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University of St Andrews.


APRIL 1876.


1. State shortly the general features of difference between the Literature of the Middle Ages and that of Modern Times.

2. Characterise the Subjects of Anglo-Saxon Prose, and the Style of Anglo-Saxon Poetry.

3. Describe the effects which the Norman Conquest had upon the Literature of the country.

4. Name the Authors, and describe the Subjects of the following works : “The Visions of Piers Plowman,” “The Flower and the Leaf,” « The King's Quair," “ The Thistle and the Rose."

5. Explain the Three Unities of the Drama, and vindicate Shakespeare's Violation of them.

6. Indicate the Causes of the decline of our Literature after the Restoration, and name the authors in whose works that decline may be most clearly seen.

7. Give an outline of one of the following works : “The Rape of the Lock," "Ode to the Passions,” “The Traveller," “ The Ancient Mariner.”

8. Characterise the Poetry, Criticism, and Fiction of the First Quarter of the present Century, illustrating your remarks by references to the great writers on these subjects during that period.

9. Give shortly Locke's Theory of the Origin of General Terms, and state what use he makes of that theory in his philosophical system.

10. Criticise the Plot of Hamlet.
11. Sketch the characters of Claudius and Polonius.

12. Explain the following phrases : “Recks not his own rede," “ Know a hawk from a handsaw," " The altitude of a chopine," “ Caviare to the general," “ The mobled queen,” “ Bisson rheum," “ Miching Malecho,” “Make her grave straight,” “ Worse than the mutines in the bilboes."

University of St Andrews.


APRIL 1876.



1. Name and define the three mental operations employed in argument. Prove that there is one general operation into which they may all be resolved.

2. Explain and exemplify Categorical, Hypothetical, and Disjunctive Propositions, and show that the Dilemma is a combination of two of these.

3. Give a Syllogism in Darii, naming the Terms, the Propositions, and the Quantity and Quality of the Propositions.

4. Explain and exemplify the different kinds of Conversion.

5. Give examples of the following fallacies : Undistributed Middle, Illicit Process, Ignoratio Elenchi, and Petitio Principii.

6. State the view of Logic taken by Kant, Hamilton, and Mill.

7. Explain the Extension and Intension of Notions and Concepts, and the distinction between Intuitive and Symbolical Knowledge.

8. What effect has the express quantity of the Predicate on the ordinary doctrine of propositions ?


1. Classify Cognition and discriminate Knowledge from Feeling and Volition.

2. Distinguish between Perception and Sensation, and illustrate the distinction from the sense of Touch.

3. State and Criticise Hume's classification of what he calls “ the perceptions of the Mind.”

4. Give Reid's classification of the Mental Powers, and state any objection that may be brought against it.

5. Reid says “in two of our Senses—to wit, touch and tastethere must be an immediate application of the object to the organ. In the other three the object is perceived at a distance, but still by means of a medium, by which some impression is made upon the organ.” Criticise this passage.

6. Give the theories of Descartes and Malebranche regarding Mind and Matter, showing that the doctrine of the latter was the natural development of that of the former.

7. State the theories of Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Reid regarding our knowledge of the external world, and show how they are connected in the history of Speculation.

8. Enumerate the Primary and Secondary Qualities of Matter, stating the characteristics of each class. Give another classification.

9. Comment upon the following sentence: “I see the Sun when he shines ; I remember the battle of Culloden ; and neither of these objects is an image or perception.”

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