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and Morgan, the fourteenth; Muskingum and Perry, the fifteenth; Delaware and Licking, the sixteenth; Knox and Morrow, the seventeenth; Coshocton and Tuscarawas, the eighteenth; Guernsey and Monroe, the nineteenth; Belmont and Harrison, the twentieth; Carroll and Stark, the twenty-first; Jefferson and Columbiana, the twentysecond; Trumbull and Mahoning, the twenty-third; Ashtabula, Lake, and Geauga, the twenty-fourth; Cuyahoga, the twenty-fifth; Portage and Summit, the twenty-sixth; Medina and Lorain, the twenty-seventh; Wayne and Holmes, the twenty-eighth; Ashland and Richland, the twenty-ninth; Huron, Erie, Sandusky, and Ottawa, the thirtieth; Seneca, Crawford, and Wyandot, the thirtyfirst; Mercer, Auglaize, Allen, Van Wert, Paulding, Defiance, and Williams, the thirty-second; and Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Fulton, Henry, and Putnam, the thirtythird. For the first decennial period after the adoption of this constitution, each of said districts shall be entitled to one senator, except the first district, which shall be entitled to three senators.
8. The same rules shall be applied, in apportioning the fractions of senatorial districts, and in annexing districts which may hereafter have less than three-fourths of a senatorial ratio, as are applied to representative districts.
9. Any county forming part of a senatorial district, having acquired a population equal to a full senatorial ratio, shall be made a separate senatorial district, at any regular decennial apportionment, if a full senatorial ratio shall be left in the district from which it shall be taken.
10. For the first ten years after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the apportionment of representatives shall be as provided in the schedule, and no change shall ever be made in the principles of representation, as herein established, or in the senatorial districts, except as above provided. All territory, belonging to a county at the time of any apportionment, shall, as to the right of representation and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof during the decennial period.
11. The governor, auditor, and secretary of state, or any two of them, shall, at least six months prior to the October election in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and at each decennial period thereafter, ascertain and determine the ratio of representation, according to the decennial census, the number of representatives and senators each county or district shall be entitled to elect, and for what years, within the next ensuing ten years; and the governor shall cause the same to be published, in such manner as shall be directed by law.
12. For judicial purposes, the state shall be apportioned as follows:
The county of Hamilton shall constitute the first dis.trict, which shall not be subdivided; and the judges therein may hold separate courts, or separate sittings of the same court, at the same time.
The counties of Butler, Preble, and Darke shall constitute the first subdivision, Montgomery, Miami, and Champaign, the second, and Warren, Clinton, Greene, and Clark, the third subdivision, of the second district; and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Shelby, Auglaize, Allen, Hardin, Logan, Union, and Marion shall constitute the first subdivision, Mercer, Van Wert, Putnam, Paulding, Defiance, Williams, Henry, and Fulton, the second, and Wood, Seneca, Hancock, Wyandot, and Crawford, the third subdivision, of the third district; and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky, Erie, and Huron shall constitute the first subdivision, Lorain, Medina, and Summit, the second, and the county of Cuyahoga, the third subdivision, of the fourth district; and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Clermont, Brown, and Adams shall constitute the first subdivision, Highland, Ross, and Fayette, the second, and Pickaway, Franklin, and Madison the third subdivision, of the fifth district: and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Licking, Knox, and Delaware shall constitute the first subdivision, Morrow, Richland, and Ashland, the second, and Wayne, Holmes, and Coshocton, the third subdivision, of the sixth district; and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Fairfield, Perry, and Hocking shall constitute the first subdivision, Jackson, Vinton, Pike, Scioto, and Lawrence, the second, and Gallia, Meigs, Athens, and Washington, the third subdivision, of the seventh district; and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Muskingum and Morgan shall constitute the first subdivision, Guernsey, Belmont, and Monroe, the second, and Jefferson, Harrison, and Tuscarawas, the third subdivision, of the eighth district; and, together, shall form such district.
The counties of Stark, Carroll, and Columbiana shall constitute the first subdivision, Trumbull, Portage, and Mahoning, the second, and Geauga, Lake, and Ashtabula, the third subdivision, of the ninth district; and, together, shall form such district.
13. The general asserably shall attach any new counties, that may hereafter be erected, to such districts, or subdivisions thereof, as shall be most convenient,
ARTICLE 12.-Finance and Taxation.
1. The levying of taxes, by the poll, is grievous and oppressive; therefore, the general assembly shall never levy a poll tax, for county or state purposes.
2. Laws shall be passed, taxing, by a uniform rule, all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint-stock companies, or otherwise: and also all real and personal property, according to its true value in money; but burying-grounds, public school-houses, houses used exclusively for public worship, institutions of purely public charity, public property used exclusively for any public purpose, and personal property, to an amount not exceeding in value two hundred dollars for each individual, may, by general laws, be exempted from taxation : but all such laws shall be subject to alteration or repeal; and the value of all property, so exempted, shall, from time to time, be ascertained and published, as may be directed by law.
3. The general assembly shall provide by law for taxing the notes and bills discounted or purchased, moneys loaned, and all other property, effects, or dues of every description (without deduction) of all banks, now existing, or hereafter created, and of all bankers, so that all property employed in banking shall always bear a burden of taxation equal to that imposed on the property of individuals.
4. The general assembly shall provide for raising revenue, sufficient to defray the expenses of the state, for each year, and also a sufficient sum to pay the interest on the state debt.
5. No tax shall be levied, except in pursuance of law; and every law imposing a tax shall state, distinctly, the object of the same, to which only it shall be applied.
6. The state shall never contract any debt for purposes of internal improvement.
ARTICLE 13.-Corporations. 1. The general assembly shall pass no special act conferring corporate powers.
2. Corporations may be formed under general laws; but all such laws may, from time to time, be altered or repealed.
3. Dues from corporations shall be secured, by such individual liability of the stockholders, and other means, as may be prescribed by law; but, in all cases, each stockholder shall be liable, over and above the stock by him or her owned, and any amount unpaid thereon, to a further sum, at least equal in amount to such stock.
4. The property of corporations, now existing or hereafter created, shall forever be subject to taxation, the same as the property of individuals.
5. No right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation, until full compensation therefor be first made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money, to the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation : which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve men, in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law.
6. The general assembly shall provide for the organization of cities, incorporated villages, by general laws; and restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent the abuse of such power.
7. No act of the general assembly, authorizing associations with banking powers, shall take effect, until it shall be submitted to the people, at the general election next succeeding the passage thereof, and be approved by a majority of all the electors voting at such election.
ARTICLE 14. Jurisprudence. 1. The general assembly, at its first session after the adoption of this constitution, shall provide for the appointment of three commissioners, and prescribe their tenure of office, compensation, and the mode of filling vacancies in said commission.
2. The said commissioners shall revise, reform, simplify, and abridge the practice, pleadings, forms, and proceedings of the courts of record of this state; and, as far as practicable and expedient, shall provide for the abolition of the distinct forms of action at law, now in use, and for the administration of justice by a uniform mode of proceeding, without reference to any distinction between law and equity.
3. The proceedings of the commissioners shall, from time to time, be reported to the general assembly, and be subject to the action of that body.
ARTICLE 15.- Miscellaneous. 1. Columbus shall be the seat of government, until otherwise directed by law.
2. The printing of the laws, journals, bills, legislative documents, and papers for each branch of the general assembly, with the printing required for the executive and other departments of state, shall be let, on contract, to the lowest responsible bidder, by such executive officers, and in such manner, as shall be prescribed by law.
3. An accurate and detailed statement of the receipts