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LONDON: BRADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.

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TO THE READER.

WITHIN the space of two years from the announcement of the plan of the “History of the World," the Author has been permitted, by the help which he desires devoutly to acknowledge, to complete the First Division of the work. In a design of such magnitude, experience must of necessity have a large place; and the redemption of the two-fold pledge,—to avoid the dry baldness of an epitome, and to give to each nation of the Ancient World a space proportioned to its importance,--has increased this section to Three Volumes. Within that moderate compass the Reader has now offered to him, for the first time in English Literature, a complete ANCIENT HISTORY, from the Creation of the World to the Fall of the Western Empire, treated as a continuous narrative and with unity of purpose. Besides its place in the whole scheme of the History of the World, this division may be regarded as forming a complete and independent work, which may occupy the place once filled by the Ancient History of Rollin. That work, however deservedly popular in its time, not only regarded the despotisms of the Ancient World from a point of view inconsistent with those doctrines of well-regulated freedom which Englishmen of all parties cherish for themselves and desire to teach their children, but it omitted the important sections of Sacred History and Roman History, which are included in this work. Of the progress made, since the time of Rollin, in the researches on which the value of any historical work must mainly depend, it is superfluous to speak: of the use made of such researches in the present work, the reader may judge in part

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by the authorities quoted or referred to, though the author has carefully refrained from a parade of learned references.

The execution of such a work has, like the History of the World itself, epochs, at which a pause may be made to review the past and to survey the future; and the accomplishment of the History of the Ancient World seems a fit breathing-place both for the author and his readers. The publication in Parts has not been attended with sufficient advantages to compensate for its obvious drawbacks. This form of publication will therefore be discontinued. Meanwhile the present work is offered as supplying the want so long felt, of a complete Ancient History. In like manner the second and third divisions are intended to forin complete Medieval and Modern Histories; each History being an independent work, without detriment to the unity of the whole.

In gratefully acknowledging the efforts of the Publishers to vive every possible effect to the design of the work, the Author would rosor especially to the important aid derived from the Maps and Plung which have been added, without any increase of price.

P.S.

August 10th, 1806.

CONTENTS.

BOOK VII.

THE CIVIL WARS OF ROME ; OR, THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE

ROMAN REPUBLIC.
FROM THE TRIUMVIRATE OF TIBERIUS GRACCHUS TO THE BATTLE OF Actium.

B.C. 133–30.

CHAPTER XXXI.

PAGE

THE BEGINNING OF CIVIL WAR AT ROME-TIBERIUS AND CAIUS GRACCHUS,

B.c. 133 TO B.C. 111.
Revolution impending at Rome-Family of the Gracchi—Cornelia and her sons-

Marriages of Tiberius and Caius— Tiberius in Spain-His view of the state
of Italy –He is elected Tribune-His Agrarian law-Its real character and
object-Its defects of principle-Growth of the abuses in the possession of
public land- Their effects on Italy-Remedy proposed by Gracchus-Ditti-
culties from both parties-Objection to the forin of the proposal — Opposition
of Octavius-He is deposed from the Tribunate-Passage of the law-Begin-
ning of revolution-New proposals of Tiberius-He is attacked by the nobles
-His defence in the Senate-He is charged with aiming at the crown-
Attempt to re-elect Gracchus - Tumult on the Capitol—The Senate, Scævola,
and Scipio Nasica- Death of Tiberius Gracchus - Beginning of the Civil Wars
- Persecution of the Sempronian party-Banishment of Nasica Scipio
Æmilianus and the moderate party - Censorship of Metellus – The new Tri-
unvirs--Execution of the law. - Its practical failure-Coniplaints of the
Italians - Scipio suspends the distribution-Alien law of Junius Pennus, and
failure of the proposal to enfranchise the Italians-Revolt and destruction of
Forgellæ--Caius Gracchus devotes himself to follow his brother-His quæs-
torship in Sardinia and return to Rome-His election to the tribunate -- His
eloquence and character-Banishment of Popillius—The Sempronian laws,
The corn-law and its effects— Military burthens lessened-Remodelling of
the jury-lists—The Equestrian order— The provinces and their revenues-
Re-election of C. Gracchus-His plans of colonization and enfranchisement
- The tribune Drusus outbids Caius - Absence of Caius in Africa-His de-
clining influence-Consulship of Opimius-Deaths of Gracchus and his par.
tisans-Heroism of Cornelia -Aristocratic re-action-Trials of Papirius and
Carbo-C. Marius tribune—The province of Gaul-Settlement of the Agra-
rian question-Human sacrifices at Rome

1-43

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CHAPTER XXXII.

RULE OF THE RESTORED OLIGARCHY.
TIE WARS WITH JUGURTHA AND THE CIMBRI— B.C. 121 TO B.C. 100,
How the nobles used their victory-Optimates and Populares—The conflict

tending to despotism-Government of the restored Optimates— The Metelli
-Dalmatian and other wars-Cato and the Scordisci - The Cimbri and
Teutones - Affairs of Numidia - Origin and churacter of Jugurtha-He
serves at Numantia-Deathbed of king Micipsa— Murder of Hiempsal - Ro-
man commissioners bribed by Jugurtha-Capture of Cirta and death of
Adherbal — The Jugurthine War-Corruption of Bestia and Scaurus, The
tribune Memmius Jugurtha at Rome–Murder of Massiva-Spurius Albinus

CHAPTER XXXIII.

FIRST PERIOD OF CIVIL WARS.-MARITS AND SULLA—B.C. 100 TO B.C. 78.

Darius is honoured as a second Camillus-His defests—He creates a standing

army-His league with Glaucia and Saturninus—The Appuleian laws-Ban-

ishment of Metellus-Sedition and death of Saturninus—Triumph of the

Optimates-Retirement of Marius--Foreign affairs: Spain and Cyrene-Lex

Cæcilia—Judicial abuses by the Equites-Q. Scævola in Asia-Condemnation

of Rutilius Rufus–Prosecution of Scaurus-Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus

-His measures of reform-Their passage and repeal-Assassination of

Drusus-Revolt of the Allies—The Social or Marsic War-The Italian con-

federation, and its new capital—The States faithful to Rome-The two

scenes of the war-Successes of the insurgents in Campania-L. Julius Cæsar

- Defeat and death

of Rutilius Lupus--Successes of Marius, Sulla, and Pom-

peius Strabo-The Romans grant the citizenship to the Allies - The Lex Julia

and Lex Plautia Papiria- The franchise in Cisalpine Gaul-Second year of

the war-Successes of Pompeius Strabo and Sulla-Resistance of the Sam.

nites—War with Mithridates-Consulship of Sulla—Jealousy of Marius— Tri-

bunate and laws of Sulpicius Rufus-Marius appointed to the command

against Mithridates–Sulla marches upon Rome--Flight and adventures of

Marius- Proceedings of Sulla--Cinna elected consul-Sulla departs for Asia

- Attempt at a counter-revolution-Cinna driven out of Rome, He collects

an army-Return of Marius to Italy—Siege and capitulation of Rome-

Massacre of the Optimates-Seventh consulship of Marius—The first

Mithridatic War-Character of Mithridates Vi. —Affairs of Cappadocia

and Bithynia-Invasion of Asia, and massacre of the Italians-Insurrection

of Greece--Sulla lands in Epirus, takes Athens, and defeats Archelaus-

Peace with Mithridates, The Civil War extends tó Asia-Deaths of Flaccus

and Fimbria--Sulla returns to Italy-Government and death of Cinna-Pre-

parations for war-Sulla defeats Norbanus—Is joined by Pompey and other

leaders of the Optimates-Marius the younger and Papirius Carbo-Defeat

of Marius-Massacre at Rome–Sulla defeats the Samnites before the Colline

Gate-Death of Marius-Autocracy of Sulla—The first great proscription-

Triumph-Dictatorship, and legislation of Sulla–His retirement, death, and
funeral

81-125

CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE AGE OF POMPEY, CÆSAR, AND CICERO—FROM THE DEATH OF SULLA TO THE

FIRST TRIUMVIRATE.-B.C. 78 TO B.C. 60.

Instability of the Sullan restoration–The opposition party– Its want of leaders

- Revolutionary attempt of the consul Lepidus-His defeat and death-
Quintus Sertorius holds out in Spain-Metellus Pius opposed to him-
Pompey associated with Metellus-His defeats-Decline of the influence of
Sertorius-His murder by Perperna--Defeat and execution of Perperna-
Outbreak of Spartacus and the Gladiators-They overrun Italy-Crassus
defeats and kills Spartacus, Pompey claims a share in the victory-Consul.

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