should not be ascribed to Thiers. Yet Thiers is a “scoundrel," while Marat is a hero. In a like manner Mr. Bax characterizes each of Marat's opponents : Lafayette is a rascal,
OUTLINES OF GERMAN LITERATURE.* Mirabeau a traitor, Bailly a silly-minded In
easy and popular style, Professor R. W. savant. The royalists and constitutional mon
Moore has presented the main outlines of Gerarchists are always denied any patriotic honesty man literature in his “ History of German of purpose, and Marat is always right in re- Literature.” The book is a revision and extengarding them as intriguing plotters, and fit sion of a course prepared for English readers, subjects for violent retribution. Surely if the which has been tested for several years in col“ lying Carlyle” has perverted history in the lege classes. Its purpose is to offer in a concise interest of a class, Mr. Bax is equally guilty and attractive way a course for students and in the interest of a social theory. Of Marat's others who wish to know something about “the assassination he writes :
great men and the important works of German “Oh, exponents of a class public opinion, satellites literature.” The characteristics of the different of privileged power and wealth, whose tap of indigna- literary movements are clearly stated ; the tion and gassy horror is always turned on to the full
writers of each period are treated according to whenever a representative of privileged class-interest is smitten down — you who can slaver a slain monarch or their importance, and brief résumés give a statesman with undeserved adulation, who can fulmi- general knowledge of their best works. nate against the author of his death at the top of your As is to be expected, the main portion is voices, when will you find your cant no longer profitable? devoted to the literature of the modern period, What has been your attitude towards the People's
Luther's work in Friend’and the dastardly wretch who murdered him – beginning with Luther. her sick and helpless victim? As one might only ex- giving to the German nation a uniform, stanpect, your sympathy has changed sides. Your horror' dard literary language is justly praised as his at assassination has suddenly evaporated. For the man "greatest service to literature. Especially who suffered a four years' martyrdom for his convic
through his translation of the Bible, which tions and for the cause of the disinherited, and who finally sealed his testimony with his blood, you have no
came into the people's hands all through Gerwords but those of coarse vituperation and the foulest many, did this new High German gain a footcalumnies that malice can divise. ... To every un- hold, and become the exclusive literary lanprejudiced reader of history the deed of Charlotte Cor.
guage, that has remained until the present day must appear as the most dastardly, cruel, and wanton political assassination in the world's archives."
time” (p. 59). Perhaps more space should
have been devoted to his work, which was the Invective is not the weapon best suited to
most important of any before the classical win a hostile “ world,” nor will a denial of period. His reforms were not confined to repatriotic motives to the opponents of Marat ligious beliefs, but influenced all parts of life enable Mr. Bax to convince the “unprejudiced by exalting the individual and stimulating reader of history.” Thus his very partisan- personal effort. His prose writings show great ship forbids the realization of his object. Has variety of style, and contributed much to the he an object? The lying Carlyle” did not development of the literature by arousing a
• ntionally pervert history, for he gave the
national feeling and stirring men to mental facts as he knew them. Mr. Bax, idealizing action. Marat, stating the facts of his life and influence,
The classical period receives the fullest and mis-stating the motives of other pátriots, treatment, as it deserves. The opening of the seeks to emphasize the rights of a propaganda period by Klopstock, the development under of socialistic reform, as against all constituted
* HISTORY OF GERMAN LITERATURE. By Robert Webgovernment, and to deny to such governments
ber Moore, Professor of German in Colgate University. the right of self-defense. He has not merely
He has not merely | Hamilton, N. Y.: Colgate University Press.
Lessing and Herder to the full maturity under
RECENT ECONOMIC LITERATURE.* with special preference the author dwells on For several decades past, studies made by Englishthe two greatest names, the poets of Faust speaking economists in the theory of distribution and Wallenstein. The latter he calls - the
The latter he calls “the have been mostly of a fragmentary character. The first and greatest poet” in the popular mind. promulgation of the law of marginal utility by
Jevons and the Austrian writers has been followed “ His poetry by. its wide circulation and its
by a mass of literature dealing with theories of natural genuineness has nourished in the Ger
value and price, and numerous attempts have been man people the most noble sentiments - love
made to apply these theories to the valuation of for the fatherland, for freedom, for honor, for labor, the origin of interest, and to explaining the justice and truth, for friendship and fidelity existence of surplus-values in the shape of profits (p. 175). In Goethe, on the other hand, and rent. Not until recent years have there been “were united Klopstock's ability to enrich the serious attempts made to harmonize and consolidate language, Lessing's clearness of vision and these theories into a general theory of distribution. bold individuality, Wieland's elegance and Of these attempts pone seems more satisfactory grace, Herder's universality, and Schiller's
or more likely to find a permanent place in the
literature of economics than the works of Messrs. rhythm and rhetoric. His works and his in
Clark and Hobson now before us. fluence will endure as long as language lasts
Both writers have contributed largely to the de(p. 187).
velopment and extension of the theories above Of the multitude of authors of the present mentioned. Professor Clark's theoretical work age, the most important are briefly discussed, alone covers a period of twenty-five years, while, and the various literary tendencies are clearly for at least a decade, Mr. Hobson has been promi. brought out. The tendency during the last nent among the British economists of the newest few years is described as a “revolt of the school. working classes against the middle classes." There is not space within the limits of this article Some will miss familiar authors, although the
to do more than give a scanty notice to the theory of list of those mentioned is quite complete. distribution developed by each author, and there is Bertha von Süttner’s “ Waffen Nieder” might them. Perhaps even a lengthy comparison would
no room to institute an adequate comparison between have been used as a good illustration of the “ novels of purpose
at present be premature, since Professor Clark's (p. 251). Johanna
work is an unfinished one, and it is only in the Ambrosius, whose poetry so touched the people second volume which he promises that we may exrecently, and Rosegger, whose simple sketches pect to find work analogous to that done by Mr. are full of the breath of nature, seem to de- Hobson in his present treatise. Nevertheless, there serve some brief recognition.
are some points of resemblance which may be noted, Credit might have been given (p. 193) to
and some points of difference between the theories the scholarly labors of Jacob and William of the two writers which may be briefly touched Grimm in the domain of mediæval literature
Both writers agree in making the price of and especially in legend and folk-lore. Men
commodities the starting point in the theory of
distribution. Professor Clark takes normal price tion might also have been made of the cele
as his starting point, for he is investigating distribrated historians of the present age, such as bution in a static society in which all disturbing Mommsen, Ranke, von Sybel, and Treitschke, forces are eliminated and competition alone has whose works are ornaments of literature as well free play. Mr. Hobson, on the other hand, takes as of scholarship. But these criticisms are as his starting point the market price of commodislight compared to the merit of the work as a
* The DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH. By John Bates Clark, whole, which will prove a boon to college New York: The Macmillan Co. classes and to many general readers. About THE ECONOMICS OF DISTRIBUTION. By John A. Hobson.
New York: The Macmillan Co. a hundred illustrations, all of authentic or his
THE Trust PROBLEM. By Jeremiah Whipple Jenks. torical nature, are an attractive feature.
New York: McClure, Phillips & Co.
The Baker & Taylor Co.
ECONOMIC CRISES. By Edward D. Jones. New York:
The Macmillan Co. CHARLOTTE M. YONGE, chiefly known for her numer
RURAL WEALTH AND WELFARE. By George T. Fairous books for girls, died March 24, in Winchester, En- child. New York: The Macmillan Co. gland, at the age of 78. Miss Yonge's first story was THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH, and Other Timely Essays. By published when she was but 21, and her work has been Andrew Carnegie. New York: The Century Co. so prolific that the titles of her books now fill eight WAR AND LABOUR. By Michael Anitchkow. New York: pages in the British Museum library catalogue.
Longmans, Green, & Co.