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or to Master Heinecker; but there was one Europe. One of these, under the modern hotthing he could understand, and that was the house plan of mental culture, has grown to be unguarded admiration of his mother; not her such an intelligent child, such a little lady! appreciation and love-those would have sunk I asked her the other day what she liked best into his child-soul like nourishing dews—but of all she saw in Europe. the admiration that, falling too often on a young “Oh, the art-galleries, of course," she replied, nature, blights it, or forces it to a premature and demurely; “everybody likes those best.' unnatural growth.
| Poor child! Remembering her, with what Philly knows little songs, and long ago he comfort I recall a recent morning spent with could say:
the two other little travelers.
“So you have been to Europe," I said. “Who comes here! A grenadier !" etc.;
“Now, Hal, tell me what place did you like but we have always been very careful how and best of all ?” when we brought forward these accomplish- “Don't know," said Hal; " guess I liked ments. He knows that he can please us im- Munich best, cos they had the most sogers mensely by an exercise of all dramatic and there." musical gifts. Before he grew so old and “And I think I liked Venice," put in wee, wise he believed that he frightened us terri- bright-eyed May; “because it was there that bly when, in saying that thrilling nursery lyric, mamma bought me this sweet little doll” (takhe roared forth, “A granny-deer!" but now he ing it up caressingly); "her name's Katie; I just knows we enjoy his performances as he must finish putting on her clothes; it's very does ours, and we always make a point of giv- late in the morning for dolly not to be all ing a fair exchange in such entertainments. washed and dressed, I think. Ab," she con
To be sure, if Philly, instead of being the tinued, plaintively, as she attempted to pin simple, everyday child that he is, had proved dolly's skirt, “this band is too big. Katie to be an infant Mozart, with God-given genius used to just fit it, but she's real thin now; shining from his eyes and twitching his rest- she's lost so much saw-dust!" less little fingers, of course we should feel in Happy little May! Her days are fresh and duty bound to lift him up to the piano-stool. simple and beautiful, because she is allowed to We would do this reverently, I think, and with be a child. Whatever training is expended joyful wonder-glad, too, that the progress of upon her is so loving and wise that she grows science and the arts had prepared for our dear naturally into all that can be rationally exboy something better than a clavichord. We pected of a child of her age. Her goodness might even encourage him to put his music is the goodness of a warm-hearted, unpervertupon paper, if his overflowing soul required ed little girl, who loves the dear God already that form of expression. Or, premising that “ for making father and mother and every we had seen marvelous cows, elephants, and thing," but who has no startling Sundar-school dogs chalked on the nursery doors or on Phil- predilections, suggestive of an early transplantly's one-eyed and tailless hobby-horse, or if, ing. Her politeness comes from no formal when he was six years old, another Lady Ken- schooling, but is the simple outgrowth of the yon had walked in, and our precious little one love one another" that comes of being loved had in half an hour drawn an excellent por--not of being doted upon, but of being lored trait of her, after the manner of the six-year- as God intended she should be. old Thomas Lawrence, does any one suppose May's pretty ways are, in her presence, nerer that the maternal grasp would have robbed our made the subject of admiring comment; nor are boy's right hand of its cunning?
| her sweet, childish sayings echoed by the mountBut he's not a Mozart. He's not any thing ains of appreciation by which children among the in particular, though he's every thing to us. comfortable classes are so apt to be surrounded. He simply represents "a large and growing If she asks a question it is thoughtfully ansxerclass of the community," as the newspapers ed; and if she makes any of those sweet, childish say, and so his case is worthy of considera- blunders in speech or conduct that often are the tion. He's the average child (ah, how it hurts charm of our homes, they either are apparently my motherly heart to write that, for it doesn't not noticed at all at the time, or they are gently beliere a word of it, thongh I do!), and, being and cheerfully corrected. But nerer are they the average child, we may all learn a lesson met by that domestic dyke, in the form of a genfrom him for the benefit of the present race of eral laugh or an encouraging deception, which little ones.
invariably sends them back upon the child in We can resolve that for him all precocious an overflow of pain or bewilderment. development is hurtful: premature ability, pre-! The fondest of us parents often are the most mature politeness, premature pleasures, prema- cruel to our children. This comes from selfishture goodness even-Heaven shield him from ly regarding them as an especial personal gift to them all! Heaven shield him and every other ourselves-something to delight and amuse uschild from aught that will stiffen them too soon while at the same time we forget that if they are into little men and women!
given to us, just as surely are we given to them. I know three little tots, five and six years Mothers, when in your heart rises that first old, who lately have returned from a visit to blessed thought, God has given to me a child ! then and there say: “Oh child! He has given how inadequate the weight of the lead at the me to thee. He has chosen me to be thy mo- end of a sounding-line must be to its task of ther!"
continuing to draw down the line after the part Then with His help shall your little one be submerged gets to be four or five miles longreared; no selfish fondness or pride shall rob it for that is the depth which the water attains in of its just rights; not a tithe shall be taken from some parts of the Atlantic Ocean. When the its innocent, sweet babyhood, from its growing weight is first thrown over the gunwale of the infancy, its blithesome childhood. Sufficient boat occupied by the party who have the operaunto each day shall be its daily progress. Van- tion in charge the line begins to run out quite ity shall not warp it, nor school-books crush, nor rapidly; but it goes more and more slowly undue stimulus wrong it of its fair and just pro- as the depth, and consequently the increasing portions.
friction resulting from the increasing length of When you say, with the woman of old, “Lo, the portion submerged, grow greater, until at I have given a man unto the world !” be guard- length, after some hours—for of course it takes ed lest you cheat it and Heaven too, by not al- hours for such a traveler as the sinking weight lowing that man first to be, in the fullest sense, to make a journey of five miles—the line creeps a little child.
over the gunwale so slowly that those in charge are long in uncertainty whether the
weight has reached the bottom or not. A DEEP-SEA SOUNDING.
very gentle undercurrent in the water, flowing ONE might suppose that it would be the in a different direction from that of the surface,
easiest thing imaginable to determine the or even with greater force in the same direcdepth of water by letting down a heavy weight tion, would drift the line enough to cause it to to the bottom, by means of a line, and then continue running off the reel long after the measuring the length of the line.
weight was at rest on the bottom. Whether it is an easy thing or not to do. These difficulties for a long time prevented this depends upon the depth of the water. If the making of any reliable soundings at great the water is shallow, it is a very easy thing. depths. Some advantage was gained by imIf the water is deep, instead of being an easy provements in the manufacture of the line thing it proves to be exceedingly difficult. employed, so as to obtain the greatest strength
There are two great difficulties to be en- with the least thickness, and to make the specountered. One is to get the weight down to cific gravity of it as nearly as possible that of the bottom. The second, which is still greater the water. than the first, is to get it up again, so as to | For if the specific gravity were even only a measure the line. Both these difficulties arise little greater than that of the water, the weight from the enormous magnitude which the re- of the line, when a great length was out, might tarding force, resulting from the friction of the be sufficient to continue to draw it off the reel line through the water, acquires when the line without any aid from the lead at all, and with. has a length of some miles.
out any drift, so that the line might continue We feel so little resistance when we move to run out long after the lead had reached the the hand, or any other small object, through bottom. water, that it is difficult for us to understand On the other hand, if the specific gravity of how vast this resistance can become when the the line were somewhat less than that of the surfaces are extended.
water, then it would have a certain buoyancy, People who have made voyages at sea are the amount of which might become so great, often surprised, when the “log" is thrown, to after a considerable length had run out, as to see how many men are required, and how great float the lead and prevent its ever reaching is the apparent exertion which they have to the bottom at all. make, in drawing in again the line, thin and It was not possible under the old methods to slender as it is. Although the line used on diminish the difficulty of taking deep soundings such occasions is only a hundred fathoms or by increasing the weight of the plummet. For thereabout in length, and the little quadrant although this would facilitate the work of getcalled the log is so far detached from its hold ting the line down, it would in a still greater at the end of it as to offer the least possible proportion impede that of drawing it up again. resistance, it requires the united strength of The invention of Mr. Brooke, an officer of several men, following each other along the the American navy, very ingeniously evades this deck, with the line passing over their shoul-dilemma, by making the weight extremely ders, to overcome the simple resistance which heavy, for the purpose of securing a prompt the friction of the line, in being drawn through descent, and then, when it gets to the bottom, the water, offers to its return to the ship leaving it there, and drawing up the line alone.
Any one who has observed this operation at Not entirely alone, however, for a portion of sea, and has noticed how much strength it re- the iron which forms the descending weight is quires on the part of the seamen to draw the made to detach itself from the rest, and comes log-line on board again at the end of it, when up with the line, bringing with it a specimen the line is after all not more than a quarter of of the sand, mud, or other formation constituta mile in length, will not be surprised to learnling the bottom.
The construction and operation of the ap- right position, and the wires of the supporter paratus are shown in the engraving. The in- are held firmly, by their loops, upon the lower strument consists essentially of a heavy iron branches. But as soon as the lower end of ball, with a cylindrical iron bar passing loosely the bar touches bottom the line slackens, and through the centre of it. These are shown, in then the weight of the ball draws the branches the position which they occupy while descend-down and lets the loop slip off, as shown in ing, in the central figure—the ball marked 1, Figure 2. The round rod is now liberated, and being perforated to allow the round bar A to can be drawn out from the perforation in the pass through it. The ball fits loosely to the ball and brought to the surface, as shown in bar, but it is kept in its place during the de- Figure 3. scent by the iron supporter B, suspended by There is a hollow in the lower end of the wires from above. The form of this supporter round bar, which is nearly filled with some soft is shown more distinctly below.
adhesive substance, by means of which speci. At the upper end of the bar, at C, are two mens of the sand or mud, and sometimes miarms turning loosely on pivots. These arms nute shells, are brought up-sufficient to give are each divided above into two short branches. the observer some idea of the character of the
-the wires which come up from the supporter | bottom. of the ball being hooked upon the lower pair, This kind of sounding apparatus has, morewhile the line, made double by a division at its over, this great advantage over the old mode, lower end, is attached to the upper pair. namely, that if the bar comes up without the
The apparatus being thus arranged, the ball ball it is certain that the bottom was actually is kept in its place upon the round bar so long reached, a fact which it was very difficult to as the weight hangs upon the line, for while it ascertain, in case of very deep water, by a simso hangs the branches are kept in a nearly up-1 ple lead and line,
Editor's Easy Chair.
On the earliest of the really spring-like morn-1 Place Louis Quinze for the Yankees and abo
U ings as the Easy Chair turned into Church rigines. Street it could not help perceiving that in some * We certainly have," persists the Easy Chair. romantic ways the New Yorker has the advant-| “Where, pray?" age of the Londoner and the Parisian. Church “Well, Church Street." Street does not, indeed, seem at the first mention The reply seems to be beating out a jest very to be a promising domain of romance, nor a fond thin; but gradually the Easy Chair contrives to haunt of the Muses. Indeed, it must not be de-explain. nied that it has an unsavory name; and when The movement of life in New York is so rapid, the city loiterer recalls Wapping, or a May morn- fashion and trade sweep from one point to aning on the Seine quais, he will smile at Church other with such impetuosity, that the romance Street as a field of romance, and the Easy Chair of changed interest can be enjoyed in the same grants him absolution. London, perhaps, does spot twice or thrice in a lifetime. In older cities not 'strike the American imagination, or let us -in Paris, in London-it is not the individual more truly say, the imagination of the traveling experience, but history only, that covers the American, as a romantic city. That citizen of change. The gentlemen and dames of the Louis the world reserves himself for Venice, Constan- Quinze era do not moralize over the Place from tinople, Grand Cairo. Yet if after his arrival which the glory has departed, but only their dehe will buy Peter Cunningham's “ Hand-book for scendants. The change is so gradual that it is London” at the nearest book-store, and turn its not within their personal experience. It is a pages slowly, he will discover that for him, an tide that rises and falls in sixscore years, not in American, he is in a very romantic city indeed. six hours. But the fortunate New Yorker has Mr. Hepworth Dixon's "Tower of London” will his romance making for him while he sleeps. show him how copious a sermon may be preached The sorry streets of to-day will disappear within from one romantic text. Of course he can be a dozen years, and the instant they are gone, or expected to have no feeling but pity for the un- seem just at the moment of the final lapse, they fortunates who fill the streets, and whose fate it have passed into the realm of romance. was to be born Britishers. Yet let him reflect Here is Church Street, for instance. It is not that it was not their fault, and that except for / very long, and you turn into it from Fulton or that precise unhappy fact of being Britishers, from Canal. So turned the Easy Chair, and which causes all the mischief, their parents too there was the long, narrow vista, walled by lofty would have lived elsewhere. .
buildings, the spacious houses of trade, built yesThen the American citizen of the world, pity- terday, piled with dry-goods, bold with prospering England, will cross to France, to another ons newness, but instantly suggesting the street country, a new world, and in Paris will breathe of palaces in Genoa. And a few rods off some more freely as being at last in the metropolis of old Knickerbocker is gravely stalking down the globe-always excepting New York, Philadel- Broadway, who has not turned aside into Church phia, Boston, Cincinnati, or Chicago, as the case Street for many a year, and who supposes Church may be. If he opens “Galignani's Guide," the Street is still a place not to be named, an unexcellent and well-informed traveler will imme- speakable Gehenna. So it was a dozen years ago. diately discover that he is in another romantic Once also it was the Black Broadway. It was a city, and that there is something more to see and kind of voluntary Ghetto of the colored people. consider than the bal d'opera and the Château Then again it was an offshoot of the Five Points. Rouge; and if some Easy Chair, accidentally There were low ranges of dingy buildings. Dirty encountered straying along the Boulevards, or men and women slouched on thewalk and lounged seated at the door of a café, should chance to ask out of the windows, and their idle, ribald laughter whether the well-informed traveler had ever taken echoed along the street that few carriages trava romantic turn in Church Street, New York, he ersed. Dens of every kind were just around would be rewarded with a smile of encourage- every corner. Slatternly women emptied slops ment for his admirable humor. By-and-by, after upon the pavement, and the stench was perpetthe coffee was drunk and the pipe smoked out, nal. Dirty little children screamed and played, the Easy Chair and his approving Mentor would and sickly babes squalled unheeded. It was a perhaps stroll about the old city until they came, street fallen out of Hogarth; the street of worst far away from the haunts of to-day, to the re- repute in the city. spectable old Place Louis Quinze. It is always And now it is a double range of stately buildan attractive spot for that well-informed traveler. ing, symmetrical, massive. Horse-cars struggle He looks at it with a pensive emotion, and he on it with the light carts of the dry-goods dealers, turns warmly to the Easy Chair and says: with the slow, enormous teams that shake the
“How delightful this is! Here dwelt the ground. At every corner there is an inextricable noblesse ! This was the Fifth Avenue--what do snarl of wagons, and porters are heaving boxes, I say?-the Murray Hill of old Paris! And and young clerks are directing, and huge winnow all is gone! Fashion is an emigré. Inquire dows are filled with huge pattern-cards, so that in the Faubourg St. Germain. What a pity we the narrow way is tapestried. “Look out, there!" have nothing of this kind in America!"
cries a porter-compelling clerk to the Easy Chair, “But we have,” replies the Easy Chair. which smiles to reflect that only yesterday it was
The incredulous well-informed traveler again in Exchange Place, and Pearl Street, and elsesmiles a mild, melancholy smile at the inscrutable where that the peremptory youth was ordermethods of Providence, which has provided no ling him to mind his eye. And if the employer who now sits in that spacious office opposite had a building, that sits and snarls impotent over the known that his clerk was familiar with Church savagery departed. And there is one tall rookStreet, he would have warned him of the gates of ery still-a tenement-house, with a system of destruction, and have admonished him that Church fire-escapes in front; and the slattern slopping Street, though a narrow street, was a broad way. at the curb as in the ancient day; and a cooper's
The people that push and hurry and skip along shop, and a blacksmith's, and one, two, threein this busy avenue are alert and well-dressed. how many whisky shops? But they are all faint The slouchers and loungers, the old slatterns with and feeble and submerged in the lofty buildings, the slop-pails, the fat, frouzy, jolly, dirty women and to-morrow all trace of them will be gone. with bare red arms and loud voices, the sneaks, And then who will remember the murder? The and thieves, and the unclean groups at the grog- mysterious, awful, romantic murder. The murshopwhere are they? No sneaks now — no der that filled all the newspapers and fed specuthieves : honorable gentlemen with clean collars lation at all the corner groggeries and in all offices. every where. What a consolation ! As you The murder that was done into a romance, and watch the passers closely, as you read the signs, of which the hero, that is the murderer, was acit occurs to you that the population, with the quitted after one of the famous eloquent criminal universal tendency in our mental and spiritual appeals which are so effective because their powhabit that Matthew Arnold sparklingly deplores, er is measured by human life. And this hero is clearly Hebraized. Here, where this especially occasionally reappears in the newspapers even to fine warehouse or handsome shop stands, stood this day. Somebody writes from a remote somethe French church. It has jumped up town a where that on a steamer far away a mysterious few miles. Here was the church of Dr. Potts, man, after much mysterious conduct, imparts the Could you believe that the people who go to meet- awful truth that he is the hero. Does he someing in the smug, brown little edifice in an ivy times return to this spot? Does he look at the mantle at the corner of University Place and site of the house where the deed was done? Does Tenth Street, which probably seems to the young he appear in the guise of a merchant, a jobber, clerk coeval with the city, day before yesterday, a retailer from that remote southwestern someas it were, came down here among the mer- where, and higgle and chaffer in the noble warechants? Then they came once a week for an house on the very site of the wretched building hour or two--now they come all the time, except where he murdered his mistress? Good Hearens! for that hour or two. What did you say was the do you see that man of about those years, looking name of the deity to whom these temples are about as if to find a sign or a number (as if he dedicated ?
| didn't know the very place! as if it were not And at this corner-why, if it were an April burned and cut into his heart and conscience !)? thicket it could not more sweetly bubble with Do you think it could possibly be he, or is it, song, only this music is the spirit ditty of no after all, only the honest Timothy Tape, the tone-here was the old National Theatre. Do modest retailer from Skowhegan or Palmyra? you see that very respectable old gentleman in The typhus-fever used to rage here; the cholera the office who carries an ostrich egg in his hat? was fearful. The Sanitary Reports say that there
—for so his grandchildren describe grandpapa's were always cases of the worst diseases to be found baldness. He sits reading the paper, and is here. The city missionaries also used to find their presently going down to the bank of which he worst cases here too; and now-what cleanliness is a director, and of which he seems always to of collar, what modishness of coat! No more those grandchildren to smell, so tenacious is the sin—what a consolation ! peculiar odor of a bank; that is the very gentle- And so, as the Easy Chair strolled along, man who in the temple of the Drama upon this bumped and hustled and severely looked upon spot used to lead the loud applause, and at whom by the eager throng in the narrow street, more in his buckish costume of those merry days and radically reconstructed than any doubtful State, nights, the lovely Shirreff herself used to level her it could not help feeling that London with her eyes and her voice as she trilled, “Oh whistle Majesty's Tower, and Paris with her deserted and I'll come to you, my lad.” Can you imagine Place Louis Quinze, are not the only romantic that excellent grandparent kissing his hand rap- cities in the world, and that a city of such rapid turously to the retiring prima donna, going off to and incessant change as New York offers even sup at the Café de l'Independence, and hieing some poetic aspects which its elder sisters want. home at two in the morning, waking the echoes The Easy Chair has pleaded formerly for some of Murray Street with a reproduction of that arch respect toward old historic buildings, like the old song, followed by a loud whistle to prove whether State House in Boston, for instance, and has been that vision of delight really will come to him, and indignantly laughed at for its pains. It will not bringing only the gruff Charley, obese guardian deny that, unabashed by such laughter, it conof the night? Will you find in your famous templates the old Walton House with satisfacPlace Louis Quinze any roisterer of the regen- tion. It repairs, also, to the corner of Broad cy grown bald and careful of his diet?
and Pearl streets, and, reflecting upon General Here is one wall which survives from the pre- Washington's parting with his officers, turns its historic days of thirty years ago—it is the rear eyes toward Wall Street and beholds the Grecian wall of the old hospital, that blessed green spot temple which has taken the place of the old Hall in the midst of the city, which is to be green no upon whose balcony the first predecessor of Presmore, but will be soon piled with more palaces. ident Grant was inaugurated. But the romance And opposite this wall is a short street running of Church Street is of another kind. It is the from Church to West Broadway. A very few romance of striking and sudden change merely, years ago this was one of the worst of city slums. not of historic interest, nor of personal associat the corner of West Broadway a wooden build- tion. Perhaps the gentle reader may not find it
still remains-a sullen, sickly, defiant cur of when he goes there. Then let him carry it.