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such circumstances we can expect no
onne, the abdication of the Spanish Throne, better than that they will choose by the conquest of Spain, and the accession masters, as suits their self-interests,
of a new dynasty, established without our
While we avail ourselves of the and continue ailies of England no rights of men, which have been withheld longer than motives of policy or ca- from us by force for more than three cen. price may influence.
turies, and to which we are restored by the From ihese circunstances it is an political revolutions in human affairs, we object of sincere regret to hear that
think it becoming to state to the world the endearours are used to stir up another
reasons by which we are called to the free
exercise of the sovereign authority war against Bonaparte in the north
We deem it unnecessary to insist upon of Europe. If these misguided efforts the unquestionable right which ev.ry oonare successful, we may expect to quered country holds to restore itself to liberty and see acteil over again, the former co- ind-pendence; we pass over in a generous medy, or tragedy of “All in the silence the long series of aillictions which wrong,” fresh subsidies farther to
the fıtal laws of conquest have indiscrimiempoverish the exhausted finances of and settlers, of these countries; whose
nately involved the discoverers, conquerors, Britain, plans without concert unsus- condition has been made wretched by the lained by the principle of common very means which should have promoted interest, consequent defeat, and ulti- their felicity: throwing a veil over three mately the more firin establishment centuries of Spanish dominion in America, of ihe colossean power of France, a
we shall contine ourselves to the narration
of recent and well known facts, which cireumstance lamented more strongly, prove how much we have been as:cted , and on more solid, consistent prin- and that we should not be involved in the ciples by the friends of liberty, than commotions, disorders, and conquests which it can be by the advocates of mono
have divided Spain. poly, who are quite reconciled to
The disorders in Europe had increased any despotism, except the despotism by obstructing complaints, and frustrating
the evils under which we before suffered; of France. On that subject, they the means of redress ; by authorizing the hypocritically whine, and bring for- Governors placed over us by Spain, to inward all the cant of unfelt affectation sult and oppress us with impunity, leaving in favour of liberty, while the prin- us without the protection or the support of ciples of slavery reconciled to them,
the laws. by the selfish emoluments they en
It is contrary to the order of nature, imprac. joy, or the luxurious ease on which ¿icable in relation to the government of they so indolently repose, are deeply rica, that territories so much more extensive,
Spain, and has been most afflicting to AmeTooted in their biarts.
and a population incomparably more nu
merous should be subjected and dependent DOCUMENTS.
on a peninsular corner of the European
The cession and abdication made at Bay
onne ; the transactions at the Escurial and In the name of the most high.
at Aranjuez, and the orders issued by the We, the Representatives of the Federal Imperial Lieutenant, the Marshal Duke of Provinces of Carracas, Cumana, Barinas, Berg, to America, authorised the exercise
to those rights, which until that period Margarita, Barcelona, Merida, and Trux.
the Americans had sacrificed to the preillo, constituting the Confederation of Ve
servation and integrity of the Spanish nanezuela, on the Southern Continent of A
tion. merica, in Congress assembled ; eonsidering that we have been in the full and entire The people of Venezuela were the first possession of our natural rights since the who generally acknowledged, and who 19th of Ap
1810, which we re-assumed preferred that integrity, never forsaking in consequence of the transaction at Bay: the interests of their Éuropean brethrvu, BELFAST MAG, NO, XXXid,
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA,
while there remained the least prospect of perpetuate in the same of a king, whose dosalvation.
minion was iinaginary. America had acquired a new existence; Notwithstanding our moderation, our she was able and was bound io take generosity, and the purity of our intentions, charge of her own safety and riosper- and in opposition to the wishes of our ity; she was at liberty to acknowledge or brethren in Europe, we
were declared to to reject the authority of a King who was the world in a state of blockade; hostili so little deserving of that power, as to re- ties were commenced against us; agents gard his personal safety, more than that sent anong us to excite revolt, and arm us of the nation over which he had been against each other; whilst our national placed.
character was traduced, and foreign nations All the Bourbons who concurred in the excited to make war upon us, futile stipulations of Bayonne, having Deaf to our remonstrances, without subwithdrawn from the Spanish territory, mittiag our reasons to the impartial jurig. contrary to the will of the people, abró- ment of mankind, and deprived of erery gated, dishonoured, and trampled upon other arbitranient but that of our enemies, all the sacred obligations which they had we were prohibited from all intercourse contracted with the Spaniards of both with our brethrer-and adding contempt worlds, who with their blood and trea. to calumny, they undertook to appoint de. sure had placed them on the throne, in legates for us, and without our consect, opposition to the enorts of the house of who were to assist at their Cortes, the Austria ; such conduct has reudered them more effectually to dispose of our persoas unfit to rule over a free people, whom and property, and render us subject to the they disposed of like a gang of slaves. power of our enemies.
The intrusive government which have In order to defeat the wholesome meaarrogated 10 themselves the authority sure of our national representation, when which belongs only to the national repre. obliged to recognise it, they undertook to sentation, treacherously availed themselves reduce the ration of our population, subof the known good faith, the distance and mitting the form of election to servile come effects, which ignorance and oppression mittees acting at the disposal of arbitrary had produced among the Americans, to rulers ; thus insulting our inexperience and direct their passions against the new dy- good faith, and utterly regardless of our nasty which had been imposed upon Spain, political importance or our welfare. and in opposition to their own principles, The Spanish Government ever deaf to kept up the illusion among us in favour of the demands of justice, undertook to frus. Ferdinand, but only in order to bafile our trate all our legitimate rights, by condemnnational hopes, and to make us with great, ing as criminals, and devoting to the infamy er impunity their prey; they held forth of the gibbet, or to confiscation and banish to us promises of liberty, equality, and ment those Americans who at different pefraternity, in pompous discourses, the riods had employed their talents and sermore effectually to conceal the snare which vices for the happiness of their country, they were insidiously laying for us by an Such are the causes which at length have incíficient and degrading show of repre- forced us to look to our own security, and sentation.
to avert those disorders and horrible calaAs soon as the various forms of the mities, which we could perceive were otherSpanish government were overthrown, wise inevitable, and from which we shall and others had been successively sulisti ever keep aloof. By their wicked policy tuted, and imperious necessity has taught they have rendered our brethren insensible Venezuela to look to her own safety, in to our misfortunes, and have armed them order to support the King, and afford an against us; they have effaced from their asylum to their European brethren against hearts the tender impressions of love and the calamities by which they were mena- consanguinity, and converted into enemies ced, all their former services were disre. many members of our great family. garded; new measures were adopted a- When faithful to our promises, we were gainst us, and the very steps taken for the sacrificing onr peace and digniry to support preservation of the Spanish governnent the cause of Ferdinand of Bourbon, we were branded with the titles of insurrec- saw that the bonds of power by which he tion, perfidy and ingratitude, but only be- united his fate to that of the French, he adcause the door was closed against a monopo- ded the sacrifice of kindred and friends, ly of power which they had expected to and that on this account the existing Spanish
rulers themselves, have already resolved to the obligation which we contract by the acknowledge him only conditionally. In rank which we are about to occupy in the this painful state of perplexity, three years political order of the world; and above all, have elapsed in political irresolution, so the powerful influence of ancient forins dangerous, so fraught with evil, that this and habits by which (to our reg:et) we hav: alone would have authorised the determis been hitherto affected—yet we also know, nation which the faith we have pledged, that a shameful submissiún to them, when and other fraternal attachments had caused it is in our power to shake them off, would us to defer, till imperious necessity com- prove niore ignominious to ourselves, and pels us to proceed further than we had first more fa:al to posterity, than our long and contemplaied; bui pressed by the hostile painful servitude. It therefore becomes and unnatural conduct of the Spanish our indispensabic duty to provide for our rulers, we are at length absolved from the security, liberty, and happiness, by an enconditional oath which we had taken, and tire and essential subversion and reform of now taken upon us the august sovereignty Our ancient establishments. which we are called here to exercise,
Wherefore believing, for all these rea. But as our glory consists in establishing
sons, that we have complied with the resprinciples consistent with human happiness,
pect which we owe to the opinions of manand not erecting a partial felicity on the
kind, and to the dignity of other nations, misfortunes of our fellow mortals, we here.
with whom we are about to rank, and of by proclaim and declare, that we shall re
whose friendly intercourse we assure our. gard as friends and companions in our des
selves. tiny, and participators of our happiness, all those, who, united by ties of bloud,
We, the Representatives of the confede. language, and religion, have suffered op
rated provinces of Venezuela, invoking the pression under the ancient establishments,
Most High to witness the justice of our and who shall assert their independence
cause, and the rectitude of our intentions, thereof, and of any foreign power what. imploring his Divine assistance to ratify soever, engaging, that all who co-operate
the epoch of our political birth, the dignity wich us shall partake in life, fortune and
to which his providence hath restored us,
the ardent desire to live and die free, and opinion, declaring and recognising not
in the belief and defence of the Holy Ca. oniy these, but those of every nation, in war, enemies; in peace, friends, brethren,
tholic and Apostolic Religion of Jesus and fellow citizens.
Christ, as the first of our duties. In consideration, therefore, of these We, therefore, in the name, by the will, solid, public, and incontestible motives, and under the authority which we hold for which force upon us the necessity of re- the virtuous people of Venezuela, do assuming our natural rights, thus restored solemnly declare to the world, that these to us by the revolution of human affairs, united provinces are, and ought to be from and the virtue of the imprescriptible rights this day forth, in fact, and of right, free, of every people, to dissolve every agree. sovereign and independent States; that inent, 'convention, and social compact, they are absolved from all allegiance and which does not establish the purposes for dependence on the crown of Spain, and of which alune all governments are instituted, those who now call or may hereafter call we are convinced that we cannot and ought themselves its Representatives or Agents; not any longer to endure the chains by which and that as free, sovereign, and independent we were connected with the government States, we hold full power to adopt what of Spain; and we do declare, like every form of government may be deemed suit. other independent people, that we able to the general will of its inhabitants : free, and determined to hold no dependence to declare war, make peace, form alliances, of any Piteatate, Power, or Government, establish commercial treaties, define boun. than what we ourselves establish; and that daries, and regulace navigation, and to pro. we now take among the sovereign nativas pose and execute all other acts, usually of the earth, the rank wlsich the Supreme made and executed by free and indepenBring and nature hath assigned to us, and dent nations: and for the due fulfilment, to which we have been called by the suc- validity, and ability of this our solemn de cession of human events, and by a regard claration, we mutually and reciprocally for our own happiness.
pledge and bind the provinces to each Although we foresee the difficulties other, our lives, fortunes, and the hopur of which may attend our new situation, and the nation.
DECREE OF THE SUPREME EXECUTIVE.
Done at the Federal Palace of the Car. weighs 1 dut. 2 grg. less than a shilling and
racas, signed with our hands, and seal. a six pence, and the silver is also 24d. ar ed with the Great Seal of the Provincial Confederation, and countersigned Any person who buys an ounce of starby the Secretary to the Congress as. dard gold, and pays for it in coin, will sembled, on the 5th day of July, in receive ten-pence in change for four guithe year 1811, and in the first of our neas and two seven shilling pieces. independence.
A Bank of England note for one pound Here follows the Signatures of thirty- purports to be the representation of 5 eight Representatives.
dwts. S grs. of standard gold; but at the JOSE MANIA RAMIREZ. present nominal price, it will purchase A true copy. (L.S.) FRANCIS IZ NARDI, Sec. not quite 4 dwts. 4 grs.; its deficit is 23
grains, and its consequent depreciation
three shillings and seven pence. Fed ral Palace of Carracas, July 8, 1811.
Yours, &c. By the Executive Power of the Confede. London, Sept. 17, 1811.
B. S. ration of Venezuela, it is ordained, that the above declaration of independence be pub
COUNTY CARLOW MEETING. lished, carried into effect, and be of full
OCTOBER, S, 1811. authority throughout the States and terri
Resolved, That we the Roman Catholics tories of this Confederation.
of the Town and County of Carlow, hare Christoval De Menoza, President pro tem.
beheld with the deepest concern the aiJuan De Escalona.
tempt which has been made to obstruct our Baltum R. Pudron.
Bidy in the legal and constitutional exer. Miguel Jose Sanz, Secretary of State.
cise of the irrefragable right of all British Carlos Machado, Grand Counsellor. Jose Tomas Sulmana, Sec. Foreign Affairs. subjects to Petition the Legislature ; an at.
tempt not more unjust in casting upon us
a suspicion equally odious and repugnant Comparison of the relative value of British to our principles, than calculated, in its
Coin. Communicated in a letter to the Edi- tendency, to encroach upon the privileges tors of the Reper!cry of Arts, Manufactures, of his Majesty's Subjects of every denoin. and Agriculture.
nation. The following curious facts, occasioned
That, whilst we behold with awe, the by the present state of British currency, impending destinies of the nations of Eu. deserve to be recorded ; and
rope, almost universally prostrate to the be of
may use to ihe philosopher who shall consult
power of a relentless and mighiy tyrant, your pages at some distant period,
we view with poignant regret any measure tending to divide the Population, and weak.
en the resources of our native land; but A Guinea niade of standard gold,
turning our eyes to an enlightened, a beweight 5 d. 9 grs. passes by law
nificent and constitutional Prince, whom for only.....
Providence seems to have reserved for us The same, three grains lighter, is
in this hour of peril, we look with unshak. worth, as bullion,.......
en confidence to the exertion of his wis. A crown piece, made of sterling
domn, his justice, and his magnanimity, to silver, wcight 19 dwi. 8 grs.
avert those evils which might be indicied passes by law for only.........
upon us by the machinations of domestic A bank dollar, weighing iwo
enemies, or the assault of foreign foes; and penny weigbes less, and the sil
we call upon all our fellow subjects ver 24d an ounce ocorse, is cur
of every sect and persuasion, to join coro rent for...............
6 dially with us in our earnest efforts to up. A half crown piece of sterling
hold the dignity of the throne, the lawful silver, weight 9 dwt. 16 grs.
rights of the people and the integrity and
satery of the British empire. passes by law for only.......... 0 A bank token, weighing five
That in seeking, by the means which the gra less, and the silver ad
Constitution prescribes, a Repeal of those is current for o
Laws which still remain in force, to the an ounce voi,
prejudice, in all the situations of life, of The lesser bank tokens of eighteeu pence the Roman Catholic, and which, in their
effect, are scarcely less injurious to every Legislature early in the ensuing sessions description of persons in Ireland, by crea- for a Repeal of all the restrictive Statutes ting an unnatural division of interests, an which still affect our Body. injurious distinction of parties, and thus That we place our Confidence in the folobstructing the prosperity of the country, lowing Noblemen and Gentlemen to prewe do not act, nor mean to act, in contra- pare our Petitions, viz.--The Earl of Ken. diction to the laws of the land, but to dis- mare ; Viscount Castlerosse; the Hon. charge a sacred duty, by endeavouring, as, Thomas Browre: Wm. Gerald Bagot, far as in us lies, to procure the extinction Castle Bagot; John James Bagot, Belcamp; of a Code, the cause of jealousies and dis- Walter Blackney, Ballyellen ; Wm. Finn, contents, incompatible with the welfare of Barrister at Law; Timothy Gorman, Bushthe State.
erstown; Dennis Hanlon, Ballycormick ; That, by assembling, as we do this day, Anthony Kehoe, Castleroe; John Ferrall, in a constitutional and strictly legal man- Conlaw ; John Nowlan, Ballyloo; Sylvesner, for the sole and specific purpose of ter Coghlan, Rathrush; James Brennan, petitioning i he legislature for a redress of Kilcarrig; John O'Brien, Larah; Thomas grievances, we give the strongest and most Kinsella, Rathrush; Dan. Kelly, Knocincontestible proof of our steady attachment keen, Esqrs.; and we request them to comto the British Constitution, which we ve- municate and advise with such other perderate, and will defend at the expense of sons as may be or have been selected our lives, as the sacred sanctuary of civil throughout Ireland, for the single, definite, and rational liberty, and we offer the surest and strictly legal purpose of preparing peguarantee of our unfeigned anxiety to con- titions to the Imperial Parliament, for a solidate the strength, and promote the Repeal of all such laws as still prevent our glory of the British empire.
free and fall enjoyment of all the privileges That, as it is the warmest wish of our and advantages of the British Constitution. hearts to heal those wounds which the The following resolucions prefaced by a peace of society has so often received, by very eloquent and elegant speech proposed the cruel and impolitic fomentation of by Counsellor Finn, seconded by Daniel discord, we declare it to be no more our' Kelly, of Knockeen, esq. were also unaniduty than it is our inclination, to promote, mously adopted : by every means in our power, a spirit of That, perceiving with sentiments of deep concord and unanimity amongst our bre- regret, the incredible pains which have been thren of all religious persuasions ; strongly taken by calumniating our characters, and impressed with the justness of this feeling, by endeavouring to excite suspicion and we are determined never to relinquish the distrust as to our motives. to poison the pursuit, (by every means the Constitution Protestant mind of the country against us, and the Law allow) of our claims to the we deem it our duty to declare, that there free and unqualified admission to all the be is no class or description of his Majesty's Defits and advantages of the British Consti- subjects towards wliom we entertain any tution, as an object, the attainment of which hostile feeling, firmly convinced that all is not more desirable to ourselves, than it the misfortunes of Ireland have been ow. would prove conducive to the general pros- ing to the dissentions of her Children. perity of all our fellow-subjects; and we The object, dearest to our hearts, is nationhail, with heart-felt gratitude, the generous al concord.—That the great and leading support, and warm approbation which our doctrines of the religion which we profess, constitutional efforts have universally re. inculcate as moral and indispensable duceived from our Protestant brethren, as the ties, steady loyalty, genuine patriotism, surest omen of civil concord and happiness pure and unbounded benevolence ; nor in this country.
can we discover in the Sacred Scriptures That, intent upon the attainment of our (referred to as the common foundation of right to a free and full participation of all the the faith of all sects of Christians) any benefits and advantages enjoyed by others justification of persecution or privation, bis Majesty's subjects, which we shall ever on the ground of difference in religious persevere in seeking by those means the opinions. That if, instead of being surConstitution points out, and without swer- rounded as we are by our liberal and enving from our submission the Laws of the lightened Protestant countrymen,
the Realm, we concur in the opinion expressed most inveterate of our enemies should apat Catholic Meetings, in various parts of pear amongst us, and utter one word of Ireland, that Petitions be presented to the kindness, advance one step towards cog