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colour is so vivid; the point of each petal is tipped with white. La Biche is a pillar Noisette," with very large pale flowers, inclining to fawn-colour in the centre; a very fragrant and distinct rose.
Luxembourg is a new and fine variety, with large and very double flowers, of a bright purplish rose; this will probably prove a good climber, and if so, it will form a magnificent pillar. Madame Laffay was raised from seed by Monsieur Laffay, and sold at a high price; but its habit is so delicate, and its flowers so small, that it has not pleased the generality of amateurs. Nankin, or "Noisette a boutons Nankin," or Noisette mutabilis, is a very distinct and pretty rose. In the morning, before the sun has much power, or in cloudy weather, its clusters of flowers are of a bright nankincolour, changing to white a few hours after expansion. Princesse d'Orange is a pretty and fragant white Noisette: its flowers are sometimes very curiously and irregularly shaped. The Red Noisette, a very old variety, but now honoured by Mr. Wood with the name of "Belle de Woodlands," was raised from seed by Mr. Wells, of Redleaf: it is a pretty bright semi-double rose, now eclipsed by new and fine varieties. Smith's Yellow is certainly more nearly allied to the tea-scented roses than to the Noisettes, for of this family it has not a feature; if forced, this is a fine rose, but it is scarcely fit for the open air in this country, as the moisture of the atmosphere glues its outer petals together so firmly, that its flowers seldom ever open.
The individuals of this group are so varied in character, that they may be employed as objects of ornament in a variety of ways. I will first give their culture as pillar roses, for which some of them are so finely adapted. Perhaps the most picturesque mode of growing pillar roses, is to group them in clumps of three, five, seven, or nine, or to any extent in proportion to the size of the ground required to be ornamented. A group of rose pillars, on an artificial mound, has a very imposing effect, and in wet situations this will be found the most advantageous mode of growing them; the posts should be made of yellow deal, or larch, or oak, and charred as far as inserted in the ground; they should be from ten to fifteen feet in height, and stout, so that they can be firmly fixed in the ground; each post ought to be, at least, from nine to twelve inches in circumference. For roses of more humble growth, iron stakes, from six to seven feet in height, will be found more light and elegant in appearance, than those of wood, and of course more durable. It must be borne in mind, that pillar roses cannot have too much manure; therefore, when they are planted, mix plenty with the soil they are planted in, and give them an annual surface dressing.
As standards, Noisette roses require but little culture; the principal care is to be prompt in cutting off the decayed and decaying clusters of flowers, during the blooming season; and, in March, to thin out their superfluous branches. All the pillar Noisettes form fine drooping standards: as dwarfs for beds, many of the varieties are very eligible, for they will grow and bloom luxuriantly in all soils and situations. To ensure their receiving no injury in very exposed situations, cut them down to within a foot of the surface of the soil in November, and place over each plant, or rather thatch it, with a thick covering of furze branches, to continue on till March. This will effectually protect them from the frost. This covering, as elsewhere recommended, must be removed gradually, so that the young and tender shoots are not exposed to the cold air too suddenly. For ornamenting wire fences, these roses are also admirably adapted, as they can be trained with great facility, and they will form, in such situations, a blooming boundary for at least four months in the year.
THE MUSK ROSE.
The White Musk Rose is one of the oldest inhabitants of our gardens, and probably more widely spread over the face of the earth than any other rose. It is generally supposed that the attar of roses is prepared in India from this species, and that this is also the rose of the Persian poets, in the fragrant groves of which they love to describe their "bulbul," or nightingale, as enchanting them with its tuneful notes. The probability that this is the famed rose of Persia is strengthened by the fact, that it is much more fragrant in the evening, or in the cool weather of autumn, than at any other time or season, and probably in the hot climate ot Persia, only so in the coolness of night, when nightingales delight to sing. A recent traveller also remarks, that the roses of Persia are remarkably small and fragrant. There are doubtless many seminal varieties of the species; their flowers differing in colour, but possessing the leading features of the original. Olivier, who travelled in the first six years of the French republic, mentions a rose-tree, at Ispahan, called the "Chinese Rose Tree," fifteen feet high, formed by the union of several stems, each four or five inches in diameter. Seeds from this tree were sent to Paris, and produced the common Musk Rose. It seems therefore possible and probable, that this has been the parent of nearly all their garden roses; for, like most orientals, their habits are not, and have not been, enterprising enough to stimulate them to import roses from distant countries. Large and very old plants of the Musk Rose may sometimes be seen in the gardens of old English country houses.
The Blush Musk, or Fraser's Musk, or Rosa Fraserii, is not quite a pure Musk Rose; but as it is the only rose of this division of the colour, and also very fragrant, it has been much planted: its flowers are semi,double, and produced in large clusters. Eponine is a pure, white, and very double variety, one of the prettiest of the group. The fringed or toothed Musk Rose has the end of each petal indented: this is a vigorous growing and very fragrant little rose. Princesse de Nassau is a very distinct and good variety, very fragrant, and blooming in large clusters; the flower buds, before they open, are nearly yellow, changing to cream colour as they expand. The Ranunculus, or new White Musk, is merely an improved variety of the old, or original Musk Rose, with flowers more double. Teascented is a hybrid, with large flowers, of a pure white, and very pretty; this is apparently a seedling from the Musk Rose, fertilised with some variety of the Tea-scented Rose, as it has a most peculiar habit and perfume.
Moschata Nivea, or the 'Snow Bush,' and one or two other roses, from Nepaul, have the scent peculiar to this group, but as they bloom but once in the summer, and differ totally in some other respects from the true Rosa moschata, I have not included them. For the culture of the roses of this division, that recommended for Noisette roses, in beds and as standards, may be adopted, as their habits are very similar.
THE MACARTNEY ROSE.
The single Macartney Rose was brought from China, in 1795, by Lord Macartney, on his return from his embassy to that country. It now forms the original of a pretty family; but as it does not bear seed freely, even in France, fine varieties, as yet, are not abundant; its strictly evergreen and shining foliage is a beautiful feature; and I hope ere long to see numerous varieties, with double flowers of the same brilliant hues as our other fine roses possess. Time will prove, but I think it is not too much to anticipate, that, ultimately, we shall not be satisfied unless all our roses, even the moss roses, have evergreen foliage, brilliant and fragrant flowers, and the habit of blooming from June till November. A distant view this seems, but perseverance in gardening will yet achieve wonders. The double (the old variety) was the first double Macartney Rose raised from seed: it is mentioned here to caution any one from planting it, as it is totally worthless, its flowers constantly dropping off without opening. The Double Blush or Tea Victoire Modeste is so much hybridised with the tea-scented rose, that it has lost many of the characters of the group: in dry situations, this is a most beautiful rose, but in wet weather its flowers do not open well. Maria Leonida is now an established favourite: its fine bell-shaped flowers of the purest white, sometimes slightly tinged with pink towards their centre, and its bright red anthers peeping from among its central petals, give it an elegant and pleasing character. Rosa Hardii, or Rosa Berberifolia Hardii, is a most interesting