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in winter, while butter is ls. in summer and ls. 3d. in T The variety used in Canada is all salted. We never see best fresh butter approved in Britain. Fresh fruit and vegetabiki not reach Halifax until late in the season, but are cheap whez 3 do arrive. Fish and lobsters are dearer and scarcer than tv ought to be in a seaport town, but the best are immediately entera Two mackerel sell for 1s., salmon is 18. a pound, halibat ! haddock and cod 2d. a pound. For the best cuts of meat pound is charged; milk is 3d. a quart, cream 18. 71d.; a kali bread weighing 11 lb. costs 3d., and coal is £l 78. a ton. Tas women charge 38. a day, and a town laundry 1d. an article f:: washing and ironing or mangling of plain clothes. In Montreal, the largest and wealthiest city of Canada
, ze taxes, domestic service, and higher education are dear; groe. vegetables, and fish are cheap. Salmon is 6d. a pound, and or from 1s. 6d. to 28. 6d. a quart. General servants get $3 3 3 cooks £3 to £6, and nursemaids £2 to £5. A house in the site with eight or nine rooms rents for £80 a year. The few aparte houses in the centre of the city are always filled, and many of its have a 'waiting list,' especially those which have a restart upon the ground floor. Half a dozen rooms in one of these bo rent for £240 a year. Educational and all other taxes are part the property-owners. Each child in attendance at the poi schools pays ls. a month, and the extra charges for books də ? amount to more than £l a year.
The budget of a professional man in Montreal with a wife 2 three children is herewith submitted :
1,200 0 0
160 00 12 00 25 00 18 00 240 00 80 0 0
4 0 0 20 00 40 00 140 00 50 00 10 00 15 00 40 00 6 0 0 8 00
annual income amounts to £125.
$ d. Physician
10 0 0
5 0 0
80 0 0 Church
10 0 0 Theatres, concerts, &c.
15 0 0 Street cars and cabs
25 0 0 Donations
8 0 0 Family incidentals.
40 00 Man's incidentals, down-town lunches, &c. 26 12 0 Entertainment
40 00 IT It will be remarked how large an item the fuel makes in this
-yhedule. The servants' wages include the pay of the furnace-man,
hose duties begin in October and continue until May 1. The severe climate of Montreal tells equally upon the expenses of an Ertisan's household. Many trades can be followed only a part of
ach year, the rest of the time the tradesman and his family have
to live upon their savings. The budget here presented is that of a Bricklayer earning 188. a day. He can work in Montreal only even months out of the twelve, and counting off rainy days his
He has a wife and three hildren :
125 0 0
The artisan shovels his own snow and attends to his own furnace, if he has one; but his house is more likely to be heated by the variety of stove called the self-feeder, in which anthracite coal is burned, and which keeps in day and night. To obtain a desirable house
for £2 a month it will be necessary for him to live in one of the | cheaper suburbs. Thus car fare is added to his budget, and it
becomes no small item if his children are past the primary grades, and have to be carried a long distance to the high school. The sum expended upon their education is likely to include piano lessons for the daughter, since it is a very poor artisan indeed who does not aspire to having a musical instrument of some kind in his home. This will counterbalance the amount which might be spent in theatres or other amusements.
When stars of the first magnitude in the musical or theatrical world visit the larger cities of the Dominion, prices in theatre or concert-hall rise to £l each for the best seats, but the ordinary rate is 6s. to 8s. on the ground floor and ls. in the topmost gallery. Cab hire figures more largely in the budgets of Quebec Province than in those of Ontario or the west, because the driving rate is one-half cheaper and electric cars not in such general use. The trolley has but lately reached the Upper Town of Quebec City, to the dismay of the French Canadian and Irish 'carters,' who earned many a shilling taking their patrons to and from business. The two-horse cab, so common in the west, and usually so prohibitive in its charges, is rarely seen in the east, where one horse does the work of two.
The annual influx of American tourists into Canada raises the hotel charges, the house rents, board, lodging, driving, domestic service, and food in every summer resort they frequent. Montreal and Quebec are as hot in summer as they are cold in winter, and there are fewer gardens and shade trees than in the western towns, so that a more general summer exodus is made. American sojourners have placed Murray Bay, Cacouna, and Tadousac beyond the reach of many Canadians who used to go there; but still there remain numerous habitants, living on the great river or back from it, who will take summer boarders for 12s. or 16s. a week. The guest may have to be content with humble fare—black bread, an occasional fowl, mutton still more rarely; but he can fish for himself in the mountain brooks, if his host be too lazy, and the habitant children will gather for him wild strawberries and blueberries galore. Even the working man of Montreal often finds it more economical to rent for his family a habitant house for the summer than to keep them in town. The proprietors may reserve the attic and the detached kitchen for their own use, but they will cook for their tenants, if desired. An artisan's wife on vacation, as in town, will do her own cooking, and whatever provisions she has not taken with her she will order direct from the city. The water of the St. Lawrence becomes salt about forty miles below Quebec, and steamboat travelling is cheap compared with railway. The easiness of access to the seaside in the Eastern Provinces, to the wilderness of lakes and pine woods in the Western, is of more importance in the building of Canadian physique and Canadian character than a host of European so-called advantages.
FISHES ON THEIR DEFENCE.
BY F. G. AFLALO. THE world of waters has ever been the scene of a strife : out beginning and without end. The lives of fishes are a game all against all, the weaker terrorised by the stronger and bar recourse to all manner of tricks to escape destruction. Sometica they stay out of reach, but this is not always possible
. Ab lobster talked in contemptuous tones of the shark when the se were dry :
But when the tide rises and sharks are around
His voice has a timid and tremulous sound. With the methods of self-defence adopted by fishes struggling i the hook or in the net anglers and fishermen have made us familia The Australian leatherjacket will swim up with the hook in its and with its sharp teeth sever the slack line above. The polsu will plunge headlong to the rocks and fray the cast against see handy shell of mussel or oyster. The blue shark twists in the water with such rapidity as to test the bravest gear. The mullet, enclosed in the toils of the seine, will follow an enterprise leader over the edge of the net as sheep follow a leader throng hedge. Yet it is but yesterday, so to speak, that man inverter his piscatus hamatilis et saxatilis, and thus added himself to t already long list of the enemies of fishes. More interesting, then fore, to the student of that class is the consideration of some mour of defence against natural enemies, such as have served fiske since the days when the weaker of them gave up the struggle za reposed on the coprolitic deposits of the Rhætic beds. The natural enemies of the fish are so many
and like Ishmael, it knows well how to take care of itself when dames threatens. In its own class, often enough, indeed, in its own specs in a number of aquatic mammals and waterfowl, in snakes 2. amphibians, in insects and crustaceans, indeed in almost the lowes
realms of life, the fishes have so many foes that the wonder is the they are able to survive as a class. Indeed, great fecundity me be regarded as Nature's provision for the defence of the species