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Oth. Hath he said any thing?

Iago. He hath, my lord; but be you well assurd, No more than he'll unswear.

Oth. What hath he said ?
Iago. Why, that he did I know not what he


Oth. What? what?
lago. Lie-
Oth. With her ?
Iago. With her, on her; what you will.

Oth. Lie with her ! lie on her! We say, lie on her, when they belie her. Lie with her! that's fulsome. Handkerchief-confessions—handkerchief - (to confess, and be hang’d for his labour-First, to be hang'd, and then-to confess :- I tremble at it-nature would not invest herself in such · shadowing passion : without some instruction. It is not words that shake me


through the force of importunity extort a favour from their miltress, or if through her own fondness they make her pliant to their desires, cannot help boasting of their success. vince, here, is not, as in the common acceptation, to make sensible of the truth of any thing by reasons and arguments ; but to overcome, get the better of, &c. THEOBALD.

Convinc'd] Convincd, for conquer'd, subdued. WARB.
So in Macbeth :

-his two chambelains
" Will I, with wine and waffel so convince."
Again the same play ;

-their malady convinces
“ The great assay of art." STEVENS.

--Shadowing passion--] The modern editions have left out passion. JOHNSON.

without some instruction. The starts and broken reflections in this speech have something very terrible, and thew the mind of the speaker to be in inexpreffible agonies. But the words we are upon, when set right, have a sublime in them that can never be enough admired. The ridiculous blunder of writing INSTRUCTION for INDUCTION (for so it should be read) has indeed sunk it into arrant nonsense. Othello is just going to fall into a swoon; and, as is common for people in that circumitance, feels an unutual mitt and darkness, accompanied with horror, coming upon him. This, with vaft fub

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thus--pish!- noses, ears, and lips :- is it possible ! -confess !-handkerchief Soh devil !-]

[Falls in a trance. lago. Work on, My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are caught;

And limity of thought, is compared to the season of the sun's eclipse, at which time the earth becomes shadowed by the induction or bringing over of the moon between it and the sun. This being the allusion, the reasoning stands thus: “ My nature could “ never be thus overshadowed, and falling, as it were, into " diffolution for no cause. There must be an INDUCTION OF “ something : there must be a real cause. My jealousy cannot “ be merely imaginary. Ideas, WORDS only, could not shake “ me thus, and raise all this disorder. My jealousy therefore “ muit be grounded on matter of fa&t.” Shakespeare uses this word in the same sense, Richard III.

A dire INDUCTION am I witness to." Marfon seems to have read it thus in some copy, and to allude to it in these words of his Fame :

“ Plots ha’ you liid ! INDUCTIONS dangerous ! Ware. This is a noble conjecture, and whether right or wrong does honour to its author. Yet I am in doubt whether there is any neceflity of emendation. There has always prevailed in the world an opinion, that when any great calamity happens at a distance, notice is given of it to the sufferer by some dejection or perturbation of mind, of which he discovers no external cause. This is ascribed to that general communication of one part of the universe with another, which is called sympathy and antipathy; or to the secret monition, instruction, and inAuence of a superior Being, which fuperintends the order of nature and of life. Othello says, Nature could not inveft berfelf in such shadowing pasion without instruction. It'is not words that soake me thus. This passion, which spreads its clouds over me, is the effect of some agency more than the operation of words ; it is one of those notices which men have of unseen calamities. Johnson.

Nature could not inveft herself in such hadowing pafion with out some instruction.] However ingenious Dr. Warburton's note may be, it is certainly too forced and far-feicheu. Othello alludes only to Caffio's dream, which had been invented and told him by Iago; when many confufed and very interesting ideas pour in upon the mind all at once, and with such rapidity that it has not time to shape or digeft them, if it does not relieve itself by tears (which we know it often does, whether for joy or grief) it produces ftupefaction and fainting,


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And many worthy and chaste dames even thus,
All guiltless, meet reproach. What ho! my lord !
My lord, I say! Othello!

Enter Caffio.
How now, Cassio ?

Caf. What's the inatter?

lago. My lord is fallen into an epilepsy ; This is the second fit, he had one yesterday.

Caf. Rub him about the temples.

lago. No, forbear :
The lethargy must have his quiet course :
If not, he foams at mouth, and by and by
Breaks out to favage madness. Look, he stirs.
Do you withdraw yourself a little while,
He will recover straight; when he is gone,
I wculd on great occasion speak with you. -

[Exit Caffio. How is it, general ? have you not hurt your head?

Oih. Dost thou mock me?
Iago. I mock you! no, by heaven :


your fortunes like a man. Otb. A horned man's a monster, and a beast. Iago. There's many a beast, then, in a populous

city, And many a civil monster.

Otb. Did he confefs it?

Iago. Good Sir, be a man ;
Think, every bearded fellow that's but yok’d,
May draw with you. Millions are now alive,
That nightly lie 3 in those unproper beds,

Othello, in broken sentences and single words, all of which have a reference to the cause of his jealoufy, shews, that all the proofs are present at once to his mind, which so overpowers it, that he falls into a trance, the natural consequence.

Sir J. REYNOLDS. 3-ix those unproper beds,] Unproper, for common.


Which they dare swear peculiar : your case is better.
Oh, 'tis the spight of hell, the fiend's arch-mock,
To lip a wanton in a secure couch,
And to suppose her chaste! No, let me know;
And, knowing what I am, I know what she shall be.

Oth. Oh, thou art wife; 'tis certain.

lago. Stand you a while apart ; Confine yourself but in a patient 4 list. Whilft you were here, o'er-whelmed with your grief, (A passion moit unsuiting such a man) Caffio came hither. I shifted him away, And laid good ’scufe upon your ecstasy; Bade him anon return, and here speak with me; The which he promis’d. Do but`s encave yourfelf, And mark the feers, the gibes, and notable scorns, That dwell' in every region of his face ; For I will make him tell the tale anew, Where, how, how oft, how long ago, and when He hath, and is again to cope your

I say, but mark his gesture. Marry, patience;
6 Or I shall say, you are all in all in spleen,
And nothing of a man.

Otb. Doft thou hear, Iago ?
I will be found most cunning in my patience ;
But (dost thou hear) most bloody?

Iago. That's not amiss;
But yet keep time in all. Will you withdraw ?

[Othello withdraws.
Now will I question Cassio of Bianca,
A housewife, that, by selling her defires,
Buys herself bread and cloaths. It is a creature
That dotes on Caffio; as 'tis the strumpet's plague

-lift.) For attention ; act of listening: JOHNSON. -encave yourself,] Hide yourself in a private place.

JOHNSON. • Or I shall say, you are all in all in spleen,] I read,

Or shall I say, you're all in all a spleen. I think our author uses this expression clsewhere. JOHNSON.



To beguile many, and be beguild by one ;
He, when he hears of her, cannot refrain
From the excess of laughter. Here he comes.

Enter Casho.
As he shall smile, Othello shall go mad;
7 And his unbookish jealousy must conftrue
Poor Caffio's smiles, gestures, and light behaviour,
Quite in the wrong. How do you now, lieutenant ?

Caf. The worser, that you give me the addition, Whole want eyen kills me.

Iago. Ply Desdemona well, and you are sure on't. Now, if this fuit lay in Bianca's power,

[Speaking lower. How quickly should you speed ?

Caf. Alas, poor caitiff!
Oib. Look, how he laughs already! [Afde.
Iago. I never knew a woman love man fo.
Caf. Alas, poor rogue ! I think, indeed, she loves
Oth. Now he denies it faintly, and laughs it out.

Afide. Iago. Do you hear, Caffio ?

Oib. Now he importunes him
To tell it o’er. Go to; well said, well said. [Afide.

Iago. She gives it out, that you shall marry her:
Caf. Ha, ha, ha!
Oih. S Do you triumph, Roman? do you triumph?

[ Aside. Caf. I marry her !—What ? 9 a customer ! pry


And his unbookih jealousy--] Unbookish, for ignorant.

WARBURTON. Do you triumph ? ROMAN? do you triumpb?] Othello calls him Roman ironically. Triumph, which was a Roman ceremony, brought Roman into his thoughts. What (says he) seu are now triumphing as great as a Roman? JOHNSON.

cuftomer! A common woman, one that invites custom. JOHNSON,


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