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or beds, as standards, and as pillars, in any, and in all situations; they must and will please. To ensure a very late autumnal bloom, a collection of dwarf standards, i. e. stems one to two feet in height, should be potted'in large pots, and during summer watered with manured water, and some manure kept on the surface; towards the end of September, or the middle of October if the weather is wet, they may be placed under glass: they will bloom in fine perfection even as late as November. I consider the culture of these roses only in its infancy, we shall ultimately have the richest hues combined with perfection of form, and the complete plenitude of their flowers.


(Rosa Indica.)

This rose is said by botanists to be a native of China, from whence it was introduced to our gardens in 1789. Its ever-blooming qualities have made it a favourite, from the cottage to the palace, and perhaps no plant has contributed so muchto enliven our cottage walls, as the common Chinese Rose (Rosa indica), and the crimson Chinese Rose, or Rosa semperflorens. These roses have been, and are, considered distinct species by botanists. Like all other cultivated roses, they sport much from seed; but the descendants of each may generally be recognised by a close observer. The common and its varieties make strong green luxuriant shoots, with flowers varying in colour, from pure white to crimson. The crimson also takes a wide range; for though its original colour is crimson, yet I have reason to believe that the pure white, which was raised in Essex, came from

its seed. In describing the varieties, those that are decidedly of the semperflorens family I shall mark with S. after the name. I should most certainly have placed them in a separate division, were it not for the numerous intermediate varieties, in which it is impossible to decide to which species they lean.

Amiral Duperri, S. is a pretty, brilliant, crimson rose, distinct and worth cultivating. Alba elegans, though not white, as its name implies, is a fine double rose of the palest flesh-colour, and a good distinct variety. Archduke Charles, a new rose and very beautiful, proves to be the same as the Camellia plena variegata of my catalogue of 1836. Soon after expansion, the tips of most of its petals change to crimson, giving it a pretty variegated appearance. Belle Archinto and Bardon are both pale coloured fine roses, very double and good, but resembling each other too much to be planted in the same bed. Beau Carmin, S., is a rich dark crimson-shaded rose, raised in the Luxembourg Gardens, and a fine and distinct variety. Belle de Florence is a very double and finely shaped pale carmine rose, very distinct and pretty. Belle Isidore, like a few others in this division, is a changeable rose : its flowers will open in the morning, and show only the colour of the common Chinese Rose, but by the afternoon they will have changed to a dark crimson. Camellia. blanche is an old variety, with large globular flowers of the purest white : this rose has a fine effect on a standard, as its flowers are generally pendulous. Camellia rouge is also an old variety, not differing in colour from the common, but with stiff petals and very erect flowers, giving it a Camellia-like appearance. Cameléon, like Belle Isidore, is a changeable rose, and very properly named : this has larger flowers than Isidore, though not quite so double, and a more robust habit, so that it forms a good standard. Comtesse de Moloré is a new rose, said to be fine and distinct, but it has not yet bloomed here in perfection. Couronne des Pourpres is also.



a new and very fine dark crimson rose; to this colour the French give the name of “pourpre,” or purple: this is apt to mislead, as our purple is, as I scarcely need say, so totally different. Cramoisie éblouissante, S., and Cramoisie supérieure, S., the last the finest and most double, · are both brilliant and excellent varieties of Rosa semper

florens. Countess of Albemarle is now a rose tolerably well known; this was a great favourite in France when first originated: it is a fine robust variety, very fragrant, and forms a good standard. Clara and Clarisse are both delicate shaded roses, “ alike, but different:" in warm cloudy weather, these delicate coloured roses show themselves to great advantage. Duc de Bordeaux is now an old, but still a pretty and distinct rose, with that bluish lilac tinge peculiar to a few varieties in this division. Duchess of Kent, S. is quite a gem, so perfect is the shape of its very double and delicately coloured flowers, that it must and will become a favourite. Fabvier, S., approaches nearer to scarlet than any other Chinese rose; its flowers are not quite double, but very brilliant and beautiful. Fenelon du Luxembourg is a very robust and fine rose, but unless growing luxuriantly, it has at first sight much the appearance of the common; when in perfection, its flowers are very large and very double. Gardenia is a new variety, approaching to the Teascented Roses in its habit; its flowers have also a peculiar fragrance: this is a fine and distinct rose. Grandiflora is one of the most robust and finest of its class : it a little resembles that well known rose, Triomphante, or Pæony Noisette, but has larger and more globular shaped flowers; this is a fine and distinct variety, and forms a good standard. Henry the Fifth, S., is one of those vivid scarlet roses that in calm cloudy weather are so beautiful; a hot sun very soon diminishes that excessive brilliancy of colour : this is a fine rose, with flowers very double and perfect. · Hanneloup, a new rose, is a pretty and distinct variety, with bright reddish crimson flowers, very double and well shaped.


Jeannie Deans is also new; this has rosy lilac flowers, very double and pretty. Joseph Deschiens has rather small, but very double and perfect flowers, of a reddish crimson ; this is a variety quite distinct, and worth cultivation. Louis Philippe d'Angers, S., is a good rose, which having often been sent from France as “ Louis Philippe,” has given rise to several mistakes, as there is a tea-scented rose of this name, quite different in character, for which this has been substituted. Madame Desprez, and Madame Bureau, are both fine white roses, yet distinct in their habit. Madame Desprez is one of the largest white Chinese Roses we yet possess. Marjolin is a fine dark crimson variety, likely to prove one of our most popular roses ; but it is proper to mention that there are two Marjolins: this trick of giving the same name to two roses raised by opposition cultivators is very prevalent in France, and opens a door to deception; the Marjolin described here, is a fine and distinct rose, robust and hardy, and likely to form a good standard. Miellez, so named from its originator, is a new variety, at present very rare; it is described as a white rose “ of the most perfect shape of any white Chinese Rose yet known.” Napoleon is a sterling good variety, with large bell-shaped flowers of a fine bright pink. O'Connell is a remarkable rose, with small and very double flowers of a blackish crimson ; this is one of the darkest coloured Chinese Roses we have. Roi des Cramoisies, S., is a beautiful and brilliant rose, with flowers very double, and nearly scarlet. Ruban pourpre is a new and splendid rose from the Luxembourg Gardens ; this is one of the finest shaded dark roses known. Reevesii, I believe, is an imported rose direct from China, by Captain Reeves : in rich and favourable soils it takes a very robust habit, appearing then much larger, and superior to the old crimson Chinese Rose ; but under less favourable circumstances, it is scarcely to be distinguished from that rose. Romaine Desprez is a beautiful and very double and large rose, finely shaped, of robust habit, distinct, and calculated to make a popular variety. Reine de Pæstum approaches the Tea Rose in habit and scent; its petals are too thin and flaccid to bear exposure to our summer and autumnal showers. Sulphurea superba is a fine and very double variety of the yellow Chinese or Tea Rose: its flowers are large, rather flat, and quite unique. Triomphe de Gand is a shaded rose of very robust growth, forming a fine standard. Triomphante, Pæony Noisette, Indica superba, La Superbe, or Grande et Belle, for like all very good and old roses it has several names, is a fine and distinct variety, erect and robust in its growth, and forming a fine standard ; an entire clump of this rose, with its large shaded crimson flowers, would have a fine effect. Van Dael a large and globular, purplish lilac rose, is a fine and distinct variety ; in common with large and very double roses, it will not open in wet weather or very damp situations.

In cultivating Chinese Roses but little care is required, as most of them are quite hardy; all those marked S., as varieties of Rosa semperfiorens, are adapted for the front edges of beds or clumps, as they are of more humble growth than the varieties of the common. It must also be recollected that the latter are those alone adapted for standards. The varieties of Rosa semperflorens, though they will exist for several years on the Dog Rose stock, yet do not form ornamental heads, but become stinted and diseased; on the contrary, the varieties of the Chinese Rose, as standards, particularly on short stems two to three feet in height, form magnificent heads swelling and uniting with the stock, and giving a mass of bloom from June to November ; on tall stems, I have not found them flourish equally. About the end of March, not earlier, the branches of standards will require thinning out, and shortening to about half their · length; in summer, a constant removal of their faded flowers is necessary, and this is all the pruning they require.

Every well appointed flower garden ought to have a collection of Chinese Roses worked on short stems in large


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