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To keep boarders occurred to her, naturally, I tle Sophy can take care of the children while we as the first resource; but her heart sank at are at meals. Don't you think it will do, Frank? thought of rent and servants' wages. Nor was Of course it would not with exacting, fashionatheir house large enough to accommodate many ble people; but if we can get the right sort?" people. What else could she do-teach music, Nothing was hinted of the labor that must get a situation in a school ? She was well-edu- devolve upon herself; but Frank remembered cated, but her accomplishments had rusted a it. “I am afraid for you, Milly," he said. little from disuse; what chance had she in com “ Think of it! To teach all day and take petition with those trained and ready for the care of such a family besides. You never can service ? Even could she obtain a situation or endure it." class, it must take her from home for the greater “Oh yes, I hope I can. If not, we must try part of every day; and how was she to obtain something else. Haven't I a pretty good head it; what friends, what interest, had she? She for planning ?" she asked, with a smile. thought and thought, and formed at last her “Excellent," said poor Frank, trying to reproject; so humble, yet of such deep import to turn the smile. If he could but do something ! her family.
He was willing to be a porter, a stevedore even ; “Frank," she said, one evening, when she had he could have shoveled coal or broken stone with been sitting silent a long time, pondering the a joyful heart, had his enfeebled frame allowed. possibilities of the case, “I believe I shall try Any thing, rather than to be a burden upon Mila little school-here, at home.”
ly, whose life he had once hoped to make all “Do you think you can get scholars ?” sunshine. But he was powerless; he could
“I hope so—a few, at any rate. You know not even dissuade her from efforts which he we were beginning to wish for a good, quiet feared would be beyond her strength; for someplace somewhere at hand for Sophy. Mrs. thing must be done, and what else could he sugAyres and I have often talked of it; I don't gest? doubt that she would let me have her little Aunt Sophia was horrified when the project girls; and there are others of our friends who became known to her. “People will drop you might send their children, partly to help us, and entirely, now,” she said. partly for their own convenience. I am dis- “Some may," returned Milly; "and those are posed to make the trial, at any rate. How the very ones I do not care to know." The next does it look to you?"
moment she doubted if she had spoken quite “I am afraid you can not make it pay. Oh, sincerely; it is not flattering to be “dropped," if I could but do something!” The poor fel- however indifferent the acquaintance may have low fairly groaned at thought of his helpless- been. “At any rate,” she added, “I shall be ness.
too busy to dwell much upon slights." “ No matter, Frank. You worked for me Fortune-or should one say, Heaven--emiled while you could, and now you must let me have upon her efforts. A dozen scholars were obmy turn."
tained without much trouble. People were * These slender hands," he said, taking them sympathizing and disposed to aid her, particuin his own, “what can they do?"
larly when it involved no great trouble to them“A great deal, you will find," she answered, selves. A newly married couple, a middlecheerfully. “I want you to listen to the rest aged pair without children, and a young clerk, of my plan. I shall try to get three or four occupied the second floor. When all these had boarders; plain people, who, in consideration moved in and arranged their various possesof the lowness of the price, will be glad of such sions, Milly's labors began. accommodations as we can offer.”
1 They were severe, but that she had counted * But how can you have boarders and a 'on. All she asked was, if she could endure school together?"
| them, and if they would achieve her purpose. “I will show you how. Our breakfast will lp early and retiring late, busy every moment be cleared away and the front basement ready of the day, teaching, working, superintending by the time the scholars come. After that my her small maid, a spirit less cheerful would have time will be occupied till three o'clock, except sunk under the burden. Milly kept on. She the hour at noon, when I must prepare the nee- had the housewife's talent, precious at any time, essary lunch and send up to the rooms. At invaluable now; inanimate things ministered 10 three school will be over, and I can easily have ber, as it were, instead of thwarting her; the dinner ready by six.”
domestie machinery worked as quietly as in the You will have Margaret back then, will you days when so much less was demanded of it,
Nor could all her multiplied labors reduce Milly * Nowat least not till I see how the plan to a drudge. She sat at the head of her table works. You have no idea, Frank, of what a as lady-like in garb and look as when its hospihelpful creature little Anny is. I shall have the talities were dispensed to her own friends. children under my own eye in school-hours; and; She had her reward. At the end of the first they are so good; they have learned to amuse month, when every bill was paid, erery expense themselves in a way that is quite wonderful allowed for, a certain suin remained in her since I have had less time to derote to them. hands. It was not large; no more than you Anny can wait at table rery nicely, and our lite , would pay for a silk walking-dress, or a lace
VOL XXXVIII-X). 995.-25
pocket-handkerchief, perhaps ; but how large it more leisure to bestow upon her husband and was to her! When once convinced that there the children. How they all prized the priviwas no error, no overlooked account, that the lege; though Milly had never been too busy to sum was fairly her own, what joy and thankful- make her house a home for her own family. ness filled her heart! For a great burden had She had not degenerated into the bustling manbeen laid upon her, and she hoped that she was ager, but kept her soft and womanly graces still. equal to it. Henceforward, if her health were Frank's health was now her only object of anxspared, they need not fear. Hard work there iety; if that could only be restored, she thought, must be still, and careful management, but the nothing would be wanting to her happiness. terrible dread of want, of friendless destitution, Just as these brighter days had dawned he no longer impended over them.
left her. His life of patient suffering ended, "And now you will have Margaret back," and he was “well" at last, in that land to said Frank, coaxingly, as she imparted her good which pain and sickness can not follow. news.
It was providential, Aunt Sophia thought. "Perhaps—though it will be hard to part with The poor fellow meant well always, but he had Anny. The most willing little soul, and a per- been the blight of Milly's life. But for him fect marvel for her age! But I am not sure she might have been a rich woman all these that it is safe to go on as I have done for this years. Of late, especially, he had been a perlast month; I feel the strain, sometimes, se- fect wreck; a burden to every one, and no comverely. And yet I did not know what else to fort to himself. Fortunately they had mando, for all expense must be avoided till the ex- aged, she hardly knew how, to keep up the periment was made."
premiums on his life-insurance, and with that “It has proved successful, so far, and you and her business Milly and the children would must spare yourself; do promise me."
be provided for. If it weren't for those chil“I think it will be wise to do so, and not al- dren Milly might have plenty of chances yet; together self-indulgent either. Margaret will she was quite a young woman still, and wondersave some outlay which we have not hitherto fully pretty, spite of all she had gone through. been able to avoid. What a time it has been! But then no man would want such a family. I hardly dared to think, this whole month, how Thus reasoned Aunt Sophia. While Milly, we were coming out; and to-night, when it was in the very depths of her sorrow, rejoiced in to be tested, I was so nervous. Now, if we can that sure rest to which her beloved had attained, but continue as we have begun, this business and blessed God who had allowed her to suswill support us, and the little we have can still tain and soothe him to the end. be saved to educate the children. Oh, Frank, how glad, how thankful we ought to be !"
CHANGES IN POPULATION. Margaret returned; her strong and skillful aid lightened the labors of her mistress, which A MONG the various topics claiming public still remained arduous enough. The summer A attention the changes taking place in our vacation came; when it was ended the little population are not the least important. While school was not resumed. Milly believed it large numbers are constantly emigrating to our wisest to relinquish this heavy tax upon her shores from foreign lands, many of our own peostrength and time. Gaining confidence in her- ple are seeking homes in the South and West. self, she ventured to raise her prices; room was The cities, villages, and large places are inmade for one or two more inmates. Experi- creasing in population erery year, at the exence taught her better ways of managing; the pense of rural and agricultural districts remote housekeeping grew more profitable, while its from the great thoroughfares of travel and busicomforts remained undiminished.
ness. But the most important change of all, Frank, meanwhile, aided her in numerous especially in its prospective influence, is the insmall matters; he was so glad to be of use, to creasing proportion of children of a foreign dedo something toward the work which had once scent, compared with the relative decrease of been his alone. He obtained employment, too, those of strictly American origin. It is a quesfor those days in which his health admitted of tion of no ordinary interest whether there realexertion; law papers to copy, little jobs of book- ly is now, or is likely to be hereafter, a natural keeping. These earnings were slender and pre-increase among the regular descendants of the carious, it is true, but still they counted. The first or the early settlers of our country. It is family felt that they were prospering in their proposed here to notice certain changes in this humble way.
direction, together with some of the causes. In the spring a larger house was taken, and a The census of the State of New York for portion of the precious capital expended in its 1865 discloses some curious facts upon this subplenishing. This venture was not made with-ject. The method of taking this census was out anxiety, but it proved successful. After a different from all others in this respect, that it few years Milly was at rest, so far as pecuniary was taken by families. The census reported in troubles were concerned. Her establishment 1865 a total of 780,931 families—196,802 famwas large, handsome, and remunerative. With ilies living without children, 148,208 with only good servants in sufficient number, her time was one child, 140,572 with two, and 107,342 with no longer absorbed by household cares; she had three children. Here is almost one-fourth of
all the families in the State in which not a ' The first regular census ever taken in Massasingle child was found; and in 592,924 families chusetts was in 1765, when the total inhabitants -more than three-fourths -- there was, on an were 222,563, and the number under sixteen average, only a small fraction over one child to years of age was 102,489—almost one-half the each family. In answer to the inquiry put to whole population. Now it is estimated in the every woman who was or had been married (in school reports that only one-third of the popuall, 842,562), how many children she had had, lation is under fifteen years of age; and, as whether present or absent, living or dead, there the foreign class have relatively a much larger were 115,252 women who responded that they proportion of children, a carefal examination never had had a child, 124,317 only one child, will show that scarcely one-fourth of the pure123,319 two, and 108,324 three children. Here ly American class are under sixteen. This we find 115, 252 women who were or had been makes a surprising difference in the relative married-almost one-seventh of all-who never number of children of the same people at the bore a single child, and 471,772—more than two periods 1765 and 1865. one-half of all-who will average less than one Again, many towns in this State have been child and seven-tenths to each woman. These settled over two hundred years, and their hisfigures include both the foreign and American tory will include from six to eight generations. classes, but a large proportion applies to the Great pains were taken to enter upon the recstrictly American. If the law settled by mor-ords of these towns the names of all persons tuary statistics, that two-fifths of all children therein born. These records have been careborn die before reaching adult life, be applied fully examined in several places with respect to to the above facts, it will appear that on an av the relative number of children in each generaerage only about one child to each woman ever tion. It was found that the families comprisreaches mature age—that is, only one-half of ing the first generation had on an average bethe original stock is supplied as far as these tween eight and ten children; the next three women (471,772) are concerned.
generations averaged between seven and eight The whole population of the State of New to each family; the fifth generation about five, York is composed, in its descent, of such mixed and the sixth only about three to each family. races that it is impossible to draw the exact This curious fact was found in one of those line between what may be considered American towns: that from 1660 to 1760, when the place and what foreign ; but the compiler of the cen contained over fifteen hundred inhabitants, and sus- Dr. Franklin B. Hough— became con- many marriages occurred every year, the recvinced that there is at the present time no nat- ords show that there was not a single marriage ural increase in population among the families entered but what was productive of more or descended from the early settlers of the State. | less children. What a contrast in this respect From an examination of the tables in the Cen- does such a fact present to the record of the sus Report this general fact is very evident present day! throughout the State, namely, that the married It surprises us, living in this “fast age," to women of foreign origin have much the largest learn how many large families were once found families. For instance, in the County of New in these old towns of Massachusetts. In the York, reporting almost one-half of its population small town of Billerica, settled in 1665, may be as foreign, we find this statement: while nine found in its early records these facts: there hundred and sixty-five American women have are recorded twenty-six families having 10 chileach ten children and upward, there were twen- dren each; twenty, 11 each ; twenty-four, 12 ty-eight hundred and fifty foreign women hav- each; thirteen, 13 each; five, 14 each; one, ing each ten children and upward, making three 15; and one, 21. Here were ninety families times as many.
| having 1043 children-equal to a regiment ! In the New England States there has been Nothing like this, not even an approximation less mixing up of the foreign element with the to it, for fifty years past can be found in the native than in New York; and though no cen- history of any town in New England! Why, sus has ever been taken by families, thereby as- it is rare that any American family can now certaining the exact number of children or births be found any where having 10 children ; but in a family, many facts can be gathered to show here were ninety families having that number that the increase of the descendants of the orig- and upward. Indeed, is it not a prevalent inal settlers is very questionable. So great has fact at the present day—and that not with the been the increase of children of the foreign fashionable only, but also among the most inclass, together with emigration from abroad, telligent and cultivated, and even among the that the population, as a whole, has steadily religious classes that where there is a large gained for a long series of years in all the New family of children reflections arise at once, and England States; but by a careful analysis and remarks are made calling in question the recomparison it will appear that this gain is large- finement, the delicacy, and good-breeding, if ly made up from a foreign source. The amount not the good-manners, of the parents of such a of this increase, and its proportion between the family? Once such fathers and mothers were two classes, American and foreign, will vary considered by the wise, the good, and the great much in the different States, as well as in dif- as public benefactors; but now their conduct is ferent parts of the same State.
| not only questioned and censured, but by some they are regarded almost as human monsters. | 1851 and 1852, and in 1860 it only exceeds that How unlike such a spirit to the practices and of 1850 by 183, while the births reported of forprinciples of the first settlers in this country, eign parentage more than doubled in these ten and how much at variance with the teachings years. From 1860 to 1867 the foreign class of Divine revelation!
has taken the lead of the American, averaging Another mode of obtaining information in for each of the last two years an excess of althis matter is by way of comparison. There is most one thousand. Since the close of the war what is called a birth-rate in every community the births have increased, so that in 1866 the or nation—that is, one birth every year to so whole number reported was 34,085-American, many inhabitants. This rate will vary in differ- 15,014; foreigŋ, 15,989; mixed, 1482; and ent years; and, in order to obtain a fair stand- not stated, 284. This is almost equal to that ard, it should be the average found for a series of 1860 (36,051), which was the largest number of years. The accompanying table, reported in of births ever reported in the State in any one the United States Census for 1860, presents the year. It should be observed that when the rebirth-rate of the nations here named, omitting ports represent the number of births among the the decimals, as follows—that is, one birth to so Americans from 1850 to 1860 as alınost stationmany inhabitants: Saxony, 25; Prussia, 26; ary, the census returns the strictly American Austria, 26; Sardinia, 27; Norway, 31; Rus-population in 1860 as 140,000 more than in sia, 26; Denmark, 32; Hanover, 32; Sweden, 1850. 32 ; Bavaria, 29; Netherlands, 30; England, In the Registration Report for 1853 is a table 30; Belgium, 34; and France, 37.
showing the number of births of American and In Massachusetts the birth-rate from 1850 to foreign parentage from 1849 to 1854. The com1860 averaged 1 in 34, and from 1860 to 1865 piler, the present Mayor of Boston, referring to it comes up to almost 1 in 40; but since these that table, says, “it is evident that the births five years were in “war times," they would not in the commonwealth, with the usual increase, furnish a fair criterion. As the foreign class have resulted in favor of foreign parents in an have a much larger number of children than increased ratio," implying that the increase of the American, this birth-rate, when applied to the former was rather questionable. the latter class alone, will stand very different. In a report upon the comparative view of the Now, by taking all the births in this State from population of Boston in 1849 and 1850, made 1850 to 1860 of each class separately, and com- to the city government November, 1851, Dr. paring them with the population of the two Jesse Chickering, after a most careful analysis classes, we obtain very correctly the birth-rate of the births and deaths, states that “the most of each for these ten years, which, for the Amer- important result derived from this view is the ican portion, is a little over 1 in 50. The birth-fact that the whole increase of population arisrate of France is reported 1 in 37, and it is well | ing from the excess of births over the deaths understood that the population of that great na- for these two years has been among the foreign tion has been for many years almost stationary. population." No higher authority can be cited For any community or nation to be in a pros- on this subject than that of Dr. Chickering, who perous and growing state, it is estimated by po- devoted more time and attention to the changes litical economists that the birth-rate should be of population in Massachusetts than any other about 1 in 30. The rate of all the deaths in person. Massachusetts from 1850 to 1860, as given in An examination of the Registration Reports the Registration Reports, averages 1 in 54. As for a series of years as to the relative number the deaths of the American and foreign classes of births and deaths in the several counties, are not reported separately, it is impossible to cities, and towns of the State will show this obtain exactly the rate of mortality in each of general fact, that wherever the births most exthe two classes by itself; but admitting that the ceed the deaths, there the foreign element most deaths are relatively much larger among the abounds; but where the population is made up foreign, it will be difficult to find a margin be- mostly or entirely of the original native stock, tween the birth-rate and death-rate among the the births and deaths approximate near tostrictly American sufficiently large to show a gether, and not unfrequently alternate in exgreat increase of population, especially when it cess, first one, then the other. From an exis considered that, as a general rule, two-fifths amination into the history of several towns of of all children born die before reaching adult this class it was found that for a long series life.
of years the deaths had actually exceeded the Some useful information on this subject may births. A similar result was arrived at from be gathered from the Registration Reports of an examination of the births and deaths for Massachusetts. In 1850 this report gives the several years, confined exclusively to the Amerwhole number of births in the State 27,664 icans, in two of the principal cities of the State. -American, 16, 189; foreign, 8197; mixed, But one of the most striking evidences of 3278. In 1860 it reports the whole number change in this respect is in the number and of births 36,051-American, 16,672 ; foreign character of the pupils attending the public 16,138; mixed, 2411; and not stated, 830. schools. In many school districts of country The American portion from 1850 to 1860 scarce-towns, where the population is made up wholly ly varies five hundred in any year, except in or principally of American stock, you can hardly find now children enough to make in numbers | these facts prove that there is no increase at a respectable school, where once those same all with the native stock in New England, or neighborhoods thronged with children. On the that it must run out, but that there is not by other hand, in large towns and villages, where any means such a rate of increase as once the foreign population abounds, we find an existed, nor seemingly as might naturally be abundance of children: the regular schools are looked for at the present time. crowded, and new schools every now and then In view of the foregoing statements the have to be opened. To such an extent has this inquiry naturally arises in every thoughtful foreign element increased that in some of the mind, what can be the causes of such changes large towns and cities of the State it actually changes so radical in their nature and so imcomprises full one-half of all the school-chil-portant in their effects? Writers upon the laws dren in those places. If a majority of all the of population have generally regarded the folyouth and children under fifteen years of age lowing as the principal causes in preventing its in a place is made up from those of a foreign increase, namely, climate, famine, pestilence, parentage, and is relatively increasing in num- war, government, want of marriages, and prubers every year, how long will it be before such dential considerations. It can not be alleged a power will be felt in the management, if not that the first five causes here enumerated could in the control, of the municipal government of have had much influence in producing these those towns and cities?
changes, and certainly war could not prior to In Connecticut, where the proportion of the 1860, whatever may have been its effects since foreign class is much less than in Massachusetts, that period. While the number of marriages the School Report for 1866 states that the rela- has, relatively for the same population, slighttive number of children had been steadily de- ly diminished during the last twenty or thirty creasing for the last forty years," and the Re-years, still the marriage-rate has fallen off so port for 1867 states that the number was less little, and even now is so little below that of even than in the previous year. The State of most European nations and their representaVermont, in which there is still less of the for- tives in this country, that the difference from eign element, reports relatively a less propor- this source could not be very material or aption of children than either of the New England preciable. But connected with this institution States. In the Registration Report of Vermont there is one cause which may affect somewhat for 1858 is found this remarkable comparison. the increase of population, namely, postponing It states "that while the producing part of the marriage till a later age. It has been found population, say from fifteen to fifty, was almost by a series of statistics that the period from in precisely the same proportion to the whole twenty to thirty years of age is far more propopulation as that in England, the birth-rate in life than that from thirty to forty; and on acVermont was 1 in 49, and in England (the same count of the increased expenses of supporting year) it was 1 in 31;" and should the foreign a family, together with a prevalent desire to element, as small as it is, be separated, the birth- live in a certain style, there is a growing tendrate would be still lower--in fact, only about ency with large numbers to put off marriage one-half as large as that of England. Con- till a later period in life than formerly. It is sidering that this comparison is made between found in modern times that it is not so much a people engaged in agricultural pursuits, and the number of marriages that increases populasomewhat scattered in settlement, with a popu- tion as the fruitfulness of this relation. lation situated as that of England is, living Some statistics have been collected in Great mostly in cities and thickly settled places, and Britain which go to show that, in what would composed largely of the extremes in society, the be considered a healthy state of society, taking result is surprising.
a thousand marriages as they come, not more As no registration reports have ever been than eight or ten in a hundred would be found made in New Hampshire and Maine, not much but what had been more or less prolific. A information on this subject can be obtained in much larger per cent.-if not double the numthese States, though there is reason to believe ber-of this class of marriages may now be that in them is a more regular increase of na- found in many parts of New England, and a tive population. In the State of Rhode Island very large class also where only one or two the census returns and registration reports have children are the result. In communities where for many years been carefully made out, dis- the foreign class is found living side by side criminating between the foreign and American, with the American, a surprising difference is and show that, while the former class are in- witnessed between the two classes in the numcreasing most rapidly, there is a fair increase ber of children or size of families. It is found with the latter, still not so rapid an increase as that the former class average for the same numobtained in this same State fifty or one hundred ber of marriages two or three times as many years ago.
| children as the latter. In stating the facts on this subject our aim It has been alleged that society in many has been to make a correct presentation of the places is abnormal on account of so many matter-not partial nor one-sided, but to look young persons leaving New England to find the facts fairly in the face, whatever lessons homes in the newer and less populous sections they might teach. It is not supposed that of our country. It is true that this change,