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Lupercal: a cave on the Palatine, sacred to Lupercus, an Italian deity, identified with the Greek Lycaean Pan, who was worshiped on Mount Lycaeus in Arcadia. Lupercus was derived from lupus and arceo, ‘warder off of wolves,' and Lycaeus from Aúkos, 'wolf.'

344. Called after Parrhasian (= Arcadian) fashion, the place of Lycaean Pan.' See note to preceding line.

345. Argileti : the Argiletum was a spot near the foot of the Capitoline Hill. The name was supposed to commemorate the murder of Argos (Argi, letum), a guest of Evander, who had been put to death by some of the people without the king's knowledge. Evander calls the place to witness his innocency of the murder (Testatur locum), while he recounts the history of it (docet letum).

347. Capitolia : the Capitoline, afterward covered with the buildings of the Capitol, of which the chief was the temple of Jupiter, roofed with plates

Tarpeius Capitolinus. 358. Ianiculum: the name of the hill opposite the Capitoline, and on the right bank of the river.

361. Carinis: the Carinae was a quarter or street of Rome on the Esquiline, occupied by wealthy citizens; hence, lautae, elegant.'

367. Ingentem: see note on VI, 413. 365. Finge: 'make.'

369-453. While Aeneas is reposing under the humble roof of Evander, Venus applies to her husband, Vulcan, for a suit of armor for her son, which the god of the forge, on rising from sleep, orders the Cyclops to make ready. He himself directs their labor in his workshop in the Vulcanian islands, near the coast of Sicily.

372. aureo: pronounced au-ryo.
375. Debita (vastari): fated (to be destroyed).' . Cf. IX, 107.
381. constitit: Is (Aeneas) is the subject.

382. eadem : 'the same.' I, therefore, who made no request for your aid during the siege of Troy. sanctum mihi numen rogo: “I pray the godhead I revere'; i.e. as thy wife.

383. filia Nerei: “the daughter of Nereus,' Thetis, who had obtained from Vulcan a suit of arms for Achilles, her son. The wife of Tithonus, Aurora, had secured the same favor for Memnon. See note on I, 489.

385. moenia : 'cities.'

391, 392. tonitru, etc.: 'when the fiery rent, torn (in the cloud) by the flashing thunder-bolt, gleaming with light, darts through the clouds.' The lightning often appears like a zigzag chink or crack of fire running along the clouds. Cf. III, 199.

395. ex alto: ‘far-fetched'; remote reason.

399. decem alios: the fates would have permitted the siege of Troy to be lengthened; they had only decreed the destruction of the city sooner or later, without fixing any limit to the duration of the siege.

402. electro: a mixture of gold and silver in such proportion (four parts of gold to one of silver) as to have the color of amber.

403. animae : refers to the blasts of the forge.

407, 408. medio — Curriculo: “in the midst of the track (or revolution) of departing (lit. driven away) Night. Cf. III, 512, and the kindred description of the passage of Aurora beyond the meridian, VI, 535, 536.

409. tenui Minerva : 'with the scanty loom'; Minerva (i.e. here, the art of spinning and weaving) yielding but a scanty living to the poor weaver. Tenui may also refer to the 'fineness of the work of Minerva.

417. Liparen: Lipara, one of the Aeolian or Liparian islands. The island of Vulcan is in the southern part of the group, and is still called in modern times Vulcano. It contains the town of Vulcanello. 419. Aetnaea: i.e. like those of Aetna. incudibus : ablative of place;

* made on the anvil.'

421. Stricturae Chalybum: "the masses of iron.' The Chalybes were a people of Pontus, skillful workers of iron; hence the word is used by metonymy for ‘iron,' steel.' Others translate the smeltings of the Chalybes.'

422. domus, tellus: in apposition with Insula (l. 416).

423. Hoc: an old form for huc.

426. His manibus : = horum manu. informatum: shaped out'; in the rough and unfinished.

427. For the form of the Fulmen,

see Fig. 74. Fig. 67. – Vulcan at his Forge (from an ancient gem)

435. Aegida : see Fig. 12 for repre

sentation of the aegis. 436. squamis — polibant: 'were ornamenting with polished golden scales of serpents.'

448, 449. septenos — Impediunt: 'they weld together layer upon layer, seven in number.' The shield is made of seven circular plates of metal joined plate upon plate, in order to secure the proper thickness and strength.

453. In oumerum : in order '; each striking his blow in turn, and in regular time. versant: while the blows are alternately given by two, the mass is turned from side to side on the anvil by the third workman. The plural indicates that this is a part of the common work of the forge in which all three are engaged.

454-553. Evander and Aeneas in the morning confer together. Evander advises Aeneas to seek the aid of the Etrurians, who have thrown off the authority of the wicked King Mezentius; placing under his command at the same time all the forces he himself can raise, and with them his son Pallas. While they are engaged in this conference the clang of gleaming armor and the sound of a trumpet are heard in the sky. Aeneas sends back a part of his followers to Ascanius with tidings of his success, while with the rest he prepares to depart into Etruria.

454. Lemnius: Vulcan, according to mythology, was cast from heaven, and fell upon the island of Lemnos, where he was nurtured, and afterward worshiped as the tutelary deity of the island.

456. volucrum: roof-swallows are meant. 457. inducitur artus: clothes his limbs'; middle use. See note on II, 275. 458. Tyrrhena: «Tuscan'; i.e. primitive.

461. limine ab alto: to be understood literally. The threshold was commonly of stone, and elevated from the ground.

461. 462. gemini custodes canes : 'two dogs, guardians (of the house).' 463. secreta : retirement.'

468. licito: now at length the important conference was 'permitted' by the circumstances, - both leisure and privacy.

472. pro nomine tanto: for such reputation as ascribed to me, the aid I can afford is small.

473. Tusco: the Tiber is frequently called Tuscan, because it rises in Etruria and flows along its borders.

475. populos: the Etrurians were divided into twelve, nations or populi, each having its own king, or lucumo, and when assembled for war one of the lucumones was appointed chief. Their camp, or army, thus composed, is rich in kingdoms'; i.e. made up of many royal armies.

479. There was a tradition current among the Romans that the Etrurians came originally from Lydia in Asia Minor. See note on II, 781.

481. deinde: 'then' or afterward'; join with tenuit.
489. infanda: adverbially with furentem.
493. The infinitives here are historical. defendier: cf. IV, 493.

497. puppes : i.e. = populi. They are assembled on the sea-shore, not far from Caere, ready to sail for the coast of Latium, near Ardea.

499. Maeoniae : an older name for Lydia. See note on I. 479.

504. Hoc: Evander points across the Tiber in the direction of Caere, where the Etrurians are encamped. Their territory extends to the Tiber, opposite Evander; hence Hoc campo.

506. Tarchon: the lucumo in temporary command of the Etrurians. Cf. note on l. 475.

507. Succedam : (requesting) that I proceed to the camp. Ul is omitted.

508. saeclis : ‘by years' of life.

511. Hinc: 'from this country'; Italy; hence, not completely externus, as required by the soothsayer, l. 503.

523. Ni signum, etc. : the apodosis is suggested by putabant; they were pondering on many a peril in their anxious hearts,' and would have continued thus meditating, ‘unless,' etc. Either Venus herself is permitted on this occasion to use the thunder, or Jupiter hurls it at her request.

525. ruere: the Aashing of arms in the sky, the sound of trumpets, and other warlike tokens, in the heavens, were not infrequent to the imagination of the Romans, as the pages of Livy and other historians testify.

529. Per sudum : 'through the clear sky'; though the arms themselves were surrounded by a cloud.

531. promissa : the promise is not mentioned before in the poem.

533. Olympo: for ab Olympo. The heavenly token summons me, is intended for me, not for thee.

542. Herculeis ignibus: Aeneas proceeds at once to the ara maxima, or great altar of Hercules, where the worship had been conducted on the previous day, and there, as the one to whom the supernatural sign had been sent, he renews the altar fires, and makes offerings first to Hercules, as the deity of the place, and then to the household gods of Evander, who have received and sheltered him, and who had also been included in the sacred honors of the day before.

547. in bella : 'on warlike perils ʼ; not actual war.

552. exsortem : not drawn by lot like the rest; therefore equivalent to egregium, insignem.

554-607. The parting of Evander with Aeneas and Pallas, and the arrival of Aeneas at the camp of the Etrurians near Caere.

555. regis : Tarchon (1. 506).
556. periclo: dative. The fear increases as the danger threatens.

558. euntes : sc. filii, suggested by pater and the general sense of the passage.

569, 570. finitimo Huic capiti: “this person (reigning) near him '; ‘me, his neighbor.'

576. in unum: “to a meeting.' 579. abrumpere: cf. IV, 631.

588. pictis armis: the Arcadians painted their shields with symbolic figures.

589. perfusus unda: “bedewed with the wave '; just risen from the east

ern ocean.

596. Note this famous line, the rhythm of which imitates the sound of galloping horses.

597. Caeritis amnem : the river of Caere'; the river running by the town of Caere.

598, 599. undique — cingunt: 'the encircling hills hem in and surround the wood (lucum or nemus through which the river runs) with dark pines' that covers their slopes.

601. diemque : ‘and a (festal) day'; a day set apart to his worship.

604. locis: “in position '; join with tuta. de colle: the whole Tyrrhenian army (legio) could be seen from the hill, where it was encamped. Cf. III, 647, and note. de colle is not the position of the spectator, Aeneas, but that of the object beheld, namely, the Etrurian army.

605. latis in arvis : probably refers to a broad plateau on the summit of the hill, affording a convenient and safe camping-ground. With tendebat sc. tentoria.

606. Huc: i.e. to the nemus or sacred grove in the valley. He does not visit the Etruscan camp on the hill until the following morning, when he forms the league with Tarchon. See X, 148 sqq., where this part of the narrative is resumed.

3, the

608–730. Venus brings to Aeneas the shield wrought by Vulcan, and adorned with raised work illustrating the following events and scenes in Roman history: 1, the story of Romulus and Remus; 2, the rape of the Sabine women; punishment of Mettus Fufetius;

4, siege of Rome by Porsenna; 5, Manlius and the Gauls; 6, a procession of the priests of Mars and Pan ; 7, the punishment of Catiline in Tartarus ; 8, the battle of Actium; 9, triumph of Augustus.

610. gelido secretum flumine: withdrawn by the cool stream' apart from his followers. Flumine, ablative place where.

Fig. 68. — Bronze Wolf (11. 631 sqq.) 611. ultro: beyond what is expected, hence, here, suddenly.'

626 sqq. 'In Virgil's description of the shield of Aeneas every scene is a prophetic conception of events in Roman history, culminating with the glories of Augustus; the whole is thus strictly in harmony with the leading purpose of the poem, as an epic of national glory.' – Papillon.

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