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neither hereditary nor transmissible to children oi descendants, or relations of blood, the idea of a man born a magistrate, lawgiver, or judge, is absurd and unnatural. 7. Government is instituted for the common good : for the protection, safety, prosperity and happiness of the people: and not for the profit, honor, or private interest of any one man, family, or any one class of men. Therefore, the people alone have an incontestable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to institute government, and to reform, alter, or totally change the same, when their protection, safety, prosperity and happiness require it. -8. In order to prevent those who are vested with authority from becoming oppressors, the people have a right, at such periods and in such manner as they shall establish by the frame of Government, to cause their public officers to return to private life, and to fill up vacant places by certain and regular elections and appointments.

9. All elections ought to be free: and all the inhabitants of this commonwealth, having such qualifications as they shall establish by their frame of Government, have an equal right to elect officers, and to be elected for public employments.

10. Each individual of the society has a right to be protected by it, in the enjoyment of his life, liberty, and property, according to the standing laws. He is obliged, consequently, to contribute his share to the expense of this protection; to give his personal service, or an equivalent, when necessary. But no part of the property of any individual can, with justice, be taken from him, or applied to the public use, without his own consent, or that of the representative body of the people. In fine, the people of this commonwealth are not controllable by any other laws than those to which their constitutional representative body have given their consent. And whenever the public exigencies require that the property of any individual should be appropriated to public uses, he shall receive a reasonable compensation therefore

11. Every subject of the commonwealth ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for ali injuries or wrongs which he may receive, in his person, property, or character. He ought to obtain right and

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justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it completely, and without any denial-promptly, and with. out delay-conformably to the laws.

12. No person shall be held to answer for any crime or offence, until the same is fully and plainly, substantially and formally, described to him ; or be compelled to accuse or furnish evidence against himself. And every person shall have a right to produce all proofs that may be favorable to him; to meet the witnesses against him, face to face, and be fully heard in his defence, by himself, or his counsel, at his election. And no person shall be arrested, imprisoned, or despoiled or deprived of his property, immunities, or privileges, put out of the protection of the law, exiled, or deprived of his life, liberty, or estate, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land.

And the legislature shall not make any law that shall subject any person to a capital or infamous punishment (excepting for the Government of the army and navy) without trial by jury.

13. In criminal prosecutions the verifications of facts, in the vicinity where they happen, is one of the greatest securities of the life, liberty, and property of the citizen.

14. Every person has a right to be secure from all unreasonable searches and seizures of his person, his house, his papers, and all his possessions. All warrants, therefore, are contrary to this right, if the cause or foundation of them be not previously supported by oath or affirmation ; and if the order, in a warrant to a civil officer, to make search in all suspected places, or to arrest one or more suspected persons, or to seize their property, be not accompanied with a special designation of the persons, or objects of search, arrest, or seizure. And no warrant ought to be issued but in such cases, and with the formalities prescribed by the laws.

15. In all controversies concerning property, and in all suits between two or more persons, (except in cases in which it has heretofore been otherwise used and practised,) the parties have a right to a trial by jury; and this method of procedure shall be held sacred, unless, in cases arising on the high seas, and such as relate to ma siner's wages, the legislature shall hereafter find it neces sary to alter it.

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16. The liberty of the press is essential to security of freedom in a state; it ought not, therefore, to be restrained in this commonwealth.

17. The people have a right to keep and to bear arms for the common defence. And as, in time of peace, armies are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be maintained, without the consent of the legislature : and the military power shall always be held in exact subordination to the civil authority, and be governed by it.

18. A frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of the Constitution, and a constant adherence to those of piety, justice, moderation, temperance, industry, and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the advantages of liberty, and to maintain a free government. The people ought, consequently, to have a particular attention to all those principles, in the choice of their officers and representatives, and they have a right to require of their lawgivers, and magistrates, an exact and constant observance of them, in the formation and execution of all laws necessary for the good administration of the commonwealth.

19. The people have a right, in an orderly and peaceable manner, to assemble upon the common good, give instruction to their representatives ; and to request of the legislative body, by the way of addresses, petitions, or remonstrances, redress of the wrongs done them, and of the grievances they suffer.

20. The power of suspending the laws, or the execution of the laws, ought never to be exercised but by the legislature; or by authority derived from it, to be exercised in such particular cases only as the legislature shall expressly provide for.

21. The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in either house of the legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, action or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever.

22. The legislature ought frequently to assemble, for the redress of grievances, for correcting, strengthening,

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and confirming the laws, and for making new laws, as the common good may require.

23. No subsidy, charge, tax, impost, or duties, ought to be established, fixed, laid, or levied, under any pretext whatever, without the consent of the people, or their representatives in the legislature.

24. Laws made to punish for actions done before the existence of such laws, and which have not been declared crimes by preceding laws, are unjust, oppressive, and inconsistent with the fundamental principles of a free government.

25. No person ought, in any case, or in any time, to be declared guilty of treason or felony by the legislature.

26. No magistrate, or court of law, shall demand excessive bail or sureties, impose excessive fines, or inflict cruel or unusual punishments.

27. In time of peace, no soldier ought to be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; and in time of war, such quarters ought not to be made, but by the civil magistrates, in manner ordained by the legislature.

28. No person can, in any case, be subjected to law martial, or to any penalties or pains by virtue of that law, (except those employed in the army or navy, and except the militia in actual service,) but by the authority of the legislature. · 29. It is essential to the preservation of the rights of every individual, his life, liberty, property, and character, that there be an impartial interpretation of the laws, and administrati in of justice. It is the right of every citizen to be tried by judges as free, impartial, and independent, as the lot of humanity will admit. It is, therefore, not only the best policy, but for the security of the rights of the people, and of every citizen, that the judges of the supreme judicial court should hold their offices as long as they behave themselves well; and that they should have honorable salaries, ascertained and established by standing laws.

30. În the government of this commonwealth, the legislative department shall never exercise the executivo and judicial powers, or either of them ; the executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers,

or either of them; the judicial shall never exercise the legislative and executive powers, or either of them : to the end that it may be a government of laws, and not of men.

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PART II.

Frame of Government. The people inhabiting the territory formerly called the province of Massachusetts Bay, do hereby solemnly and mutually agree with each other to form themselves into a free, sovereign, and independent body politie, or state, by the name of—The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

CHAPTER I.

SECTION 1.-The LEGISLATIVE POWER.

The General Court.

Article 1. The department of legislation shall be formed by two branches, a Senate and House of Representatives : each of which shall have a negative on the other.

The legislative body shall assemble every year, on the last Wednesday of May, and at such other times as they shall judge necessary; and shall dissolve and be dissolved on the day next preceding the last Wednesday in May; and shall be styled, The General Court of Massachusetts.

2. No bill or resolve of the Senate or House of Representatives shall become a law, and have force as such, until it shall have been laid before the Governor for his revisal; and if he, upon such revision, approve thereof, he shall signify his approbation by signing the same. But, if he have any objection to the passing of such bill or resolve, he shall return the same, together with his objec. tions thereto, in writing, to the Senate or House of Representatives, in whichsoever the same shall have originated ; who shall enter the objections sent down by the Governor, at large, on their records, and proceed to reconsider the said bill or resolve; but if, after such reconsideration two-thirds of the said Senate or House of Representatives

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