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Washington, Lincoln, and Grant, also that of Napoleon and Wellington.
General Grant's funeral took place in New York. It was the greatest military display of armed men ever seen in the American metropolis. The tomb prepared for him is the grandest ever erected in this world in honour of a soldier. Over the portals of that noble tomb on the banks of the Hudson are fitly inscribed Grant's dying words : ‘Let us have peace.'
President Roosevelt says of this triumvirate of his predecessors : : Washington fought in the earlier struggle, and it was his good fortune to win the highest renown alike as a soldier and statesman. In the second and even greater struggle, the deeds of Lincoln the statesman were made good by those of Grant the soldier, and later Grant himself took up the work that dropped from Lincoln's tired hands when the assassin's bullet went home, and the sad, patient, kindly eyes were closed for ever.'
It would be a curious question to inquire what would have been the fate of our country without these three mighty men. It certainly may be doubted if we could have gained our independence without Washington, and it is equally open to doubt whether the Republic would have maintained its integrity without Lincoln and Grant. National unity is no longer a theory, but is a condition ; and we are now united in fact as well as in name. In the words of
the poet :
Those opposed eyes
March all one way. Perhaps it is the greatest glory of these three illustrious men that they were alike spotless in all the varied relations of private life. Their countrymen will continue to cherish their memory far on in summers that we shall not see, and upon the adamant of their fame the stream of time will beat without injury. The names of Washington, Lincoln, and Grant are enrolled in the Capitol, and they belong to the endless and everlasting ages.
· The writer received Washington's hair from his adopted son, George Washing. ton Parke Custis, of Arlington ; Lincoln's and Grant's from the Presidents them. selves ; Napoleon's was bequeathed to him by Captain Frederick Labrbush, of the Sixtieth Rifles, who, with his regiment, was stationed at St. Helena guarding the ex-Emperor ; and Wellington's hair was received from his eldest son when the present writer was on his last visit to Strathfieldsaye, the year before the second Duke's death.
HOUSEHOLD BUDGETS ABROAD.'
BY L. VILLARI.
It is a somewhat complicated matter to compare the family budgets of two countries, especially of two countries where the conditions of life, the habits and tastes of the people, and the general wealth of the community are so different as are Italy and England. The difficulty arises from the absence of any common denominator by which to institute the comparison between the respective incomes and expenditure. Mere money value is an inaccurate standard, because an income of, say, £800 a year in England is a very different thing from what it would be in Italy. In the first place incomes of that figure are far less numerous in the latter country than in the former; for although Italy's economic position has certainly made marvellous progress during the last few years, and every branch of national wealth and finance is expanding in the most satisfactory manner, the general standard of prosperity is still very low, and what would be regarded as a modest competence in this country would pass as a large fortune in Italy. On the other hand, the general expenses of life are lower, and the necessity and even the opportunity for large outlay are smaller, especially in the middle and in the working classes. Less is expected of them, and indeed the well-known frugality and simplicity of the Italian people make them less inclined to spend money on luxurious living, and to prefer to save and invest superfluous income. It is this that reduces expenditure rather than the greater cheapness of living. Italians who go to England say that there everything costs less, but one spends much more.' Although paradoxical, there is much truth in the statement, many items being almost if not quite as expensive in Italy as in England; but the balance is more than redressed by the greater simplicity of life. This has its bad as well as its good side, and the love of saving, which in many cases amounts to a morbid passion, weakens the spirit of enterprise, and obliges people to bring up their children in an unsatisfactory manner, thereby unfitting them for the battle Copyright, 1904, by L. Villari, in the United States of America.
of life. At the same time it occasionally produces a reaction in the latter which makes them fly to extravagance as soon as they are their own masters.
Another difficulty in dealing with Italian budgets is the great difference of condition between one part of the country and another, both in the upper and the lower strata of society. In such towns as Milan or Turin there is an appearance of wealth, comfort, and culture that argue a prosperous and progressive population, and in the agricultural districts improvements are everywhere conspicuous ; whereas the poverty-stricken South, without industries, its agriculture in a state of depression, and its miserable and ignorant proletariate, is among the least favoured lands in Europe. These differences are so great that it is not possible to present a typical family budget which is even approximately representative of all Italy. I can only choose out one or two types from one part of the country, which in this case shall be Central Italy, both because I know it best and also because from its position it more nearly approaches a medium than either the northern or the southern province.
My first example will be the budget of a middle-class family residing in Florence. The paterfamilias is a professional man earning 7,000 lire a year, while his private income and that of his wife's dot, invested in Government securities at 4 per cent. (the favourite investment, after land, of private fortunes in Italy), amounts to another 3,000 lire. Thus the family has in all 10,000 lire or £400 per annum with which to get along and bring up four children. It must be remembered that a family of the corresponding description in England would have more than double this income, but on the other hand it would have to do more in the way of entertaining and keeping up appearances. With some exceptions the Italian professional classes do not mix with the smart society, where alone entertaining on a large scale is done, and even in their own circle they hardly ever give a regular dinner party or even a large reception. They occasionally ask a friend or two in to a meal, the wife has an 'at home' day, and on certain festivals there is a large family gathering; but everything is done in the simplest manner.
Let us now see how our family spends its income. The first question is that of house rent, and in this the differences from English, and especially London, conditions are most conspicuous. In London the question of situation is more important than that of size, and a family of moderate means has to choose between a fair
sized house in an unfashionable quarter at a great distance from the centre of things, and a very small one in a better position. But in Italy few towns are so large that distance is a serious consideration, and these have usually a good and cheap tram service. Rents vary very little according to the situation; they may be somewhat higher in two or three fashionable streets, but even in the most aristocratic quarters cheap apartments are to be found. In many cases, in fact, the same house shelters very rich families on the first and second floor, while the garrets and basements are let in lodgings to the poorest of the poor. You cannot argue a man's income and social position, even approximately, from his address as you can in this country. If one lives outside the town gates, both rent and living expenses generally are much lower, but there are other inconveniences which more than balance the advantages. The family we are describing will in all probability inhabit a flat, not far from the centre of the town ; villini, as separate houses for one family are called, are a comparatively new institution ; they are far more costly in proportion than flats, and the accommodation, with some exceptions, is less good. The taxes, too, are higher, and there are many additional expenses. A flat of ten or twelve rooms, in which the hall, the kitchen, and other offices are included, will cost 1,200 lire (£48) a year on the third or fourth floor of a large house, or the ground floor, first or second of a smaller one. A ground-floor flat sometimes includes a bit of garden. The rooms are larger and airier than those of a London house costing £150 a year, and far larger than those of a flat at £200 or £250 in a moderately good situation. On the other hand such apartments are usually unprovided with modern conveniences—there is no bathroom, no hot-water taps except in the kitchen, the stairs are badly kept and ill lighted, and there is little attempt at tasteful decoration, unless the house happens to be an old one with frescoed walls. Electric light is, however, coming into use, and electric bells are almost universal. Lifts are very rare, and only found in large and expensive flats (in Florence there are hardly any except in public buildings and hotels). The rent includes water and all repairs ; the amount of the latter of course depends a good deal on the virtues of the landlord.
After the rent the next question is that of servants. This is not by any means such a serious business as it seems to be in England, and good servants are obtainable even by people of moderate means. Good Italian servants are the best in the world,
for no others show so much consideration for their masters, for whom they often entertain a genuine affection; they have no high and mighty airs, they do not give notice’ if they are requested to do some work not quite strictly within their province, nor do they change their situation every three months. Our family will keep one resident servant who cooks and attends to most of the house work, and a mezzo servizio or charwoman, who comes in for a few hours every day, or two or three times a week. The 'general receives from 15 to 25 lire (12s. to £1) a month, and the charwoman about ten (88.). Then there is food and an allowance for winewhich in Italy is a necessity rather than a luxury, and not an expensive item. The total cost per annum for servants amounts in this case to 450 lire (£18). Cleaning entails less labour than in London owing to the absence of soot. Nor is it necessary to call in outside assistance to clean the windows, as they revolve on hinges and can be tackled from inside the room. Baths are not taken every day in middle-class households, so that there is less water to empty. The daughters help in making the beds, and the mother also does some of the housework. The meals are wholesome and appetizing, far more so in fact than the productions of many English cooks at much higher wages. On the other hand, Italian servants are less neat and tidy than English ones, and the appearance of the house is correspondingly less attractive.
As regards food, Italians of this, or indeed, of any other class, never eat more than two regular meals a day. Breakfast is reduced to vanishing point, and consists of a cup of coffee and milk with or without bread and butter. Lunch at midday includes a light dish, a meat course, and fruit and cheese. Dinner at 6 or 7 P.M. consists of soup, two courses, and cheese and fruit. Pudding is eaten at dinner once or twice a week, or when guests are invited. Wine, usually red Chianti in Tuscany, is drunk with both meals, and black coffee follows after. Afternoon tea is only taken in the highest classes or in families with English connections ; but stray visitors are regaled with sweet wine and biscuits. Good wine costs from 60 cents to 1.50 lira (say, 6d. to 1s. 3d.) a flask containing 24 litres (about 43 pints). As sugar is very heavily taxed, jam, puddings, and cakes are luxuries. The total amount thus spent on food and drink may be set down at 2,800 lire (£112) a year.
The family washing is sent to the laundress, but the ironing is done at home by a woman who comes in once a week, receiving 2 lire a day and her food. This item will run to about 200 lire (£8) a year.