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6. The trial by jury, as heretofore used in this State. and the liberty of the press, shall be for ever inviolably preserved.
ARTICLE 10. Sec. 1. The business of the treasury shall be in future conducted by two treasurers, one of whom shall hold his office and reside in Columbia ; and the other shall hold his office and reside in Charleston.
2. The secretary of state and surveyor-general shall hold their offices both in Columbia and in Charleston. They shall reside at one place, and their deputies at the other.
3. At the conclusion of the circuits, the judges shall meet and sit at Columbia, for the purpose of hearing and determining all motions which may be made for new trials, and in arrest of judgments, and such points of law as may be submitted to them. From Columbia they shall proceed to Charleston, and there hear and determine all such motions for new trials, and in arrest of judgment, and such points of law as may be submitted to them.
4. The Governor shall always preside, during the site ting of the legislature, at the place where their sessions may be held, and at all other times, wherever, in his opinion, the public good may require.
5. The legislature shall, as soon as may be convenient, pass laws for the abolition of the rights of primogenitures, and for giving an equitable distribution of the real estate of intestates.
ARTICLE 11. No Convention of the people shall be called, unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of both branches of the whole representation.
No part of this Constitution shall be altered, unless a bill to alter the same shall have been read three times in the House of Representatives, and three times in the Senate, and agreed to by two-thirds of both branches of the whole representation; neither shall any alteration take place until the bill so agreed to be published three months previous to a new election for members to the House of Repre
sentatives ; and if the alteration proposed by the legislature shall be agreed to in their first session by two-thirds of the whole representation in both branches of the legis. lature, after the same shall have been read three times, on three several days in each House, then, and not other. wise, the same shall become a part of the Constitution. Done in Convention, at Columbia, in the State of
South Carolina, the third day of June, in the year of our Lord 1790, and in the fourteenth year of the
Independence of the United States of America. . * By the unanimous order of the Convention,
CHARLES PINCKNEY, President.
AMENDMENTS RATIFIED DECEMBER 17, 1808.
The following sections, in amendment of the third, seventh, and ninth sections of the first article of the Constitution of this State, shall be, and they are hereby declared to be, valid parts of the said Constitution; and the said third, seventh, and ninth sections, or such parts thereof as are repugnánt to such amendments, are hereby repealed and made void.
The House of Representatives shall consist of one hundred and twenty-four members, to be apportioned among the several election districts of the State, according to the number of white inhabitants contained, and the amount of all taxes raised by the legislature, whether direct or indirect, or of whatever species, paid in each, deducting therefrom all taxes paid on account of property held in any other district, and adding thereto all taxes elsewhere paid on account of property held in such district. An enumeration of the white inhabitants, for this purpose, shall be made in the year one thousand eight hundred and nine, and in the course of every tenth year thereafter, in such manner as shall be by law directed.
and representatives shall be assigned to the different dis‘ricis in the above-mentioned proportion, by act of the legislature, at the session immediately succeeding the above enumeration. 1 If the enumeration herein directed should not be made in the course of the year appointed for the purpose by these amendments, it shall be the duty of the Governor to have it effecțed as soon thereafter as shall be practicable.
In assigning representatives to the several districts of the Staie, the legislature shall allow one representative for every sixty-second part of the whole number of white inhabitants in the State ; and one representative also for every sixty-second part of the whole taxes raised by the legislature of the State. The legislature shall further allow one representative for such fractions of the sixiy.. second part of the white inhabitants of the State, and of the sixty-second part of the taxes raised by the legislature of the State, as, when added together, form a unit, s
In every apportionment of representation under these amnendments, which shall take place after the first appor tionment, the amount of taxes shall be estiinated from the average of the ten preceding years ; but the first apportionment shall be founded upon the tax of the preceding year, excluding from the amount thereof the whole produce of the tax on sales at public auction. - If, in the apportionmeut of representatives under these amendments, any election district shall appear not to be entitled, from its population and its taxes, to a representative, such election district shall, nevertheless, send one representative; and, if there should still be a deficiency of the number of representatives required by these amend ments, such deficiency shall be supplied by assigning representatives to those election districts having the largest surplus fractions; whether those fractions consist of a combination of population and of taxes, or of population or of taxes separately, until the number of one hundred and twenty-four members be provided.
Hoi 1. No apportionment, under these amendments shall be construed to take effect, in any manner, antil the gene ral election which shall succeed such apportionment , The election districts, for members of the House of Representatives, shall be and remain as heretofore esta." blished, except Saxe Gotha and Newberry; in which the boundaries shall be altered, as follows, viz. : That part of Lexington in the fork of Broad and Saluda rivers shall no longer compose a part of the election district of Newberry, but shall be henceforth attached to, and form a part of, Sixe Gotha. And, also, except Orange and Barnwell, or Winton, in which the boundaries shall be altered, as follows, viz.: That part of Orange in the fork of Edisto shall no longer compose a part of the election district of Barnwell, or Winton, but shall be henceforth attached to, and form a part of, Orange election district.
each election district, as now established for the election of members of the House of Representatives, except the district formed by the parishes of St. Philip and St. Michael, to which shall be allowed two senators as heretofore.
The seats of those senators who under the Constitution shall represent two or more election districts, on the day preceding the second Monday of October, which will be in the year one thousand eight hundred and ten, shall be vacated on that day, and the new senators who shall represent such districts under these amendments, shall, immediately after they shall have been assembled under the first election, be divided by lots into two classes ; the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, and of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and the number in these classes shall be so proportioned, that one-half of the whole number of senators may, as nearly as possible, continue to be chosen thereafter every second year.
None of these amendments becoming parts of the Constitution of this State shall be altered, unless a bill to alter the same shall have been read on three several days in the House of Representatives, and on three several days in the Senate, and agreed to at the second and third reading by two-thirds of the whole representation in each branch of the legis.ature; neither shall any alteration take place, until the bill so agreed to be published three months
previuus to a new election for members to the House of Representatives; and if the alteration proposed by the legislature shall be agreed to in their first session, by twothirds of the whole representation, in each branch of the legislature, after the same shall have been read on three several days in each House, then, and not otherwise, the same shall become a part of the Constitution.
AMENDMENT RATIFIED DECEMBER 19, 1816. .: That the third section of the tenth article of the Con
stitution of this State be altered and amended to read as follows: The judges shall, at such times and placeš as shall be prescribed by act of the legislature of this State, meet and sit for the purpose of hearing and determining all motions which may be made for new trials, and in arrest of judgment, and such points of law as may be submitted to them.
CONSTITUTION OF OHIO.
WE, the people of the state of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and promote our common welfare, do establish this constitution.
ARTICLE 1.—Bill of Rights. 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and seeking and obtaining bappiness and safety.
2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their equal protection and benefit, and they have the right to alter, reform, or abolish the same, whenever they may deem it necessary; and no special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted that