Imagens das páginas

APRIL 27, 1836.]

Land Bill.


removing Indians from lands purchased; all these enor- five per cent. would be deducted. The item for the mous expenses would still remain undeducted, and removal of the Indians was not properly chargeable to would fall upon the custom-house revenue.

the public lands, for the reason offered by that Senator Mr. B. referred to documents to show that these bimself, that some of the lands cost more than they were items would amount to many millions, perhaps to ten worth, and they were removed more from political than millions this year, and must be deducted by law out of financial considerations. It was a matter of indifference the gross proceeds of the lands, or they would fall on to him (Mr. E.) whether the first-named items were in the custom-house revenue, as they were now payable the bill or not; but he thought the latter not a proper out of the Treasury, and the accounting officers would charge upon the public lands, and ought not to be put not notice them in ascertaining the nett proceeds. He into the bill. He believed, however, those other items said these items must amount to ten millions this year. would be deducted by the officers of the Government. Two treaties alone required seven millions and a quar. Mr. CLAY had been alternately in majorities and ter; and was this to be thrown upon the custom-house minorities, and his experience had taught him the prorevenue, or were the treaties to be rejected in order to priety of submitting when in the latter; and he would swell the tempting mass for distribution? The idea of suggest to his friends in the minority on this bill, whether nett proceeds would require all costs and all expenses they had not better acquiesce in its passage. He beabout the lands to be deducted; this bill, as it stands, lieved the minds of the Senators were all made up, and will not touch their cost at all, nor an item of their ex- no changes would probably be made. The position penses, except the insignificant per centum to the assumed by the opponents of the bill resolved itself into States and to the registers and receivers.

the question whether the waste lands, to which he had Mr. B. addressed the gentlemen who were opposed before adverted, should bear the whole burden. The to the high tariff, and asked them if they wished to re-object of removing the Indians was founded on the great vive that measure? If they did so, vote for this bill, policy of locating them at one point. He thought no and their object would soon be accomplished. Ab- part of the other amendments were necessary to be instract the land sales from the Treasury, throw all the serted in the bill, as the plain import of it was to deduct expenses of the Government upon the custom-bouse, all necessary expenses of Government. and there would soon be a deficit in the Treasury which Mr. WHITE contended that the removal of the Inmust be filled by loans or taxes. Revival of the tariff dians was a political regulation founded on humanity, would then be inevitable, and would be the regular and was a burden in which all the States were alike insequence of the plan upon which the friends of the terested, and should therefore be a common charge upon high tariff had acted in the compromise, and were now them, as it was for their comrnon benefit, and was not acting on the distribution bill. “ Brother Lazarus is properly chargeable to this fund. He adverted also to not dead, but sleepeth.” The bigh tariff is not aban- the facts in the case of North Carolina, and made some doned, but postponed. It was postponed because the comments thereon. This burden, he said, was put on issue of the presidential election in 1832 showed that Georgia, not only in defiance of her consent, but against the people were against it. It was then postponed to her solemn protest, and the Government was bound to save it. It was openly stated by its author (Mr. CLAY be at the expense of the removal. The United States that he had taken it out of the hands of the Philistines! never had the power to cede away any of the soil ceded that he had laid it away on the shelf to rest! Now, it is to her; and so it was in regard to Alabama. regular and natural in him, by diverting the proceeds After a few remarks from Mr. WEBSTER, of the land sales from the Treasury, to create the ne Mr. WRIGHT replied that this bill swept the whole cessity for supplying the vacuum from another source. public land into one bill. Suppose, said he, in one year The bigh tariff' is that source, and its revival will be iney

that source, and its revival will be iney. we pay more for the purchase of lands than all the money itable upon the passage of this bill. Considering this received, would you call the amount received surplus? an important era in our financial history, and that the The argument of the Senator from Tennessee [Mr. future revival of the tariff might be traced back to its WHITE] applied solely to Georgia and Alabama. He true date and right cause, Mr. B. then submitted his list asked him to look at those States besides Georgia and of items to be deducted from the gross proceeds of the Alabama, and answer the suggestions he had propoundsales of the lands, in the shape of the following amended. Whatever might be the facts in relation to North ments:

Carolina, the argument was not applicable to the other To come in after the words “ nett proceeds"

States. In his State they considered the Indian title a “ which nett proceeds shall be ascertained to be the mere possessory, and were every year extinguishing it. balance which remains, after deducting from the gross They had there pursued for many years the policy of proceeds all expenses for the year on account of public paying them the nett proceeds, after deducting all ex. lands, to wit:

penses of removal; and would it, he asked, be contended 1. Appropriations for the General Land Office. that it was not a proper charge in the case of Georgia? 2. Appropriations for the surveyor general's offices. We were paying millions upon millions to extinguish the 3. Appropriations for surveying public lands.

Indian title, and he contended it was not for the common 4. Appropriations for salaries and commissions to benefit of all the States, but for the particular benefit of registers and receivers.

the States from which they were removed. He asked 5. Appropriations for annuities to Indians on account if Massachusetts considered it as for her partie of the purchase of lands.

fit that the Indians were removed. 6. Appropriations for holding treaties for the pur He thought it his duty to take these lands, and put chase of lands.

them into the market, and apply them as a remuneration 7. Appropriations for amounts paid within the year for all this money paid out. He had heard none of the for the extinction of Indian titles.

positions assumed by him controverted. The question 8. Appropriations for removing Indians from the lands now was, whether the simple expenses of these lands purchased from them.

themselves should be deducted from the gross amount. I 9. Appropriations for the five per centum allowed by the friends of the bill did not contend that, in a setcompact to the States in which the lands lie.”

tlement with the Treasury, these charges were not to Mr. EWING, of Ohio, could hardly conceive how the be deducted; but the officers, they said, would deduct Senator from Missouri's experience could have led him them. Then, why not insert them in the bill? They to the conclusion that nothing but the commission of denied the position that the amount paid for the pur


Land Bill.

[APRIL 27, 1836.

chase of Florida and Louisiana should go into the debit for reviving the tariff; both objects dear to the hearts of side of the account, because we had bought the juris the authors of this bill, but such as could not be openly diction which they said induced the purchase, and was | ayowed at this time. Mr. B. said the wbole scheme of an equivalent for the sum paid; and the Senator from the bill was a deception and a fallacy. It professed to Ohio said the expenses of the removal of the Indians divide surplus money, and yet took the money which should not be allowed in the account, because of certain was now wanting for the public defences; it professed political considerations. Mr: W. went into an argument to divide the nett proceeds of the public lands, and yet of some length to sustain the positions denied by the took the gross proceeds; it professed to take nothing friends of the bill; and in reference to the nett pro but the money which came from the lands, and yet took ceeds, he desired this body to give a construction in re- all that it could find in the Treasury by scraping back lation to Louisiana and Florida.

for three years. This was the real character of the bill; Mr. PORTER, in reply to Mr. Wright, said that the a deception, a fallacy, a delusion throughout, and maskvalue of the soil was certainly no part of the object the ed with professions at war with its object. All this United States had in view when Louisiana was pur would be apparent in time. For the present, it could chased; that the objects were the sovereignty over the not be overlooked that the whole structure of the bill is soil, and the outlet for the valley of the Mississippi to changed; it is no longer a bill to divide the proceeds of the ocean.

the lands in future and for five years to come, but it is Mr. LINN said he thought his friend from Louisiana to reach back into the Treasury, to travel back through mistaken, and that he could make it apparent. France, the years 1835, 1834, and 1833, and to gather up all the in pursuing her great plan of uniting the Gulf of st. proceeds of the land sales for these three past years, Lawrence with the Gulf of Mexico, had erecled, at an and commence dividing this mass on the 1st day of July, enormous expense, a chain of military forts, around and divide one fourth on that day, one fourth on the 1st which she planted colonies under a system of land laws of October, one fourth the 1st of January, and one fourth peculiar to herself. On transferring the sovereignty to the 1st of April, 1837. To these divisions are to be Spain, all grants made to her subjects were to stand con added the amounts received from lands this year and firmed by the mere act of transfer. These grants were next year. It is expected to begin the division upon never questioned by Spain. Spain, on coming into pos- twenty-eight millions in July, and finish thirty-eight milsession of this noble province, pursued a liberal and pa. | lions by the 1st of January next. Now, what is the obternal policy in relation to the granting of lands to herject and effect of all this? Is it the object to take all the subjects. What, sir, he said, has been the course pur- money for distribution, and leave nothing for defending sued by this Government in the acquisition of this coun- the country? Is it the object to break all the deposite try? Did we consider those grants confirmed by the banks? Is it the object to distress the country, by mamere act of cession? No, sir. How did we treat the king the deposite banks call in all their loans in six ancient, simple-minded, honest inhabitants, who had months? Is it their object to ruin the currency by enalived for generations amid a wilderness, and had pre- bling whig States to draw their distributive shares in served the lights of religion in that wilderness? Was specie, compelling the banks to stop payment, and then our course a liberal one? No, sir; differing from us in calling for the Bank of the United States, as the only Jaws, manners, and customs, we vexed them with lawyers remedy for the evil? Whether this is the object, it will and unknown laws, in an unknown language, and inter be the effect; and to do all this, it is necessary to reach posed every obstacle that ingenuity could invent to pre back three years to find money in the Treasury which is vent the final settlement of their claims to that soil which not there, and thus make a larger sum for distribulion had been conquered by their valor and improved by than the deposite banks can pay. their labor. A generation has passed off, and your tables The revenues of the year 1833 were received by the are now loaded with petitions for justice at your hands. / Bank of the United States, and have been expended in He said that this fighting off, inch by inch, step by step, the public service. No part of those revenues were and acre by acre, these old claims, be thought was some ever transferred to the deposite banks; they all remainevidence that this Government attached value to the soil ed in the Bank of the United States until expended; yet wbich they had acquired by money.

this bill, in its mass of deceptions and fallacies, assumes Mr. WEBSTER said that there were some considera. that the deposite banks received all the revenue for the tions that applied with great force against this amend year 1833; has separated the land revenue from the-cusment. One was, that it proposed to make up an account tom-house revenue; has saved that land revenue to the of the lands purchased within the year as an offset present day; and now has it in a separate pile by itself, to against the lands sold within the year. Now, if the same be divided out! These are the assumptions of the bill, lands were both purchased and sold within the year, while the realities are that part of this land revenue there might be some propriety in so making up the ac never was received at all by the deposite banks. What count. There might be Indian treaties within ihis year they actually received for 1833 has been paid out, and for the purchase of lands costing seven millions of dol. what they have got is the revenue of the country. The lars, which would not probably be sold for ten years to land receipts are in the mass of the revenue; and in procome. It certainly, then, could not be just to charge this fessing to divide the proceeds of the lands, the revenue purchase against the proceeds of the sales of the year. itself is taken; and it is taken for three years back, in İn every light in which he viewed this amendment, he order to raise an immense sum for instant division; such thought it ought to be rejected.

a sum as is expected to tempt the cupidity of distribuMr. BENTON, in reply to the remarks from Mr. | tees beyond resistance, to ruin the President if he vetoes WEBSTER and Mr. Wure, reiterated the allegation that the bill, and to ruin the deposite banks and the currency every item that he had enumerated was strictly and truly if he does not. Mr. B. said it was a bill to revive the a charge upon the public lands, and quoti e speech tariff, lo re-establish the Bank of the United States, and of Gen. Hayne, of South Carolina, to the same effect, | to crush President Jackson, and all who opposed it, by when he was a member of the Senate. Some of these mere dint of money. He asked for the yeas and pays, items were now admitted to be correct charges, but the item by item, on his amendment. main ones were still disputed, and it was evident that a 1 Mr. EWING said he had no objections to the amendtwofold object would be gained if they could be kept ments, except to those which proposed to deduct the out. The first object would be to swell the amount for Indian annuities, and the sums paid for the extinguishdistribution; the second would be to lay the foundation I ment of Indian titles.

APRIL 28, 1836.)



And the question was taken on the several amendency of contracting with Luigi Persico for two groups ments, with the above exceptions, and they were car- of statues to complete the ornaments of the east front of ried without a division.

the Capitol, be taken up for consideration. The question was then taken on the clause of the Mr. PRESTON said he doubted the propriety of reamendment proposing to deduct the amount of annuities ferring this matter to the Committee on the Library, or, paid to Indians for the purchase of lands; which amend- indeed, to any committee of the Senate. Independent, ment was rejected: Yeas 18, nays 27, as follows: of our being occupied with other and more urgent bu

Yeas-Messrs. Benton, Brown, Cuthbert, Ewing of siness, few of us have had an opportunity of seeing the Illinois, Grundy, Hill, Hubbard, King of Alabama, King master works of art, or have a cultivated taste and judga of Georgia, Linn, Morris, Niles, Rives, Ruggles, Shep ment in reference to them. The resolution before us ley, Tallmadge, Walker, Wright-18.

authorizes the President to contract, and I (said Mr. P.) Nars-Messrs. Black, Buchanan, Calhoun, Clay, Clay am of opinion that the whole matter had better be left ton, Crittenden, Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, to his decision. The groups which it is proposed to exHendricks, Kent, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Mangum, ecute should correspond with those already completed. Moore, Naudain, Nicholas, Porter, Prentiss, Preston, Rob. The appropriation, if any is to be made, should be a bins, Southard, Swift, Tomlinson, Webster, White--27. liberal one: comporting with a building which cost three

The question was then taken on the clause of the millions of money, and with the wealth, intelligence, amendment deducting the expenses of holding Indian and resources of the country. The statuary should be treaties for the purchase of lands; which was lost: Yeas a lasting monument of our taste and judgment--not in18, nays 26, as follows:

tended merely for the present day, but for all time. YEAS-Messrs. Benton, Brown, Cuthbert, Ewing of There was a degree of responsibility in this inatter. We Illinois, Grundy, Hill, Hubbard, King of Alabama, King should have time for deliberation: models, designs, of Georgia, Linn, Morris, Niles, Rives, Ruggles, Shep drawings, modes of embellishment, should be laid beley, Tallmadge, Walker, Wright-18.

fore us. We should decide with great caution. I exNays--Messrs. Black, Buchanan, Clay, Clayton, Crit. press no opinion of Mr. Persico. He is, no doubt, a tenden, Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Hendricks, Clever artist; but we have a native one (Mr. Greenough Kent, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Mangum, Moore, Nau- about to return to this country--a man of unquestioned dain, Nicholas, Porter, Prentiss, Preston, Robbins, 1 genius; one calculated to do honor to his country, and Southard, Swift, Tomlinson, Webster, White-26. whom his country should delight to honor. Some of

The next clause of the amendment, deducting the his works we have seen, and we know how beautifully. amount paid to Indians for the purchase of lands, was they were executed. I should be glad to see Mr. Peralso rejected: Yeas 18, nays 26, as follows:

sico employed; he deserves to be so for his ability and YEAS-Messrs. Benton, Brown, Cuthbert, Ewing of industry; but, in employing him, I am unwilling that the Illinois, Grundy, Hill, Hubbard, King of Alabama, King talents of an accomplished citizen of our own country of Georgia, Linn, Morris, Niles, Rives, Robinson, Rug. should be thrown in the back ground. At any rate, let gles, Shepley, Tallmadge, Walker, Wright--18.

propositions be made, plans submitted, and comparisons Nars---Messrs. Black, Buchanan, Clay, Clayton, Crittenden, Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Hendricks. As to some of the specimens of the fine arts, paintKent, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Mangum. Moore, Nau ings, &c., which have disgraced our halls, they are ab. dain, Nicholas, Porter, Prentiss, Preston, Robbins, solutely, both in design and execution, shocking. And Southard, Swift, Tomlinson, Webster, White-26. whatever, therefore, is to be done, let us take care that

The last clause of the amendment, deducting the it is done in the best manner. The expense is of no amount expended in the removal of the Indians from consequence. the lands purchased, was also rejected: as follows:. Mr. MANGUM said the Committee on the Library in.

YEAS-Messrs. Benton, Brown, Cuthbert, Ewing of variably had the charge of the expenses and selection Illinois, Grundy, Hill, Hubbard, King of Georgia, Lino. of ornaments for the Capitol. As to the question of exMorris, Niles, Robinson, Ruggles, Shepley, Tallmadge, pense in matters of that kind, it was not a matter of Walker, Wright-17.

much consequence, and not necessary to place it under Naxs--Messrs. Black, Buchanan, Clay, Clayton, Crit-| the direction of the Committee on Finance. He would, tenden, Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Hendricks, therefore, move to strike ou

therefore, move to strike out the Committee on Finance, Kent, King of Alabama, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Man and insert the Committee on the Library. This inquiry gum, Moore, Naudain, Nicholas, Porter, Prentiss, Pres. was very proper, and, he thought, properly belonged ton, Rives, Robbins, Southard, Swift, Tomlinson, Web. to the Committee on the Library. The ornaments to ster, White--28.

be selected would not only be valued for this, but for The bill was then ordered to be engrossed for a third all future ages. reading: Yeas 25, nays 21, as follows:

Mr. CALHOUN said that, when this resolution was Yras--Messrs. Black, Buchanan, Clay, Clayton, Crit

first introduced, his attention was called to it, and he tenden, Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Hendricks, really did think that they ought to reserve objects of Kent, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Mangum, Naudain, Nich this description for native artists; one of whom was, at olas, Porter, Prentiss, Preston, Robbins, Southard, Swift, that time, in Europe, at the head of his profession. At Tomlinsen, Webster, White-25.

the solicitation of the mover, he would not make any NAYS-Messrs. Benton, Brown, Calhoun, Cuthbert, opposition to the resolution now. Let it go (said Mr. Ewing of Illinois, Grundy, Hill, Hubbard, King of Ala

C.) to the committee, and let them report on it, and bama, King of Georgia, Linn, Moore, Morris, Niles,

should the report be unfavorable, he would then have Rives, Robinson, Ruggles, Shepley, Tallmadge, Walker, | an opportunity of expressing his views further on the Wright-21.

subject. Mr. Persico was a gentleman of talents, and The Senate then adjourned.

would no doubt do justice to the subject; but the Gov.

ernment had but little patronage of the kind, and he TAURSDAY, APRIL 28.

thought they owed it to native artists to reserve it for


Mr BUCHANAN did not intend at that time to enter Mr. BUCHANAN moved that the resolution directing into a discussion of the question raised by the Senator the Committee of Finance to inquire into the expedi- I from South Carolina, (Mr. Calaoun,] though on a

Vol. XII.-83



[APRIL 28, 1836.

proper occasion he should have something to say with House of Representatives, and I thought I could not do regard to it. He would assure the junior Senator from wrong in asking a committee of the Senate to inquire South Carolina (Mr. PRESTON] that, if he bad had the into the expediency of making an appropriation. 1' feel selection of an individual in the Senate, whose judg it to be my duty, however, after what has taken place, ment and taste in matters relating to the fine arts, quali. to reply to some of the remarks which have fallen from fied him to decide as to the merits of the proposed the Senators from South Carolina, and particularly those pieces of statuary, he should have selected him. But of the junior member. he knew that a bill had come there from the House of No man living, sir, is willing to extend more encourRepresentatives, containing appropriations for statuary agement to native talent than I am. Wherever it can which had been referred to the Committee on Finance, fairly be brought into competition with that of foreign and he had, therefore, no choice, but to send his resolu growth, it ought to be preferred. I am no connoisseur tion to that committee, or incur the risk of its not being in sculpture, but I know that it requires immense labor, acted on during this session.

intimate knowledge of drawing, and years of experience, Mr. MANGUM said there could be no difficulty in to execute a classical or historical figure. There is as this matter. As to the question of taste, he should have much difference between the artist who forms a bust, as much confidence in the taste of the Chairman of the and he who executes a group of statuary, as there is Committee on Finance, as in that of any other gentle between a mere portrait painter and a Michael Angelo. man; but he thought it would be more appropriate to It is the very lowest grade of the art, the commencesend it to the Library Committee.

ment of the study of the profession. No gentleman, Mr. PRESTON doubted the propriety of the sugges. | whatever may be his natural genius, who has proceeded tion of the Senator from North Carolina. The Commit. | no further than the execution of a bust, and the taking tee on the Library were not more qualified to decide in of a striking likeness, is fit to be employed in ornament. such matters than any other members of the Senate; and ing the eastern front of our Capitol. indeed few of them had had opportunities of making It may be asked, and I answer the question now, why themselves so. It had been usual to refer matters of I feel this interest in Mr. Persico? It is from motives of this description to the Committee on the Library, on the private friendship, in consistence with the public good. natural supposition that there was some connexion be- | He came to the town in which I reside in 1819, merely tween literature and the fine arts; but he should think as a portrait painter, and for the purpose of acquiring the Committee on Finance as well qualified as any other a knowledge of the English language. His genius and commitee, and he would suggest that they should be taste were soon discovered, and in his society I have instructed to inquire whether an appropriation, and to passed many agreeable and instructive hours. He left what amount, should be made to ornament the east us without a single enemy. He is not a native, but he front of the Capitol, leaving the selection both of the intends to spend his days among us, for he loves liberty subject and the artist to some proper department of the with all the enthusiasm of genius. He is devoted to the Government, say the President of the United States. institutions of this country. When I next saw him, it The resolution contemplated two groups of statues for was in New York, where his talents as a sculptor had the east front of the Capitol. Now whether groups of begun to attract much attention. I asked him why he had statues were proper for that place, or what groups, or concealed his knowledge of sculpture from his friends in whether the subject chosen was consistent with good Lancaster, and he replied, evincing the modesty which taste, were all questions of great importance, which the always accompanies true merit, that there were so many Senate was not competent to determine; and a degree foreigners in this country who pretended to what they of responsibility should be thrown upon the proper de. were not entitled, that he had determined not to speak partment of the Government for the selection both of of his knowledge of this art until he should have an opthe subject to be executed and the artist to execute it, portunity of displaying it by bis works. He was subseso as to ensure a work worthy of the building whose quently employed by this Government, at a salary of cost was $3,000,000, of the wealth and greatness of the $1,500 a year, to ornament the tympanum of the eastern nation, and of the admiration of posterity. He bad the Pront of the Capitol. How he succeeded, let the unihighest opinions of the talents and excellence of Mr. versal approbation which his efforts have received, dePersico as an artist; but some of our own artists had ob cide. After he had completed this work, I presented a tained, very deservedly, great celebrity. One of them, resolution to the House of Representatives, of which I Mr. Grenough, was soon expected home, and it might was then a member, similar to the one I have now be deemed proper to give him an opportunity of exer offered. He was employed; and though I pretend to cising his talents on the contemplated work. He no taste in the fine arts, yet I know tbat others, who are thought that some competition might be advantageously competent judges, as well as myself, have been delighted excited; that some little collision of mind among men of with the results of his labors, and admired the industry genius and taste might result in the adoption of a design and genius with which they were accomplished. The more appropriate than that suggested by Mr. Persico; hope of identifying his talents with the Capitol of the but of this he could not pretend to judge. The refer- Union, has been the subject of his thoughts by day, and ence of such matters to persons of competent skill and his dreams by night. Most keenly and deeply, thereacknowledged taste was necessary, to prevent their be- fore, would he feel, if the Senate of the United States ing burdened with works unworthy of the nation. should refuse to entertain a mere resolution of inquiry. Their public halls had been disgraced with exhibitions Any one, whether a man of taste or not, cannot but purporting to be of the fine arts, utterly offensive to be struck with the model of one of the groups which he the public tase, absurd in design, and wretched in the has completed. It represents the great discoverer when execution. He would vote against the motion of his he first bounded with ecstacy upon the shore, all his toils friend from North Carolina, and would move to amend and perils past, presenting a hemisphere to the astonished the resolution, so as to authorize the President of the world, with the name of America inscribed upon it. United States to contract for suitable ornaments to com Whilst he is thus standing upon the shore, a female plete the east front of the Capitol, instead of directing savage, with awe and wonder depicted in her countethe Committee on Finance to inquire, &c.

nance, is gazing upon him. This is one of the happiest, Mr. BUCHANAN said he had not anticipated so much noblest, grandest, conceptions of genius. It is worthy discussion on a mere question of inquiry. Some years of the subject. I hope every Senator will examine the ago I (said Mr. B.) submitted a similar resolution to the l models for himself. i hazard the assertion that, if ever

APRIL 28, 1836.]

Land Bill.


this work shall be finished according to the model, it Finance. But really he thought there was too much would command in Europe five times the annount which importance attached to this matter, and if the President it will cost in this country. I believe, however, from should refuse to take the responsibility of contracting the enthusiasm of the artist, that he would rather have for these groups, it would then be time enough for them this work of his placed on the blocking of the Capitol, if to take it upon themselves. he should receive from Government no more than a Mr. CALHOUN was of opinion that they should remere subsistence whilst engaged in its execution, than serve such matters for native artists, many of whom to realize a fortune from it in Europe. If the Senator were highly distinguished. The very fact being known from South Carolina desires it, let him offer a separate that they had such works in reservation for native talent, resolution in favor of any other artist. He shall receive would have a powerful influence in stimulating their exmy vote. ( should feel indebted to him, however, if he ertions to attain excellence in their professions. would suffer mine to take the usual direction without After a few remarks from Mr. DAVIS, any amendment.

Mr. CLAYTON said that whenever Mr. Greenough, Mr. PRESTON said the gentleman from Pennsylvania or any native artist, should present himself with such a was mistaken if he imagined for a moment that what he design as that presented by Mr. Persico, he would most said was in reference to a special competition between cheerfully vote to send it to a committee for consideraMr. Persico and any other artist. He should very much tion. He did not consider the voting for this resolution regret if Mr. Persico bimself thought he had said any as voting to contract for the group of statues; it was thing invidious to him. That body was not fitted to only a resolution of inquiry, and he would therefore vote discuss these matters, as was evident from the manner for it. in which the names of individual artists had been brought The question was then taken on Mr. PRESTOR'S forward. He knew that he himself was not competent amendment, and it was rejected; after which, Mr. to decide on them. There was, to be sure, as the gen- | BUCHANAN's resolution was agreed to tleman from Pennsylvania observed, every difference between the execution of a correct likeness, and the

LAND BILL. execution of a grand historical or allegorical subject; but

The bill to distribute, for a limited time, the nett pro. he would observe, en passant, that he who copied nature ceeds of the sales of the public lands among the States, most correctly in the execution of a likeness, would be and to grant lands to certain States, came up on its third the most apt to succeed in the execution of a work of reading; when greater importance. By referring the decision of this Mr. NILES rose and addressed the Chair as follows: matter to the President, he would most probably, before

Mr. President, it was my intention to submit to the deciding, consult with gentlemen upon whose taste and Senate some remarks on this bill, which, in any view judgment every one would be willing to rely. Washing that can be taken of it, I regard as one of the highest ton Alliston, of Boston, was one on whom he would importance; and it was my purpose to have done this entirely rely, and if he would say that the design of Mr. before the bill was ordered to its third reading; but inPersico was worthy of the object for which it was intend disposition has for several days prevented me from ed, he would be satisfied that after generations would speaking, and, at this time, I scarcely feel able to prospeak of the work with the same admiration that we ceed; but as the bill has reached its last stage, and the speak of the works of Michael Angelo. Mr. P., after Senate has refused to postpone it, I am compelled to referring in terms of disapprobation to the works in the

deliver my sentiments at this time, or not at all. Rotundo of the Capitol, and particularly to the statue of Before entering into the consideration of the several Mr. Jefferson, which had got there by some means or questions wbich this bill presents, I will beg to notice other, per fas aut nefas, said that he concurred with his some few of the extraneous remarks of the Senator from colleague in wishing to reserve such works for native

Kentucky, (Mr. CLAY,] which had no particular bearing artists, if competent ones could he found; but if not, as on the merits of the pending question. What may have expense should be no object, he would be willing to been the object of the honorable Senator in attempting send to Thorswaldon for a suitable work. He would to alarm the country as to the security of the public rather, he said, have one such statue as that of Washing | revenues in the deposite banks, I will not undertake to ton by Canova, which had been destroyed in the confla. say. It appeared to me that, from the associations of gration of the State House at Raleigh, North Carolina, place and other circumstances, his imagination had carthan all the trash that cumbered and disgraced the walls ried him back two years; and that, wi

ried him back two years; and that, without perhaps beof the Rotundo. He wished it to be distinctly under ing aware of it, he was engaged in making a real panic stood that, in all, he said nothing disparaging to Mr. speech, calculated to alarm the country, on account of Persico, whose talents were acknowledged on all hands; the revenue and the currency. Whatever may be the al! he wished was that the decision of this matter should I pressure for money at this time, I hardly think the hon. be left to the proper department of the Government, orable Senator, with all his skill and experience in that without saying that this particular design should be way, will be able to produce another factitious panic. executed, or this particular artist employed, to the exclu The evils of that which prevailed two years since are sion of all others. He therefore renewed his motion. too fresh in the recollections of the people for them to • Mr. CLAY said the Senator from South Carolina re be drawn into a similar excitement at this time. garded this as a more serious matter than he could. | It is certainly a very strange argument in favor of the When he heard the reniarks of the Senator, from the passage of a bill, whch appropriates nearly all the mo. manner in which he bad exbibited his taste and know. ney now in the Treasury, to attempt to prove that this ledge of the art of sculpture, he felt as if he wished the very money is insecure, and would not be available whole matter submitted to him exclusively. Mr. Persico | should this bill become a law. If the deposite banks was well known as a superior artist, and Mr. Greenough I cannot pay the money, there will be none to distributewas already employed by the Government to do an im. there will be no surplus on which the law can operate. portant work. To refer it to the President was a mere But what grounds are there for alarm as to the secushifting of the responsibility from Congress to the Presi. rity of the public revenues? They are now deposited in dent. If a good painter could be a good judge of thirty-six banks, and in comparatively small sums; no sculpture, they would have enough to counsel with. Orone bank having more than about three millions, and if a good orator was a good judge of sculpture, he be- averaging less than one million. Has the Senator stated lieved there were several of them on the Committee on any facts tending to show that these banks, or any of

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