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Oth. Hath he said any thing?
Iago. He hath, my lord; but be you well assurd, No more than he'll unswear.
Oth. What hath he said ?
Oth. What? what?
Oth. Lie with her ! lie on her! We say, lie on her, when they belie her. Lie with her! that's fulsome. Handkerchief-confessions—handkerchief - (to confess, and be hang’d for his labour-First, to be hang'd, and then-to confess :- I tremble at it-nature would not invest herself in such · shadowing passion : without some instruction. It is not words that shake me
through the force of importunity extort a favour from their miltress, or if through her own fondness they make her pliant to their desires, cannot help boasting of their success. To.com vince, here, is not, as in the common acceptation, to make sensible of the truth of any thing by reasons and arguments ; but to overcome, get the better of, &c. THEOBALD.
Convinc'd] Convincd, for conquer'd, subdued. WARB.
-his two chambelains
-their malady convinces
--Shadowing passion--] The modern editions have left out passion. JOHNSON.
without some instruction. The starts and broken reflections in this speech have something very terrible, and thew the mind of the speaker to be in inexpreffible agonies. But the words we are upon, when set right, have a sublime in them that can never be enough admired. The ridiculous blunder of writing INSTRUCTION for INDUCTION (for so it should be read) has indeed sunk it into arrant nonsense. Othello is just going to fall into a swoon; and, as is common for people in that circumitance, feels an unutual mitt and darkness, accompanied with horror, coming upon him. This, with vaft fub
thus--pish!- noses, ears, and lips :- is it possible ! -confess !-handkerchief Soh devil !-]
[Falls in a trance. lago. Work on, My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are caught;
And limity of thought, is compared to the season of the sun's eclipse, at which time the earth becomes shadowed by the induction or bringing over of the moon between it and the sun. This being the allusion, the reasoning stands thus: “ My nature could “ never be thus overshadowed, and falling, as it were, into " diffolution for no cause. There must be an INDUCTION OF “ something : there must be a real cause. My jealousy cannot “ be merely imaginary. Ideas, WORDS only, could not shake “ me thus, and raise all this disorder. My jealousy therefore “ muit be grounded on matter of fa&t.” Shakespeare uses this word in the same sense, Richard III.
“ A dire INDUCTION am I witness to." Marfon seems to have read it thus in some copy, and to allude to it in these words of his Fame :
“ Plots ha’ you liid ! INDUCTIONS dangerous ! Ware. This is a noble conjecture, and whether right or wrong does honour to its author. Yet I am in doubt whether there is any neceflity of emendation. There has always prevailed in the world an opinion, that when any great calamity happens at a distance, notice is given of it to the sufferer by some dejection or perturbation of mind, of which he discovers no external cause. This is ascribed to that general communication of one part of the universe with another, which is called sympathy and antipathy; or to the secret monition, instruction, and inAuence of a superior Being, which fuperintends the order of nature and of life. Othello says, Nature could not inveft berfelf in such shadowing pasion without instruction. It'is not words that soake me thus. This passion, which spreads its clouds over me, is the effect of some agency more than the operation of words ; it is one of those notices which men have of unseen calamities. Johnson.
Nature could not inveft herself in such hadowing pafion with out some instruction.] However ingenious Dr. Warburton's note may be, it is certainly too forced and far-feicheu. Othello alludes only to Caffio's dream, which had been invented and told him by Iago; when many confufed and very interesting ideas pour in upon the mind all at once, and with such rapidity that it has not time to shape or digeft them, if it does not relieve itself by tears (which we know it often does, whether for joy or grief) it produces ftupefaction and fainting,
G g 3
And many worthy and chaste dames even thus,
Caf. What's the inatter?
lago. My lord is fallen into an epilepsy ; This is the second fit, he had one yesterday.
Caf. Rub him about the temples.
lago. No, forbear :
[Exit Caffio. How is it, general ? have you not hurt your head?
Oih. Dost thou mock me?
your fortunes like a man. Otb. A horned man's a monster, and a beast. Iago. There's many a beast, then, in a populous
city, And many a civil monster.
Otb. Did he confefs it?
Iago. Good Sir, be a man ;
Othello, in broken sentences and single words, all of which have a reference to the cause of his jealoufy, shews, that all the proofs are present at once to his mind, which so overpowers it, that he falls into a trance, the natural consequence.
Sir J. REYNOLDS. 3-ix those unproper beds,] Unproper, for common.
Which they dare swear peculiar : your case is better.
Oth. Oh, thou art wife; 'tis certain.
lago. Stand you a while apart ; Confine yourself but in a patient 4 list. Whilft you were here, o'er-whelmed with your grief, (A passion moit unsuiting such a man) Caffio came hither. I shifted him away, And laid good ’scufe upon your ecstasy; Bade him anon return, and here speak with me; The which he promis’d. Do but`s encave yourfelf, And mark the feers, the gibes, and notable scorns, That dwell' in every region of his face ; For I will make him tell the tale anew, Where, how, how oft, how long ago, and when He hath, and is again to cope your
Otb. Doft thou hear, Iago ?
Iago. That's not amiss;
-lift.) For attention ; act of listening: JOHNSON. -encave yourself,] Hide yourself in a private place.
JOHNSON. • Or I shall say, you are all in all in spleen,] I read,
Or shall I say, you're all in all a spleen. I think our author uses this expression clsewhere. JOHNSON.
To beguile many, and be beguild by one ;
Caf. The worser, that you give me the addition, Whole want eyen kills me.
Iago. Ply Desdemona well, and you are sure on't. Now, if this fuit lay in Bianca's power,
[Speaking lower. How quickly should you speed ?
Caf. Alas, poor caitiff!
Afide. Iago. Do you hear, Caffio ?
Oib. Now he importunes him
Iago. She gives it out, that you shall marry her:
[ Aside. Caf. I marry her !—What ? 9 a customer ! pry
And his unbookih jealousy--] Unbookish, for ignorant.
WARBURTON. Do you triumph ? ROMAN? do you triumpb?] Othello calls him Roman ironically. Triumph, which was a Roman ceremony, brought Roman into his thoughts. What (says he) seu are now triumphing as great as a Roman? JOHNSON.
cuftomer! A common woman, one that invites custom. JOHNSON,