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veiled '; .cover thy head.' Cf. II, 707. This was the custom of the Romans, not of the Greeks, when sacrificing.

406. inter sanctos ignes: “amidst the holy fires '; i.e. during the holy sacrifices.'

407. Hostilis facies : 'adverse appearance'; the sight of any inauspicious object, which would vitiate the omens (turbet omina) ascertained by inspecting the victim, rendering them either unavailing or evil. Some understand this to mean the face of an enemy.'

409. religione: “religious custom.'

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410. digressum: after you shall have left that first landing place in Italy. orae: for the case, see note on I, 377.

411. angusti: logically would agree with claustra, rarescent: shall begin to open (to the view).'

412. Laeva: turn to the south, and follow the shore on your left, instead of turning to the right and going through the straits to the north.

414. Haec loca: the places on the right. The tradition seems to have been that the rent between Italy and Sicily was first produced by some volcanic convulsion, and that it was perpetuated and increased by the rush of the sea through the channel thus formed.

415. Tantum valet mutare: "can effect such changes.' 416. protinus : join with Una.

417. medio: ablative of place; in the midst,' between.'

419. Litore diductas: "separated in respect of their shores.' angusto aestu : ablative of manner with interluit; 'with a narrow tide.'

420. Scylla : on the Italian side of the strait, is a lofty rock, surrounded by smaller rocks. A roaring of the waves is produced, which is described in the fable as the barking of dogs. Charybdis: a whirlpool which is most notice. able when southerly winds force a great mass of waters into the strait, and against the Sicilian shore.

421. ter : 'thrice (daily).'

422. in abruptum: “down to the bottom.' sub auras: see note on 1. 576.

426. Prima hominis facies, etc.: “the upper part of the form (is that) of a human being.'

427. Pube tenus : 'as far as the groin.' postrema : sc. facies.

428. Delphinum – luporum : “having the tails of dolphins joined to the belly of wolves.' Caudas, accusative with the passive participle, commissa, in imitation of the Greek. Cf. I, 320. Lupi is substituted here for canes. See 1. 432. Cf. Milton, in his description of sin (Par. Lost, 2, 650 sqq.) :

Woman to the waist and fair,
But ended foul in many a scaly fold
Voluminous and vast, a serpent armed
With mortal sting: about her middle round
A cry of hell-hounds never ceasing barked
With wide Cerberean mouths full loud, and rung
A hideous peal.'

429. metas: properly the goal, or turning point, in the race course; here, the 'promontory,' around which they are to sail.

435. pro omnibus : ‘instead of (i.e. worth) all other things '; one thing to be observed, even if all others are neglected.

437. primum: 'first of all '; before all other deities; join with numen.

Cf. V, 540.

438. cane vota: vows are expressed in the rhythmical form, or chant, common to all religious formulas. Cf. II, 176.

439. victor: because he will have overcome all difficulties. 440. fines: for ad fines. mittere : ‘thou wilt be conveyed.'

442. Divinos lacus: see note on l. 386. silvis: ablative of means or instrument. The lake was only about a mile and a half in circumference, and, at that time, hemmed in with woods. See VI, 238, and Fig. 51.

446. Digerit in numerum : « places in order. She arranges the leaves so that the words on them form sentences in verse.

448. eadem : sc. folia ; object of prendere.

449. ianua, etc. : 'the door disturbs them' by admitting the wind. 450. deinde : “thenceforth '; answering to the foregoing cum.

452. Inconsulti : ‘uninstructed '; without any responses, since, when they enter, the leaves are so disturbed as to be unintelligible.

453. Hic — tanti: ‘here let no expenditure of delay be of so much (value) in your eyes (tibi). tanti: H. 458, 1; LM. 578; A. 252, a; B. 203, 3; G. 380, 1; (H. 404, N. 1).

454, 455. et vi cursus, etc.: and though your voyage urgently invite your sails to the sea.'

The more natural expression would be, ventus vela vocet,

456. Quin : so that not '; connects the dependent clause with ne fuerint tanti, which are equivalent to an expression of hindering. H. 591, I; LM. 913; A. 319, d; B. 284, 3; G. 555; (H. 504).

457. Ipsa canat: that she may not in the case of Aeneas commit her prophecies to the uncertain leaves. Aeneas follows this injunction in VI, 74. The subjunctive depends on poscas. volens : ‘kindly'; i.e. sua sponte.

459. quo modo: interrogative, ‘how'; the question depends on expediet. 460. dabit: as in l. 85. 461. liceat: H. 591; LM. 838; A. 320; B. 283; G. 631, 2; (H. 503, I). 462. ingentem : an instance of prolepsis.

463, 464. postquam — dehinc : like cum tum ; after — thereupon.' auro, gravia, etc. : 'heavy with gold and carven ivory'; i.e. massive vessels of gold and carved ivory. The final vowel of gravia is long here under the ictus; or it may possibly be a retention of the original length of the vowel.

465. stipat carinis: stows away in the ships.' The expression is equivalent to stipat carinas argento. See note on I, 195.

466. Dodonaeos lebetas: ‘vessels of Dodona,' so called because they resembled the bronze vessels of Dodona that rang loudly at the slightest

touch. Dodona was in the dominions of Helenus.

467. Loricam — trilicem: a coat, or hauberk, of chain mail, in which the hooks, or rings, fastened into each other (consertam hamis), were of gold, and in

three layers; i.e. it was of threeFig. 31. — Chain Mail (l. 467)

ply golden chain work. See

Fig. 31. 468. conum galeae : is equivalent to galeam.

469. Arma Neoptolemi: see l. 333, and II, 470. sua: see note on sna, I, 461.

470. duces : " pilots,' guides.'

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471. Remigium: for remiges, “rowers.' Aeneas might need oarsmen, as some of the Trojans had been left in Crete, and others may have perished. socios: the old companions of Aeneas, as opposed to remigium or remiges, those just added to his company. armis : in its usual meaning.

475. dignate: deemed worthy of.'
476. bis erepte : see note on II, 642.
477. tibi: see note on II, 274. tellus : see note on en, I, 461.

478. hanc: “this,' the nearest shore of Italy, as in l. 396. praeterlabare: sc, ut, after necesse est.

480, 481. Quid ultra Provehor: “why am I carried too far (in discourse) ?' ultra, i.e. quam opus est.

483. subtemine: a thread of gold wrought into the cloth in figures.

484. nec cedit honori: "nor does she fail to show due honor'; lit. ‘nor does she yield to the honor due him. For the form of the chlamys, see Fig. 76.

485. Textilibus : 'woven.' Phrygia was famous for beautiful woven fabrics.

486. et haec: Helenus has made appropriate presents to your friends; I make these also' to you.

487. Sint, testentur: see note on I, 20.

489. Mihi: with super, which has the force of an adjective; “sole surviving image to me.'

491. pubesceret: ‘would be growing up.'

493. Vivite felices : a parting salutation, like our ‘farewell,' but more impressive, because less frequently used. quibus, etc.: 'whose destined (sua) fortune is already achieved. alia ex aliis in fata : 'from one destiny to another'; nothing settled and fixed.

497. Effigiem Xanthi : see note on 1. 302. 499. Auspiciis: see note on II, 396. fuerint: future perfect. obvia : exposed to.'

500. Thybridis: an older form for Tiberis, limits vicina. H. 435, 4; LM. 536; A. 218, d; B. 192, I; G. 359; (H. 391, II, 4).

503. Epiro, Hesperia : ‘(situated) in Epirus (and) Hesperia’; referring to Rome and Buthrotum.

504. utramque: in apposition with urbes. “We will make our kindred cities and nearly related nations both one Troy in spirit.'

505. ea cura: ‘this duty. Perhaps Virgil has in mind the friendly relations actually established by Augustus, after the battle of Actium, with the people dwelling in the Chaonian country.

506-587. Aeneas sets out again on his wanderings. He sails as far north as the Ceraunian promontory, and from thence crosses over to the port of

Venus (portus Veneris), on the Italian side, in Calabria. After sacrificing, and seeking, according to the directions of Helenus, to propitiate the favor of Juno, they resume their voyage, and pass by the harbor of Tarentum, the promontory of Lacinium, Caulon, Scyllaceum, and then come in sight of the volcano of Aetna, to the shores of which they are driven in seeking to shun the terrors of Scylla and Charybdis. The country about Aetna is inhabited by the giant race of Cyclops. The Trojans pass a night on the shore at the foot of Mount Aetna, and are terrified by the strange noises of the volcano.

506. pelago : 'over the sea,' as in II, 179. Ceraunia: mountains on the coast of Epirus, north of Buthrotum, forming the promontory nearest to Italy. iuxta : follows its case, as in IV, 255.

507. Italiam: see note on I, 2.

508. ruit: “sets’; contrary to the signification of the same word in II, 250. opaci: proleptic, belonging in sense to the predicate.. Compare Tennyson's imitation:

"And the sun set and all the ways were dark.'

510. Sortiti remos: “after assigning the oars by lot.' They determined by lot what men should be ready to take the oars when the signal was given at midnight to commence the voyage across the gulf. Otherwise there might be disorder and delay.

512. Nox Horis acta: night is conceived of as a goddess riding through the sky in a chariot conducted, like the god of day, by the hours, also personified. Cf. V, 721.

517. Oriona : the first two syllables here form a spondee. See note on 1, 535.

518. cuncta constare: 'that all is settled.'

519. clarum : 'loud.' signum : Virgil is thinking of the Roman signal given by a trumpet. Cf. I. 239. castra: see note on IV, 604.

522. humilem : appearing low because distant in the horizon. In fine weather it is possible to see entirely across the Adriatic from Otranto to Albania.

527. in puppi: he stands near the image of the tutelar god in the stern of the ship.

528. The genitives are governed by potentes. See note on 1, 80. 529. vento: an ablative of means. secundi: cf. subitae, I. 225.

530. portus: the harbor intended is probably portus Veneris, about six miles south of Hydruntum, in Calabria. The place, where the temple was located, was Castrum Minervae. patescit: cf. rarescent, l. 411, and note.

531. in arce: 'on a height.' The temple of Minerva, built by Idomeneus, was on a summit, and from a distance appeared to be near the shore. But as they approached, the lower grounds between this height and the water

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