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early in autumn, unless they are wanted to fill up a vacancy on the wall: the upper part of the plant, and its flowering twigs, will then not be exhausted in spring by them.

Banksian Roses seldom bear seed in this country; but in the South of France, and in Italy, they produce it in tolerable abundance; so that we may yet expect crimson and other coloured roses of this charming family.


These are hardy and strong growing roses, the origin of some of them not well ascertained. Among them, Astrolabe is a pretty, bright-coloured, and very double rose; not so vigorous in its growth as some others, but a distinct and good variety. Clair is a single hybrid rose, with small crimson flowers, said to be between Rosa sempervirens and the Crimson China Rose, or Rosa semperflorens. This is a singular and rather pretty rose, blooming all the autumn: it will, probably, be the parent of some beautiful climbers, as it bears seed freely. Indica major has, perhaps, a dozen names; for as "Rosa Bengalensis," "Bengalensis Scandens," and the "Walton Rose" of Essex, it is well known; and last, but not least, as "Rosa craculatum,"— a name given to it by Mr. Wood of Maresfield. It is a fine robust variety, nearly evergreen, and makes shoots from ten to fifteen feet in length in one season. Its flowers are large, nearly double, and of a delicate pale rose-colour. This beautiful rose may be soon made to cover the most unsightly buildings or walls. Miller's Climber, from the nursery of Mr. Miller of Bristol, is a pretty bright pink rose, with small flowers, not quite double. Madame d'Arblay, or Wells's White, has been till now placed among Rosa sem

pervirens; but its habit is so different, and its origin so well ascertained, that I have removed it to this division.

This robust variety was raised from seed some years since by Mr. Wells of Redleaf, near Tonbridge Wells; and, I believe, given by him to the Messrs. Young of Epsom, from whom I received it, under the name of Madame d'Arblay. In strong soils, it makes the most gigantic growth, soon forming a tree or a pillar of the largest size. Its flowers are very double and pretty. The Garland, or Wood's Garland, is also a seedling, raised by Mr. Wells of Redleaf, I believe, from the seed of the Noisette Rose. Like Madame d'Arblay, this is a vigorous grower, producing its flowers in immense clusters. These are fragrant, and change from white to pink after expansion.

Rosa elegans is a variety which has hitherto been omitted in the catalogue. This is also known as Bengale Elegante: it is a rose of most distinct character, with cupped flowers, of the brightest pink, and nearly double. It makes long flexible shoots, and blooms in great profusion for a much longer period than any other summer rose.


November and December are so well known to be favourable months for planting the Summer blooming Roses, that it is thought by many amateurs no others are or can be so eligible: applied to dry sandy soils this idea is quite correct; but on wet retentive soils, February is much better, as the holes can be opened in winter so that the mould is pulverised by frost.




To Autumnal Roses we are much indebted for that prolonged season of interest which this "Queen of Flowers" now gives. The roses of June, however splendid, soon fade; but some Perpetual, or Noisette, or Bourbon roses enrich our gardens with their perfume and gay colours, till the chills of approaching winter prevent the expansion of their flowers. Among the most fragrant of these autumnal beauties are


This division has as much variety in its origin as in its appearance : it would, indeed, be a difficult task to trace the parentage of some of the justly esteemed varieties of this family. Our old red and white monthly roses have, no doubt, contributed their share of sweet assistance; for, in many of them, the powerful fragrance of these two very old damask roses is apparent, and no perfume can be more pleasing.

In preference to giving a slight history of the family at the commencement, I shall, as I describe them, at the risk of being tedious, give the supposed origin of most of the varieties; premising, that all those termed true perpetuals have, generally, a terminal cluster of buds at the end of each shoot, whether produced in spring, summer, or autumn.

Antinous is a new rose, evidently between the French Rose and Crimson Perpetual, equalling that fine rose in form and fragrance, and surpassing it in beauty of colouring; but it partakes rather more than it ought to do of the French Rose, as it is not a True Perpetual. However, as it often puts forth its fine crimson purple flowers in September, it will be much esteemed, as we have hitherto been accustomed to roses of more sober hues in that pleasant month. Billiard, so named from a French rose amateur, is a pretty bright rose, very fragrant and double, and a True Perpetual.- Belle Italienne approaches very near to the Crimson Perpetual, except that its flowers are larger, and not quite so double: this is also a True Perpetual. Bernard, or Pompon Perpetual, is a most beautiful new rose, with rather small flowers; but these are very double, and finely shaped, of a delicate carmine colour: this is a True Perpetual, and a most desirable rose.

The Crimson Perpetual, Rose du Roi, or Lee's Crimson Perpetual, deserves a few extra words of comment. This fine rose was raised from seed, in 1812, in the gardens of the palace of Saint Cloud, then under the direction of Le Comte Lelieur, and named by him Rose du Roi; owing, I suppose, to Louis the Eighteenth soon after that time being restored, and presenting an opportunity for the Comte to show his loyalty: it is not recorded that he changed its name during the hundred days to Rose de l'Empereur! It is asserted, that it was raised from the Rosa Portlandica, a semi-double bright-coloured rose, much like the rose known in this country as the Scarlet Four Seasons, or Rosa Paestana; which Eustace tells us, in his Classical Tour, grows among the ruins of Paestum, enlivening them with its brilliant autumnal flowers. This is treated as a traveller's tale by one or two of our English botanists, and the Rosa Psestana is said to have been originated from seed in England :— but was that seed from Italy?

Every gentleman's garden ought to have a large bed of Crimson Perpetual Roses, to furnish bouquets during August, September, and October; their fragrance is so delightful, their colour so rich, and their form so perfect.

Couronne de Beranger is a purplish rose, very double, and of good shape; a True Perpetual. Crispata, or the Curled Perpetual, is one of those whimsies of nature, more curious than pretty. Each leaf is curled, and forms a ring, giving an odd appearance to the plant. De Neuilly is a hybrid Bourbon of great excellence, having all the peculiar beauty of the Bourbon Roses, with the fragrance of the Damask Rose. It is a most abundant autumnal bloomer, and ought to be extensively cultivated. De Rennes is a True Perpetual, of first-rate excellence, with large and very double flowers. Delice d'Hiver is a splendid rose, with large and finely-shaped flowers, of that vivid rose-colour so much admired; also a True Perpetual. Desespoir des Amateurs, or Perpetuatissima, had its origin in Italy, from whence it was ushered into France, with its high-sounding names, equally ridiculous; for, in reality, the rose, though pretty, and fragrant, is much below many in this division. It is a hybrid of uncertain origin, and totally unlike any other rose in habit, which is dwarf, and rather delicate.

Ernestine Audio is a new and fine variety, with large and very double flowers, of a bright rose-colour. I have not yet been able to decide whether or not this is a True Perpetual.

Flon, Gloire des Perpetuelles, and La Mienne, are roses of the same race, or breed, and have the same leading features, differing only, and that but little, in the size of their flowers. They are all True Perpetuals, and abundant bloomers, with a peculiar and pretty habit; for their foliage has a soft appearance ; and, when the plants are covered with their brilliant red flowers, no Perpetual Roses are more beautiful. Ferox is quite unique, and very magnificent, having larger flowers than any other in this division; but it is not a certain autumnal bloomer. The White Four Seasons has an

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