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escape, but locked in, and compelled Cabinet Minister, announced at the to return, pale and agitated, to give a same time his hostility to its existreluctant vote!

ence :-and when they justified, yet We find an egregious instance of disavowed, Lord Durham's ordinan“ looking one way and rowing ano- ces; which no man of political probity ther" in the conduct of Ministers, would either have approved, without when they announced their determi. enforcing, or have annulled, without nation to uphold the Royal authority disapproving. in Canada, and at the same moment They showed “ that their constanlent the most indecent and unconsti- cy is variation,” when, without any tutional support to the Radical candi- alteration in circumstances, they dates for Middlesex and other places, changed sides on the Pension list enby whom the Canadian traitors were quiry. They " played at hide-andinstigated and encouraged.

seek with their old principles," when, They “ blew hot and cold with the having taken office, pledged to carry, same breath,” when the members of and only because they were pledged the Cabinet voted against the Ballot, to carry, the Irish Appropriation and caused their sons, brothers, and clause into effect, they introduced a all their immediate friends and official measure in which, after several days' subordinates to support it - much consideration, their own oldest friends after the old fashion in the Civil Wars, could not say whether the famous when father and son generally took clause was embodied or not; but in different parts, that so the estates which it ultimately appeared that this, might in any event be preserved to the very key-stone of their policy, had the family.

been tacitly abandoned. They « looked one way and rowed These tactics had been described, another," when they appointed a Com- almost prophetically, by a great masmission to enquire, at the expense of ter of intrigue. more than L.30,000, into spiritual “ The ocean which environs us is an destitution in Scotland ; which it emblem of our Government, and the pilot now appears they never intended to and the Minister are in similar circumrelieve, whatever might be the tenor stances. It seldom happens that either of of the Report.

them can steer a direct course, and they They blew hot and cold with the both arrive at their port by means which same breath" when Lord Melbourne frequently seem to carry them from it. denied all connexion with Mr O'Con. But as the work advances, the conduct of nell, adopting at the same time Mr him who leads it on with real abilities O'Connell's policy, and negatived the

clears up, the appearing inconsistencies

are reconciled, and when it is once conalleged treaty of Lichfield House, upon the ground of which treaty, or

summated, the whole shows itself so uni

form, so plain, and so natural, that every “ compact alliance," Mr Shiel pub.

dabbler in politics will be apt to think he licly justified his adherence to the

could have done the same. But, on the Government, an adherence which has

other hand, a man who proposes no such of late been so munificently re

object, who substitutes artifice in the place warded.

of ability, who, instead of leading parties They “looked one way and rowed and governing accidents, is eternally agianother” when, during Sir Robert tated backwurds und forwards by bith, who Peel's Administration, they met his begins every day something neu', and carries Address with an amendment, which nothing on to perfection, m:y impose a they then said was not intended--but while on the world ; but a little sooner or which Sir John Hobhouse (in his later the mystery will be revealed, and speech on Lord Londonderry's Em nothing will be found to be couched under bassy) afterwards admitted to have

it but a thread of pitiful expedients, the been intended- to cause Sir Robert's

ultimate end of which never extended farther

than living from duy to day.resignation.

....“ The sum of all his policy had They " blew hot and cold with the

been to amuse the three parties of the day, same breath" last session; when Lord as long as he could, and to keep his power John Russell, in a spiteful tone, ex. as long as he amused them. When it be. pressed his intention of maintaining came impossible to amuse mankind any * the Established Church in Ireland; longer, he appeared plainly at the end of

while, to recall to their allegiance any his line."- Bolingbroke, Letter to Sir Wilwavering Radicals, Lord Howick, å liam Windham, irorks, i. 23.

Our own ministers are not yet little arts by which he had got into it; he plainly " at the end of their line," thought that he should be able to com. only because of their line,--the pro- pound for himself in all events, and cared posing organic changes,—there can be little whạt became of his party, his misno end. Next, we have an account

tress, or the nation. That this was the of the state of parties at the accession

whole of his scheme appeared sufficiently of George I.

in the course of his Administration; was

then seen by some, and has been since “ The minds of some Ministers are like acknowledged by all people. the Sanctum Sanctorum' of a temple I “ For this purpose he coaxed and per. have read of somewhere; before it a secuted Whigs; he flattered and disapgreat curtain was solemnly drawn; within pointed Tories ; and supported by a thouit nothing was to be seen but a confused sand little tricks his tottering Administragroup of misshapen and imperfect forms, tion.- Boling broke's Works, i., 340. heads without bodies, bodies without

αμέραι επίλοιποι heads, and the like. To develope the most complicated cases, and to decide in

μάρτυρες σοφώτατοι. the most doubtful, has been the talent of The recurrence of similar events in great Ministers ; it is that of others to our own times is the best proof of the perplex the most simple, and to be puz- truth of Bolingbroke's description : zled by the plainest. No man was more as, on the other hand, his account of desirous of power than the Minister here

a past age throws a very powerful intended, and he had a competent share of



light upon our modern history. cunning to wriggle himself into it; but then

The following passage must recall his part was over, and no man was more at

to every mind the insolent sycophaney a loss how to employ it. The ends he proposed to himself he saw for the most part

of a certain party about the time of darkly and indistinctly ; and if he saw

the late King's death ; their pretend. them a little better, he still made use of

of ed“ Orange plot in favour of the means disproportionate to them."

Duke of Cumberland ;" their indecent

attempt to compromise the Queen ; We are likewise informed that and their various low artifices at the those

elections. * With whom and by whom he had The Whigs desired nothing more than risen, expected much from him. Their to have it thought that the successor was expectations were ill answered; and I theirs, if I may repeat an insolent expres. think that such management as he em. sion which was used at that time." ... ployed would not have hindered them

The art of the Whigs was to blend, as long from breaking from him, if new undistinguishably as they could, all their things had not fallen in, to engage their party interests with those of the succession, whole attention, and to divert their pas

and they made just the same factious use sions.

of the supposed danger of it, as the Tories " The two parties were, in truth, be had endeavoured to make some time become factions in the strict sense of the

fore of the supposed danger of the Church. word. I was of one, and I own the

As no man is reputed a friend to Christiguilt; which no man of the other would anity beyond the Alps and the Pyrenees heve a good grace to deny. In this re- who does not acknowledge the Papal spect they were alike; but here was the supremacy, so here no man was to be repu. difference-one was well united, well con

ted a friend to the Protestant succession, ducted, and determined to their future, as

who was not neudy to acknowledge their well as their present objects. Not one of supremacy. these advantages attended the other. The Minister had evidently no bottom to rest his

The manner in which they surAdministration upon, but the party at the

rounded and engrossed the new and head of which he came into power; if he

inexperienced sovereign is described had rested it there, if he had gained their

in a quotation from Goldsmith in our confidence, instead of creating, even wan. former article on this subject. P. 366. tonly, if I may say so, a distrust of him

Is all this unlike what we are witself in them, it is certain he might have nessing around us? And if not-is determined them to every national inte.

there not the same meanness and unrest during the Queen's time, and after statesmanlike artifice afloat now which her death. But this was above his con- was detected and held up to contempt ception as well as his talents. He meant in the last century? How, then, has to keep power as long as he could, by the “government been a progressive sci

ence ?" We repeat, not at all, as re- Oriental deference to rulers, may be gards the management of party poli- punished as detailed above. There is tics-or, at least, the progress has not something of retrogression here. Lord been made by those who are supposed Byron's Moorish King had anticipaby the Reviewer to lead the “ great ted Mr Macaulay. His Majesty was march." If such be the “ leaders," pleased to observe, we shall “ straggle in the rear.” “ There is no law to say such things

Let us now call the attention of the As may displease the ear of kings.” Edinburgh Reviewer to a piece of And as the subject continued his immodern legislation, which almost

pertinent remarks, attempting, no tempts us to reverse his illustration, doubt, to excite feelings of disaffection and to allege that the “ head is now

to the Government, where the tail was a century since."

As these things the old Moor said, In what has been called Mr Macau

They severed from his neck his head;" lay's Indian Code, is the following

and many would prefer this simple provision :

and efficacious remedy for sedition to “ 113. Whoever, by words, either Mr Macaulay's complicated and tyranspoken or intended to be read, or by nical alternatives of persecution. All signs, or by visible representations, at. we say is, if this law holds good, tempts to excite feelings of disaffection to “ Woe is me" Calcutta! the Government established by law in the We feel, and joyfully feel, the vast territories of the East India Company, social improvement which has taken among any class of people who live under place within the last two hundred years that Government, shall be punished with we feel that the laws are observed, banishment for life, or for any term, from that peace (except at elections) is the territories of the East India Com maintained ; that arbitrary power pany, to which fine may be added, or with

can no longer be exercised in Great simple imprisonment for a term, which

Britain,—at least, by the Crown. may extend to three years” [imprison

Dead bodies are no longer found in ment in the tropics, certain death!], " to

Tower Ditch to the number of two or which fine may be added, or with fine."

three a-week, as in James I.'s time, What would become of poor “H. nor are travellers robbed on BlackB." and his “ visible representations" heath or Ficchley Common, as they under such a law? But it may be said were at the accession of George III. that conviction by a jury must precede No statesman now living would imithese inflictions. Are Indian juries tate the Duke of Marlborough, who then infallible? are they impartial in betrayed to the French Court the sedisputes between men of different cret of an expedition intended against blood ? The Whigs have subscribed Brest; in consequence of which treafor a monument to Muir and Palmer, son the expedition failed, and many alleged to have been unjustly con- English lives were lost. But has, in victed by a British jury, and will they point of fact, any new principle been give such powers as these to an Indian incorporated into our Constitution ? jury? But perhaps this is part of Mr And if not, how has “ Government, Macaulay's plan for depriving British as a science, been progressive?" It is subjects of British justice, and even in the improved practical enforcement the safeguard of an Indian jury is not of our rights that our superiority conto be interposed between the Govern- sists. But it would be difficult to ment and its victims. This immode- name any important element of liberty rate severity of punishment for libels or public tranquillity that has not been against the Government is the more known for ages. We act, it is true, remarkable, as private character is upon principles of religious toleration, scarcely protected at all by the new still, who can certainly pronounce code. A free press may, for aught how far our ancestors could have we know, be a bad thing for India, safely adopted such maxims, in dealing but if so, a censorship should be man with those who would have scorned fully established and avowed.

mere toleration, and who aimed at We are thankful that we live in Bri. ascendency; and who had, moreover, tain. Any exposure of misconduct in evinced, by their conduct when in a governor, any criticism upon crude power, so ferocious a hatred to the molegislation, any departure, even in a narchy, and so intolerant a spirit toprivate letter, from the most slavish wards the church? Errors were committed in this matter, no doubt, but the more for a dinner ? Did not craving civil war had but lately subsided, and still grow upon granting, till nothing reit does not follow that, because good mained to be asked on one side, or given on and peaceable citizens may be tolerated, the other, but the life of the giver > therefore, our forefathers were blind

“ Thus it was with the State ; and I and blundering when they refused — would fain hear any solid reason to prove too harshly, it may be allowed to

that it will not fare alike with the Church.

For how has the Papacy grown to that indulge the dangerous and scheming sectarians of the 17th century. Up

enormous height, and assumed such an

extravagant power over sovereign princes, to this time, our latest and most im.

but by taking advantage from their own portant experiment of this kind has

grants and favours to that rapacious and not been so decidedly satisfactory and

ungrateful see? which still took occasion triumphant in all its consequences as

from thence to raise itself gradually to to entitle us to exult with unalloyed

further and further pretensions ; till courself-confidence over those who were tesy quickly passed into claim; and what less conciliatory than ourselves. South was got by petition, was held by preroga. speaks (iv. 176) of “ a faction which tive; so that at length insolence, grown nothing can win, nothing oblige, and big and bold with success, knew no bounds, which will be sure to requite such a but trampled upon the neck of emperors, favour once done them, by turning it controlled the sceptre with the crosier, to the utmost reproach and ruin (if and, in the face of the world, openly possible) of those who did it." He avowed a superiority and pre-eminence then appeals to the judgment, reading, over crowned heads. Thus grew the Paand experience of all who have in any pacy, and by the same ways will also grow measure applied themselves to the ob- other sects ; for there is a Pupacy in every servation of men and things, whether sect or faction ; they all design the very they ever yet found that any, who press

same height or greatness, though the Pope ed for indulgences and forbeurances,

alone hitherto has had the wit and fordid it with a real intent to acquiesce,

tune to compass it.” and take up in these forbearances once The Irish Roman Catholics have granted them, without proceeding any turned their emancipation to the utfurther. None, I am sure, ever yet most reproach and ruin of those who did, but used them only as an art or granted it. Did they “press for those instrument to get into power, and to indulgences with a real intent to acmake every concession a step to a fur- quiesce, without proceeding any further demand; since every grant ren- ther?" They told us they had no ders the person to whom it is made so wish to interfere with the Established much the more considerable, and dan- Church. Now it is a nuisance, an gerous to be denied, when he shall “insult to the people of Ireland,” and take the boldness to ask more. To it must be demolished. They have grant is, generally, to give ground; made “ every concession a step to a and such persons ask some things, only farther demand." They made the in order to get others without asking; abolition of the Penal Laws “ a step for no encroachers upon, or enemies to to the demand of'' Emancipation. They any public constitution, ask all at first. have made the concession of Emanci. Sedition itself is modest in the begin- pation a step to the demand of the ning, and no more than toleration may abolition of tithes, and the repeal of be petitioned for, when in the issue no- the Union. Mr O'Connell said he thing less than empire and dominion is took the remission of part of the tithes designed.

as an “ instalment;" and he said, “ The nature of man acts the same way, “ Give me the Municipal Corporation whether in matters civil or ecclesiastical. Bill, and I will get all the rest for And can we so soon forget the methods myself,"—that is, he knew it would by which that violent faction grew upon make him “ so much the more consi. the throne between the years forty and derable, and dangerous to be denied, sixty? Did not the facility and goodness" when he should take the boldness to of King Charles I. embolden their impu. ask for more.” dence, instead of satisfying their desires ? In 1829, when the Roman Catholic Was not every condescension, every con- Relief Bill was passed, the Edinburgh cession, every remission of his own right, Review thus expressed the current va. so far from allaying the fury of their ticinations of i greedy appetites, that, like a breakfast, it rather called up the stomach, and fitted it “Even Lord Eldon will live to see that his king O'Connell has lost the crown of viz., “ That no independent governIreland, and it is again on the head of ment should yield to another any eviGeorge IV. We have taken off our stand- dent point of reason or equity; and ing premium on faction, and given loyalty that all such concessions, so far from its due and honourable encouragements. preventing war, served to no other

purpose than to provoke fresh claims “Protestant families of the middling and insolences." We have seen the class, will not be driven to emigration by « fresh claims and insolences" of Mr a pressure, and by an atmosphere which

O'Connell; here, then, the predictions they dare not stand. It is a safety-lamp

of the Edinburgh Review have failed. for their neighbourhood.....

But have they been verified in other “ It will be henceforth a matter of in

respects! Has there been no emigradifference what is the creed of any man.

tion of Protestants ? Are there fewer One law for the rich, and another for the

troops in Ireland ? Is it through “repoor, will soon be a thing as incredible as among ourselves. We need no more al

spectful caution" that Russia has seizternate between the rival dangers of Ire.

ed a British vessel, the Vixen, carryland's strength or Ireland's misery. That

ing on a fair trade with an indepen. withered arm of the empire is restored to

dent country ? and that Prussia has health and vigour. Her prosperity is now

bound all Germany in an engagement all ours. We shall feel it in the budget, to exclude our manufactures ? and when Irish taxation pours in its supplies. that Austria, with the other two, preWe shall feel it in the release of those nu. vents us, in the teeth of the treaty of merous regiments that have stood sentinel Vienna, and of our foreign Minister's over our prisoner. We shall feel it in pledge, from having a consul at Crathe respectful caution of those continental cow ? and that France retains Algiers courts which have lately trespassed on our in spite of her promise to evacuate it ? divisions, and defied our weakness.”— that Spain slights us, after the sacri. Ed. Rev. Vol. xlix, p. 266.

fice of 10,000 men—the Dutch hate Nine years have elapsed since this us, and even Portugal laughs at us? was written, most of them years of

Yet Lord John Russell, a professed conciliation, concession, and subser student of the science of government, yiency. Are the Roman Catholics

conceives interminable concession to satisfied ? Is the Established Church be the only remedy for perpetual dereally strengthened ? Is it a matter of mand. He said (Mir. Parl. 7th Feb. indifference in Ireland what is the 1837),_" Whenever I have to look creed of any man? Hear the Agi. for a high authority upon the constitator —

tution of this country - whenever I " The battle of Ireland must be fought wish to seek for enlarged principles over again. - We have gained nothing. ... with respect to the manner in which

“We will complain of the tithe system. the Government of this country should Without its extinction there can be no re. be carried on, I do not refer to the ligious liberty. I own an affection in my theories of Locke, or to the legal heart for our domestic legislature. Ire- statements of Blackstone : but I refer, Jand, therefore, is commencing agitation

whenever I can, to the authority, the justice requires it: it is not a question of

precepts, and the maxims of Mr Fox. compromise or trafficking. O tell them

He stated in a very eloquent speech we seek equal franchise, equal corporate

(delivered in 1797) the principles upreform, equal liberty of conscience, and I

on which he conceived the Govern. tell them that Ireland is pledged to get

ment of Ireland should be conducted. all these, and will not take one particle less. I would have taken less before last

He stated in his usual frank—it might year, I would have taken less the present

be almost called incautious—manner, year, but I'll not take less next year. I'll that he conceived that concession ought get it all, or I'll have repeal ! I am yet to be made to the people of Ireland. strong enough, hale and young enough, to He said, if he found he had not concommence the new agitation !"- Spoken ceded enough, he would concede more.” by Mr O'Connell at a Dinner in Cork, Alas, can he not remember “ how Monday, 27th August, 1838.)

craving still grew upon granting, till There can be no difficulty in apply- nothing remained to be asked on one ing to domestic struggles the maxim side or given on the other, but the life which Hume tells us (Hist. of Eng. of the giver?" « Concerning which," c. 64), that the illustrious John de South lays down this assertion, “that Witt relied on in his foreign poli

Fects and consequences any thing VOL. XLIV, NO. CCLXXVII,

2 Q

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