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Subvocals are those sounds in which the vocalized breath is more or less obstructed.

Aspirates consist of breath only, modified by the vocal organs.


Words ending with subvocal sounds should be selected for practice on the subvocals; words beginning or ending with aspirate sounds may be used for practice on the aspirates. Pronounce these words forcibly and distinctly several times in succession; then drop the other sounds, and repeat the subvocals and aspirates alone. Let the class repeat the words and elements at first in concert, then separately.

Tarle Of Survocals And Aspirates.


Remark. — These sixteen sounds make eight pairs of cognates. In articulating the aspirates, the vocal orgaus are put in the position required in the articulation of the corresponding subvocals; but the breath is expelled with some force without the utterance of any vocal sound. The pupil should first verify this by experiment, and then practice on these cognates.

The following subvocals and aspirates have no cognates.


1, as in mill,
m, "rim.
n, "run.
ng, " sing.

r, as in rule,

r, "car.

w, "win.

7, "y6t»


h, as in hit.

wh, as in when.


Substitutes are characters used to represent sounds ordinarily represented by other characters.

Tarle Of Surstitutes.



Direction. — Give to each sound, to each syllable, and to each word its full, distinct, and appropriate utterance.

For the purpose of avoiding the more common errors under this head, observe the following rules:

Rule II. — Avoid the omission of unaccented vowels.

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Remark 1. — In correcting errors of this kind in words of more than one syllable, it is very important to avoid a fault which is the natural consequence of an effort to articulate correctly. Thus, in endeavoring to sound correctly the a in metrical, the pupil is very apt to say metrical', accenting the last syllable instead of the first.

Remark 2. — The teacher should bear it in mind that in correcting a fault there is always danger of erring in the opposite extreme. Properly speaking, there is no danger of learning to articulate too distinctly, but there is danger of making the obscure sounds too prominent, and of reading in a slow, measured, and unnatural manner.

Rule IV.—Utter distinctly the terminating subvocals and aspirates.










for mosque.

Remark 1. — This omission is still more likely to occur when several consonants come together.


Remark 2.—In all cases of this kind these sounds are omitted, in the first instance, merely because they are difficult, and require care and attention for their utterance, although after a while it becomes a habit. The only remedy is to devote that care and attention which may be necessary. There is no other difficulty, unless there should be a defect in the organs of speech, which is not often the case.

Rule V. — Avoid blending syllables which belong to different words.



He ga-zdupon. He gazed upon.

Here res tsis sed. Here rests his head.

Whattis sis sname? What is his name?

For ranninstantush. For an instant hush.

Ther ris sa calm. There is a calm.

For tho stha tweep. For those that weep.

God sglorou simage. God's glorious image.


This exercise and similar ones will afford valuable aid in training the organs to a distinct articulation.

Every vice fights against nature.

Folly is never pleased with itself.

Pride, not nature, craues mucA.

The little tattler tittered at the tempest.

Titus takes the petulant outcasts.

The covetous partner is destitute of fortune.

No one of you knows wnere the shoe pinches.

What can not be cured must be endured.

You can not catch old birds with chaff.

Never sport with the opinions of others.

The lightnings flashed, the thunders roared.

His hand in mine was fondly clasped.

They cultivated shrubs and plants.

He selected his texts with great care.

His lips i^row restless, and his smile is curfed Aalf into scorn

Wisdom's ways are ways of /)/easantness.

0 breeze, that waf/s/ me on my way I

Thou boas/'*/ of what should be thy sAame.

Life's fitful fever over, he rests well.

Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons f

From star to star the living ligh/nino's,/Z"asA.

And glittering crowns of prostrate serapAim.

That morning, thou that slumber'd'st not before.

Habitual evils change not on a sudden.

Thou waf/'d'st the ricfcety skiffs over the cliffs.

Thou reef'd's/ the halted, sAipwrecied trails.

The honest shepherd's catarrA.

The heiress in her dishabille is humorous.

The orave cAevalier behaves like a conservative.

The luscious notion of champagne and precious nugai


Inflections are slides of the voice upward or downward. Of these, there are two: the rising inflection and the falling inflection.

The Rising Inflection is that in which the voice slides upward, and is marked thus ('); as,

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The Falling Inflection is that in which the voice slides downward, and is marked thus (v); as,

I did not walkv. I did not n>ai.
Both inflections are exhibited in the following question: t
Did you walk' or ridev? sir or *%.

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