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1. Judgment of Paris - From an ancient bas-relief. Baum.
2. Juno (Ludovisi). Photo.
3. Neptune (of Melos) – From a statue in the National Museum at

Athens. Photo..
4. A Triton — From a Roman lamp. Harper
5. Roman clad in the Toga. G. and K.
6. Diana of Versailles - From a statue in the Louvre. Photo.
7. Venus (Kaufmann). Furtw.-U. .
8. An Amazon - From a statue in the Vatican. Photo.
9. Necklaces from Troy. Schlie. I.
10. Diadem from Mycenae. Baum.
11. Bronze Hanging Lamp from Pompeii. Mau.
12. Athena (Farnese) From a statue in the Naples Museum.

Furtw. M. 13. Head of Bull adorned with Vittae -- From a bas-relief. Rich. 14. Diomedes and Ulysses carrying off the Palladium. R. . 15. Laocoon and his Children attacked by the Serpents

From a Pompeian wall painting. Annali 16. The Greeks descending from the Wooden Horse - From an ancient

gem. Baum.. 17. Achilles dragging Hector's Body about the Walls of Troy - From

an ancient bas-relief. Baum. 18. The Tabula Iliaca. Schreiber (XII ED.)

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19. Cardines, etc. Harper

N 71 20. Menelaus pursues Helen — From a vase painting. R. ,

N 75 21. Gorgon (Medusa Rondanini). Baum.

N 76 22. Aeneas fleeing with Anchises and Ascanius — From an ancient

coin. Duruy 23. Present View of the Heights upon which Troy was built. Schuch. N 83 24. Ancient Vessel under Sail and Oars - From an ancient wall

painting. Schreiber . 25. Offerings at a Tomb- From a vase painting. Baum.

N 87 26. Apollo Citharoedus — From a statue in the Vatican. Photo.

N 89 27. Harpies — From a vase painting. Roscher . 28. Sacrificial Scene, showing use of the Patera From an ancient

bas-relief. Rich. 29. Cortina and Tripod. R. 30. Scylla — From an ancient terracotta. Baum. 31. Chain Mail. Baum. 32. The Fountain of Arethusa in Modern Times. Photo. 33. Cupid bending his Bow - From a statue in the Capitoline Museum. Photo.

N113 34. Jupiter Ammon - From a coin. B. M. C.

N 119 35. Phrygian or Trojan Youth — From a vase painting. R.

N119 36. Mercury 37. The Rising of Helios - From a vase painting. Baum.

N136 38. Carchesium. Harper .

N 137 39. Painting from a Pompeian Lares Chapel. Photo. .

N137 40. The Suovetaurilia - From an ancient relief. Baum.

N 138 41. Rostrum. Schneider 42. Plan of an Ancient Roman Circus. Middleton 43. The ‘Maeander' Pattern — From a vase painting. Baum. . N 143 44. Ganymede carried up to Heaven — From a statue in the Vatican. Photo.

N 143 45. The Caestus

N148 46. An Ancient Bowman From a vase painting. . Baum. 47. A Bronze Lar. Roscher

N158 48. Neptune attended by Tritons and Nereids - From a bas-relief. Baum. .

N 160 49. Ulysses and the Sirens - From an ancient gem. Baum. 50. Map of the Vicinity of Cumae

N 163 51. View of the Vicinity of Cumae. Photo.

N 163 52. Hecate — From an ancient bas-relief. Baum.

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53. Charon receiving a Soul to ferry over the River Styx - From a Roman lamp

N 177 54. Struggle of the Giants — From an ancient bas-relief. Baum. N 184 55. Tantalus, Ixion, and Sisyphus — From a sepulchral relief. Bartoli N 186 56. The Emperor Augustus — From a statue in the Vatican. Photo. . N 193 57. Brutus — From a coin. Baum, 58. Fasces. 59. Pluto and Proserpina — From a vase painting. Baum.

N 198 60. Erato - From a statue in the Vatican. Photo. 61. Janus - From a coin. Roscher 62. Lituus. G. and K'. 63. Temple of Janus - From a coin. Roscher

N 208 64. Glans Plumbi

N 210 65. Warrior with Spicula Bina From a vase painting. R. 66. Map of Prehistoric Rome

• N 216 67. Vulcan at his Forge -- From a gem. R.

N 218 68. Bronze Wolf - In the Capitoline Museum. Photo. 69. Sistrum. 70. Anubis 71. Personification of the Nile - In the Vatican. Photo. 72. Juno (of Naples). Photo.

N 224 73. The Muse Calliope - From a statue in the Vatican. Photo.. 74. Jupiter and the Olympian Gods — From an ancient bas-relief. Baum.

N 233 75. An Etruscan Warrior. Baum.

N 235 76. Cybele and the Corybantes — From an ancient bas-relief. Baum. N 236 77. Tropaeum — From a coin. Baum.

N 243 78. Phrygian Amazon in Battle — From a vase painting. R.

N 251 79. Cuirass wrought in the Form of Scales. Rich. 80. Focus. Harper 81. Victory – From a relief on the column of Trajan. Brunn N 262

(XII ED.)

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ABBREVIATIONS

Annali, Annali dell'Istituto di Corre.

spondenza Archeologica, 1829

1885. Bartoli, Sepolchri Antichi, Rome,

1768. Baum., Baumeister, Denkmäler des

klassischen Altertums, 1885. B. M. C., British Museum Catalogue

of Coins. Brunn, Brunn-Bruckmann, Denk

mäler griechischer und römischer

Sculptur. Duruy, Duruy, History of Rome. Furtw. M., Furtwängler, Masterpieces

of Greek Sculpture, 1895. Furtw. · U., Furtwängler - Urlichs,

Denkmäler griechischer und

römischer Sculptur, 1898. G. and K., Guhl and Koner, Life of

the Greeks and Romans, 1876. Harper, Harper's Dictionary of Clas

sical Literature and Antiquities, 1898.

Mau, Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii, Its Life

and Art, 1899. Middleton, Middleton, Remains of

Ancient Rome, 1892. Photo., Reproduced directly from a

photograph. R., Retained from the old edition. Rich, Rich, Dictionary of Roman and

Greek Antiquities, 1893. Roscher, Ausführliches Lexicon der

griechischen und römischen

Mythologie, 1884– Schlie, I., Schliemann, Ilios, 1880. Schlie, M., Schliemann, Mycenae,

1878. Schneider, Schneider, Das Alte Rom,

1896. Schreiber, Schreiber, Atlas of Classi.

cal Antiquities, 1895. Schuch., Schuchhardt, Schliemann's

Excavations, 1891.

I. LIFE AND WRITINGS OF VIRGIL

PUBLIUS VERGILIUS MARO was born at Andes, a village near Mantua, in the consulship of Pompey and Crassus, B.C. 70. Virgil's father possessed a farm at Andes sufficiently valuable to place his family in easy circumstances, and to afford him the means of educating his son under the most eminent teachers then living in Italy. The education of the future poet appears to have been commenced at Cremona, from whence, on assuming the toga virilis, in his sixteenth year, he was transferred to the charge of new teachers at Mediolanum (Milan).

After pursuing his studies, probably for several years, at Mediolanum, he placed himself under the instruction of the Greek poet and grammarian, Parthenius, who was then flourishing at Naples. At the age of twenty-three he left Naples for Rome, where he finished his education under Syro the Epicurean, an accomplished teacher of philosophy, mathematics, and physics.

Virgil's love of literary pursuits, as well as the delicacy of his physical constitution, led him to choose a life of retirement rather than that public career which was more generally deemed proper for a Roman citizen. Hence, at the age when aspiring young Romans usually entered upon the stirring scenes of political and military life, he withdrew from Rome to his native Andes, with the intention of devoting himself to agriculture, science, and letters. The Sicilian Greek, Theocritus, was at this time his favorite author, and it was from him that the general plan, though not the individual character, of the Eclogues was derived, the first authentic work produced by the poet.

The Eclogues were begun about B.C. 42, at the request of C. Asinius Pollio, who was then acting as the lieutenant of Antony

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