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of any other party to the action, or of a relative or friend of the infant, after notice of such application being first given to the general or testamentary guardian of such infant, if he has one within this State ; if he has none, then to the infant himself, if over fourteen years of age, and within the State ; or if under that age, and within the State, to the person with whom such infant resides.

And in actions for the partition of real property, or for the foreclosure of a mortgage or other instrument, when an infant defendant resides out of this State, the plaintiff may apply to the court in which the action is pending, at any special term thereof, and will be entitled to an order designating some suitable person to be the guardian for the infant defendant, for the purposes of the action, unless the infant defendant, or some one in his behalf, within a number of days after the service of a copy of the order, which number of days shall be in the said order specified, shall procure to be appointed a guardian for the said infant; and the court shall give special directions in the order for the manner of the service thereof, which may be upon the infant himself, or by service upon any relation or person with whom the infant resides, and either by mail or personally upon the person so served.

And in case an infant defendant, having an interest in the event of the action, shall reside in any State with which there shall not be a regular communication by mail, on such fact satisfactorily appearing to the court, the court may appoint a guardian ad litem, for such absent infant party, for the purpose of protecting the right of such infant in said action, and on such guardian ad litem, process, pleadings and notices in the action may be served, in the like manner as upon a party residing in this State.

§ 117. [97.) Who to be plaintiffs.

All persons having an interest in the subject of the action, and in obtaining the relief demanded, may be joined as plaintiffs, except as otherwise provided in this title.

§ 118. [98.] (Am’d 1849.) Who to be defendant.

Any person may be made a defendant who has or claims an interest in the controversy adverse to the plaintiff, or who is a necessary party to a complete determination or settlement of the questions involved therein.

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§ 119. [99.] (Am'd 1849.) Parties to be joined, dc.

Of the parties to the action, those who are united in interest must be joined as plaintiffs or defendants; but if the consent of any one who should have been joined as plaintiff cannot be obtained, he may be made a defendant, the reason thereof being stated in the complaint; and when the question is one of a common or general interest of many persons, or when the parties are very numerous and it may be impracticable to bring them all before the court, one or more may sue or defend for the benefit of the whole.

§ 120. (100.] Parties to bills and notes, &c.

Persons severally liable upon the same obligation or instrument, including the parties to bills of exchange and promissory notes, may all, or any of them, be included in the same action, at the option of the plaintiff.

§ 121. [101.] (Am’d 1849, 1857, 1862.) Existing suits. Action when not to abate.

No action shall abate by the death, marriage, or other disability of a party, or by the transfer of any interest therein, if the cause of action survive or continue. In case of death, marriage, or other disability of a party, the court, on motion, at any time within one year thereafter, or afterwards on a supplemental complaint, may allow the action to be continued by or against his representative or successor in interest. In case of any other transfer of interest, the action shall be continued in the name of the original party, or the court may allow the person to whom the transfer is made to be substituted in the action.

After a verdict shall be rendered in any action for a wrong, such action shall not abate by the death of any party, but the case shall proceed thereafter in the same manner as in cases where the cause of action now survives by law.

At any time after the death, marriage, or other disability of the party plaintiff, the court in which an action is pending, upon notice to such persons as it may direct, and upon application of any person aggrieved, may, in its discretion, order that the action be deemed abated, unless the same be continued by the proper parties, within a time to be fixed by the court, not less than six months nor exceeding one year from the granting of the order.

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§ 122. [102.] (Am'd 1849, 1851.) Court may determine controversy, &c. Interpleader.

The court may determine any controversy between the parties before it, when it can be done without prejudice to the rights of others, or by saving their rights; but when a complete determination of the controversy cannot be had without the presence of other parties, the court must cause them to be brought in. And when, in an action for the recovery of real or personal property, a person not a party to the action, but having an interest in the subject thereof, makes application to the court to be made a party, it may order him to be brought in by the proper amendment.

A defendant against whom an action is pending upon a contract, or for specific, real, or personal property, may at any time before answer, upon affidavit that a person not a party to the action, and without collusion with him, makes against him a demand for the same debt or property, upon due notice to such person and the adverse party, apply to the court for an order to substitute such person in his place, and discharge him from liability to either party, on his depositing in court the amount of the debt, or delivering the property or its value to such person as the court may direct; and the court may, in its discretion, make the order.

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TITLE IV.

Of the Place of Trial of Civil Actions.

SECTION 123. Actions to be tried where subject-matter situated.

124. Actions to be tried where cause of action arose.
125. Actions to be tried where the parties reside.
126. Changing place of trial.

§ 123. [103.] (Am'd 1849.) Actions to be tried where subjectmatter situated.

Actions for the following causes must be tried in the county in which the subject of the action, or some part thereof, is situated,

subject to the power of the court to change the place of trial, in the cases provided by statute:

1. For the recovery of real property, or of an estate or interest therein, or for the determination in any form of such right or interest, and for injuries to real property;

2. For the partition of real property;
3. For the foreclosure of a mortgage of real property;

4. For the recovery of personal property distrained for any cause.

§ 124. [104.] (Am’d 1849.) Actions to be tried where cause of action arose.

Actions for the following causes must be tried in the county where the cause, or some part thereof, arose, subject to the like power of the court to change the place of trial, in the cases provided by statute:

1. For the recovery of a penalty or forfeiture imposed by statute, except that, when it is imposed for an offence committed on a lake, river, or other stream of water, situated in two or more counties, the action may be brought in any county bordering on such lake, river, or stream, and opposite to the place where the offence was committed;

2. Against a public officer, or person specially appointed to execute his duties, for an act done by him in virtue of his office, or against a person who, by his command or in his aid, shall do anything touching the duties of such officer..

§ 125. [105.] Action to be tried where parties reside.

In all other cases the action shall be tried in the county in which the parties, or any of them, shall reside at the commencement of the action; or, if none of the parties shall reside in the State, the same may be tried in any county which the plaintiff shall designate in his complaint, subject, however, to the power of the court to change the place of trial, in the cases provided by statute.

§ 126. [105.] (Am’d 1851.) Change of place of trial.

If the county designated for that purpose in the complaint be not the proper county, the action may, notwithstanding, be tried

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therein, unless the defendant, before the time for answering expire, demand in writing that the trial be had in the proper county, and the place of trial be thereupon changed by consent of parties, or by order of the court, as is provided in this section.

The court may change the place of trial in the following cases :

1. When the county designated for that purpose in the complaint is not the proper county;

2. When there is reason to believe that an impartial trial cannot be had therein;

3. When the convenience of witnesses and the ends of justice would be promoted by the change.

When the place of trial is changed, all other proceedings shall be had in the county to which the place of trial is changed, unless otherwise provided by the consent of the parties, in writing, duly filed, or order of the court; and the papers shall be filed or transferred accordingly.

TITLE V.

Manner of Commencing Civil Actions.

SECTION 127. Actions, how commenced.

128. Summons, requisites of.
129. Notice to be inserted in summons.
130. Complaint need not be served with summons.
131. Defendant unreasonably defending.
132. Notice of lis pendens.
133. Service of summons.
134, Return of summons.
135. Publication of summons.
136. Proceedings when part only of defendants served.
137. When service by publication complete.
188. Proof of service.
139. When jurisdiction of action acquired.

§ 127. [106.] Actions, how commenced.

Civil actions in the courts of record of this State shall be commenced by the service of a summons.

§ 128. [107.] Summons, requisites of.

The summons shall be subscribed by the plaintiff or his attorney, and directed to the defendant, and shall require him to answer the complaint, and serve a copy of his answer on the person whose

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