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MAY 4, 1836.)

Defence of the Frontiers.

[SENATE.

that the formal agreement to act upon the executive rendered necessary by the act of the Government in nominations had been annulled by the votes of those accumulating an Indian population of 250,000 souls, who were brought up, not to vote upon nominations, as yielding a force of 50,000 warriors, within striking disagreed upon, but to vote against going into executive tance of the western and northwestern frontiers, and business at all?

which frontiers were now naked and defenceless. Still, Mr. B. repelled the idea thrown out by the Senator the state of things on the Texas frontier was not to be from Kentucky, (Mr. CLAY,] that this bill for raising disregarded. The position of General Gaines, the posvolunteers, and increasing the army, was a war measuresible contingencies in the excitement of the Indians, the against Mexico. So far from it, that Mexico was not scenes which might occur on our line, were all to be even thought of when it originated. It originated three considered; and his imagination could conceive of cases months ago, on motions from Senators on this floor--his in which the heart alone should be obeyed-in which colleague (Mr. Linn) and a Senator from Indiana (Mr. there should be no head to think-nothing but a heart TIPTON -- calling on the executive Government for to feel and an arm to strike. It was the case of women plans for an increase of the military force--calls which and children pursued by a brutal and ruffian soldiery." were answered two months ago, and a bill reported six Mr. B. said the Florida war now rages; the southwestweeks ago. Far from looking to Mexico, it did not ern frontier is exposed to the contagion of hostilities; even look to the Texan frontier. It was not a measure the whole west and northwest is open to savage incurof southwestern, but of northwestern origin, called for sion; troops are called for by a General in the field; the by the state of things on the western and northwestern public mind is anxious, uneasy, excited, everywhere. frontier, and wholly independent of events in Texas. Yet what is the scene in the Senate? What occupies These events might well be quoted, to accelerate the our thoughts in this chamber? The surplus, the surplus, progress of the bill, but not to account for its origin, or the surplus! Distribution of money, division of the spoil, to determine its fate. Above all, the bill was not to be is the absorbing and engrossing subject; and until that is prejudiced by an assumption or representation that it disposed of, our suffering country calls in vain for help. was a preparation for a Mexican war.

He had read of such things in history, but never expect. Mr. B. thought it right to notice the contemptuous ed to witness them. He had read of parties in some free terms in which the war, and the conduct of the war in States contending for pre-eminence and for spoil, while Florida, had been mentioned by the Senator from Ken the enemy were thundering at the gates, but he had not tucky, (Mr. CLAY.] It was called a miserable war, mis. expected to see the American Senate engrossed with the erably conducted. It was due to the hundred and bill for the division of money, while all the bills for the twelve brave men, under Major Dade, who fell on the defence of the country were pushed aside, and the Govground on which they stood--who died in their tracks-- ernors of States appealed to for the forces which it was no officer quitting his soldiers, no soldier quitting his the duty of Congress to grant. His motion was to test officer--and whose unburied bodies remained a prey to this spirit-to see which was to have the preference, the wolves and vultures--it was due to their memory to defence of the country or the division of money; and speak respectfully of them in this chamber. It was due for that purpose he asked for the yeas and nays on his to the New Orleans regiment and their accomplished motion. commander, Colonel Smith, who had volunteered for a Mr. PORTER said he regretted extremely this disdistant and arduous service, not to undervalue or dispar-cussion, as hours, nay minutes, had become precious, if age their exertions. No body of men could show more we hoped to go through the great mass of business which zeal, constancy, and cheerfulness, under the most try had been prepared for the action of Congress. There ing circumstances. Leaving a luxurious city, they had had been as much debate on the precedence bills were gone to encounter danger, to endure privations, to suf- entitled to, as was sufficient to pass one of them or refer want, to feed on food not fit for man, and to yolun-ject it. He hoped we would continue to act on the bill teer for new toils and dangers as fast as the fatigues of which was made the special order of the day, until it the first were over. Courage was their birtbright and was finally disposed of. That now proposed by the Seninheritance, and bravery they were expected to show; ator from Missouri had his approbation; and, without but this steadiness, perseverance, zeal, and cheerfulness, pledging himself to all its details, he believed it would under every extremity of hunger and suffering, was a have his vote. Being friendly to it, he thought it was new trait in the volunteers of a great city, accustomed injuring its chance of adoption to press it on for discusto every luxury and to every delicacy of the South, and sion and decision, without affording time for a proper entitled them to more honor than victories alone could examination of its provisions. That proper examination confer. Besides these, many were the brave and devo need not be a long one. ted acts which did honor to our arms in this war, and Mr. P. said he was compelled to dissent from what had which should exempt our arms from contemptuous allu- fallen from the honorable Senator from Kentucky in sion on this floor. Officers were there, whose reputa relation to our military force. He (Mr. P) thought it tion formed a part of the riches of their country; and ought to be augmented. Its numbers were not greater the difficulties of their position should be considered. now than they were ten years ago, and since that time They were on a theatre, where the unseen enemy our population had vastly increased; our frontier had could deliver a deadly fire and elude pursuit. It was a extended in the same space of time in a still greater case in which the difficulty was, not to conquer, but to proportion, and was necessarily weakened as it was encatch.

larged. Another circumstance called for an augmentaMr. B. had been drawn from his immediate subject to tion of our army. Within a very few years (under a speak of events in Florida, because he felt it to be wrong policy which Mr. P. said he should ever deplore) an to permit unjust aspersions upon those there to go out immense body of Indians had been removed from the from this chamber, and because his position as chairman east side of the Mississippi, and thrown on the frontiers of the Military Committee, and his connexion with the of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri. In their original debate, made it proper for him to say a word in their location they were circled on every side by a white popvindication. He returned to his own bill, and to the ulation, which ensured their good conduct, and restrainreasons which required him to press its adoption. It ed their propensity to war. They were now placed on was not a measure against Mexico. It was no prepara- an extended frontier, thinly settled, where, from causes tion for war with Mexico. It was simply a measure of be should not enlarge on, because they were obvious, à defence, originating before the invasion of Texas, and military force was indispensable to give security to our SENATE.)

Defence of the Frontiers.

[May 4, 1836.

borders. Not less, he believed, than 250,000 Indians suited our convenience and our interest. We were the were now located between the west of the Mississippi oldest independent nation on the American continent; and the Rocky mountains, who, from ignorance and the we were the strongest, too. It behooved us to aspire influence of passions which constantly agitate man in a after the truest glory which a nation can acquire-to savage state, were liable to be excited to hostilities, exhibit the example of power restrained by justice, and ruinous to themselves in the end, but destructive to the ambition directed, not to subjugate our neighbors, but borders exposed to their first outbreak. It was humani- to improve and to elevate them. ty, therefore, as well as true economy, to place a force He believed these sentiments were those of the large on our frontiers which would hold them in check, and mass of the American people, but there was danger that be ready to crush their first movements.

they might be forgotten under the excitement of generous There was another element to be taken into the esti- feelings. He respected these feelings; he shared in mate we should make of the proposed measure, which them; but he felt it to be his duty, in the place he occuhad been glanced at in the debate, and which could not pied, to submit them to the control of his reason and his be properly disregarded. He alluded to the events daily jadgment, and, if possible, to induce others to do the transpiring on the western boundary of Louisiana. By same. No one had heard with deeper regret than himthe last intelligence received from that quarter, it ap- self the intelligence of the dreadful massacres which peared that the war which had for some time raged in had taken place in Texas. It was possible the stateone of the Mexican provinces was about to be brought ments were exaggerated. He hoped they were so. close to ourselves. The inhabitants of Texas were flying But, if true, they were disgraceful to the perpetrators. from their country, and taking refuge within the State | The people of Texas, whether right or wrong in their of Louisiana, and their enemies, Aushed with victory, attempt at independence, had done nothing to place were close and hot in their pursuit. He did not believe them out of the pale of civilization; and if it were true the Mexican troops would cross the Sabine and violate that a body of them, after capitulation as prisoners of our territory. If Santa Anna had the wisdom and ability war, had been basely shot in cold blood, their murderers which his friends long since, and his enemies lately, gave should be held up to the common execration of mankind. him credit for, he would cautiously abstain from any such He (Mr. P.) would rather have been one of the gallant, step. His true interests prompted him to respect our though misguided, men who perished on that occasion, neutrality. He (Mr. P.) believed he would be govern than the ruthless despot by whose orders they were ed by these interests. But, while he believed it, it was assassinated. impossible to shut our eyes to the danger of collision But giving to these feelings their full scope, he could between the troops of the United States now on the Sa- | not see in this and other inhuman acts cause for war by bine, and those of Mexico. The people of this country the United States against Mexico. We should never be had become painfully excited by the intelligence which an hour at peace if we set out on a crusade to punish all had reached them of the war of extermination carried the cruel deeds which were committed in the world. on in Texas. That excitement had been communicated Their proximity to us, and their being inflicted on men to our troops; it required only a spark to put the com of kindred blood, could not change or enlarge our bustible materials now on our frontier in a flame, and he obligations. In abandoning their own country, and was afraid it would soon be furnished.

becoming citizens of another, they had placed themIt had been said that our officers there should have selves, in relation to that left, as strangers, so far as claims hearts and arms, but no heads; that is, that they should for national interference were concerned. We had no yield themselves up to the influence of their feelings, more right to make war because they had been unjustly however their judgment might reprove the measures treated by the Power to which they had attached themthose feelings prompted them to. He had a better hope selves, than we had to intermeddle in the contests beof their wisdom and prudence. A heavy responsibility tween the natives of the old States of Mexico. rested on them. If, under the influence of passion, Our unfortunate countrymen who settled in that porthey involved the nation in war, they would have a tion of Mexico which is now the theatre of war, knew severe account to render for their actions; and more well what kind of people they were going among. In especially if, at this moment, when the forces stationed all periods of history, the Spanish race have been distinon the frontiers of the State of Louisiana might be inade- | guished for cruelty in their civil wars; extending no quate to its defence, they should, in their sympathy l quarter, and sparing neither sex nor age. The scenes for Texas, draw the war into that State, he knew of no now daily enacted in old Spain, of which accounts reach terms of reprehension too strong for such conduct. us every day, exhibit the same brutal ferocity and disWith all possible consideration for the inbabitants of regard of all the claims of humanity as those lately Texas, and deep and sincere regret for the condition to perpetrated by their descendants in Texas. Those which they were reduced, he could not help thinking which took place in South America, some years since, that the citizens of Louisiana who had remained within were, if possible, more frightful and revolting to humanitheir country haul the first claim on the attention and ty. We did not then throw ourselves into the conflict, protection of the federal Government and the federal | and he trusted we would not now. A war for revenge army. He hoped and believed this view of the matter he deprecated, as he did one for conquest. He saw, as was taken by the President, however it might be ) yet, no just cause for expending our blood and our treadisregarded elsewhere; and that orders had been sent sure, and he hoped that all who had a voice in the counto the commanding officers not to compromit the safety cils of the nation would aid in preserving our neutrality. of the State he had the honor in part to represent.

Mr. PRESTON said he was misapprehended, if it was But, apart from all considerations of prudence and supposed he wished to press the consideration of this safety, there were the higher ones of justice, which for matter now. He wished merely to draw the attention bade our intermeddling in this contest. We were acting of the Senate to it, and he had succeeded in so doing. under the eye of the civilized world. It had heretofore | The final action upon it might easily be deferred for a been our boast and our pride that we faithfully maintain. | day or two. We had rumors, to be sure, but he saw ed all our treaties, in letter and in spirit. He trusted nothing in them to justify any act of extraordinary vigithat, under no impulses, however praiseworthy, would lance on our part. We need not operate defensively or we leave the vantage ground we bad so long and so on the offensive at present. Santa Anna had done honorably occupied, and expose ourselves to the impu- | enough to curdle our blood, and shock our sensibilities, tation of considering compacts binding only so long as it I but not enough to justify any warlike preparation. He

MAY 4, 1836.)

Defence of the Frontiers.

(SENATE.

would wish to know, however, why General Gaines had plus revenue. To save the money for distribution, it is made this requisition for more men. It had been stated necessary to attack the objects to which it ought to be that the Government were in possession of all the facts; applied; and, where the object cannot be attacked, to but he could not think so. He does not intend to rush substitute an erroneous one for it. To save the surplus, down at once upon the Mexican leader--considering then, for division, is the cause of this attempt to raise a him as a monster out of the pale of humanity. Such panic about the violation of neutrality and the invasion could not be his intention. Was there not something of Mexico. But the boasted surplus is itself an illusion. else! Had not a communication from Santa Anna to the a mere temporary stoppage of money in the Treasury, Camanche Indians been intercepted? If so, the Presi. | which ought long since to have been in a course of exdent is in possession of the fact. We cannot interfere penditure. Almost every branch of the public service in Texas: it is beyond our reach. But if this ruthless was suffering for want of money; many branches of the desolator of that province has instigated the Indians to service were suspended entirely for want of money. cross the frontier and descend upon our settlements,

The fortifications bave been stopped for two seasons. we should hold him responsible for every drop of blood | The mint is languishing for want of means to perfect that may be shed. If such a movement is contemplated

some machinery. The Quartermaster's Department--that --if it is taking place--then, after the necessary inform

| most important branch of service at all times, and espe. ation, let the Senate act. He agreed with the Senator cially at this time, when supplies should go to two fronfrom Louisiana that an increase of our military was ne

tiers--that Department is without a dollar. Clerks and cessary. .

salaried officers are borrowing money at usury to supMr. BENTON felt himself called upon to take the

port their families, because they cannot draw their pay. floor again, and to protest against the erroneous char

More than that; workmen, day laborers in the service acter which gentlemen were attributing to this bill.

of the United States, are without the means of going to There seemed to be a design to get up a new panic-a

market. He (Mr. B.) had been informed of laboring war panic-and, having lost the chance of the French men, working for the United States, who had not bad war panic, to try to get up a Mexican war panic. We

meat on their tables for three weeks. They could could hear of nothing but of the dangers of war, and the

not draw their pay; and why not? Because politiduties of neutrality; as if this bill was to make war and

| cians had taken it into their heads to make a surplus, to violate neutrality. People at a distance might be ex

and for that purpose had stopped all the appropriation cited by this new panic, as they had been by so many

bills, and dammed up the money in the Treasury, to former ones; for it seemed that panic tactics was the

make a tempting mass for distribution, and dubbed it standing order of the day now, and that all attempts to

surplus; when the fact was, it was no surplus, but a influence the publ.c mind were to be directed, not to

mere temporary accumulation caused by the delay of the understandings, but to the terrors of the people. I the appropriation bills, and much of it long since due. Persons at a distance may be excited by this fresh ghost

The holy scriptures (Mr. B. said) contained a curse of a panic: but every person here knew, and the bills against those who did not pay the laborer his hire; and and reports upon the tables showed the fact, that this what are we co say o politicians who, to tempt the peoplan for increasing the army grew out of the state of ple with an

ple with an illusory distribution, are stopping the action our own affairs; that it was a northwestern, and not a

of the Government, preventing the laborer from being southwestern measure; and that it was begun before

paid, and claiming for distribution what ought to be in a General Gaines had gone to the Texas frontier, and be.

course of expenditure! When the appropriation bills fore Santa Anna had left the capital of Monte zuma. All

are passed and they cannot be delayed long-it will be this was known here; still, people at a distance might be

seen that every dollar of this boasted surplus will be induced to believe that the proposed increase of the

wanted for the public service, and that the public have army was to cover a premeditated design to make war

been the dupes of a pernicious deception, in being told upon Mexico and to violate the laws of neutrality. This that there were more than thirty millions which could they might be made to believe, and thereby be excited

excited | not be expended, and therefore must be divided. And a cainst the administration: but it should not be so with this was the secret (Mr. B. said) of the extraordinary out being told better. They should know that the process of passing the distribution bill first; it could not 250,000 Indians accumulated upon the western and

be passed, if it waited till the appropriations were made; northwestern frontier was the origin of the movement. | for then it would be seen that the inexhaustible surplus and the Texin difficulties nothing but an incident.

was all gone. General Gaines's letter, calling on the Governors of Mr. BUCHANAN wished to say a few words on this States for volunteers, was only published in this city on 1 question. He had no doubt but that the Government yesterday; the bill which he moved to take up was re

of the United States, in regard to Mexico, had pursued, ported six weeks ago, and originated under a resolution

and would pursue, the course which had been sanctioned adopted on the 2d of February. This statement should

by all its experience in relation to questions of this kind. satisfy everybody-should dispel the panic attempted

One principle had been established in the political his. to be got up and show that the defence of our borders

tory of the country; had grown with its growth, and and the preservation of our neutrality were the sole ob

strengthened with its strength; and, without knowing jects in view. General Gaines has reason to believe

what ihe President had done or would do in this matter, that our Indians have been tampered with; he commu

he had no doubt but he would strictly adhere to that es. nicates what he has heard to the Government here, and

tablished principle in our institutions, never to interfere to the Governors of the neighboring States; and while

with the internal policy or domestic concerns of foreign these circumstances justify him in calling for volunteers,

nations. The famous proclamation of neutrality of yet if it all turns out to be unfounded, if Texas is paci

General Washington first asserted that principle, and to fied, and Santa Anna returns, still we shall go on with it our Government had always adhered. We consider our bill. We shall go on demanding an incrensed force 1 (said Mr. B.) all nations"

(said Mr. B.) all nations “enemies in war, and in peace, upon our frontiers, and, if we cannot get it from the friends." general Government, the citizens will have to take / In regard to Mexico, lie looked upon Santa Anna as measures to protect themselves. Fifty thousand Indian a' usurper. The federal constitution, established for warriors within striking distance of our frontiers cannot the republic of Mexico, and which Texas, as a part of be an object of indifference or disregard to us.

that republic, had sworn to support, had been trampled Here is another evil from this scheme of dividing sur. l on by him; and Texas, in his eyes, and in the eyes of all

Vol. XII. -88

SENATE.]

Land Bil.

[MAY 5, 1836,

mankind, was justified in rebelling against him. Whe- ry force of the United States is sufficient to guard the ther the Texans acted consistently with a true policy at fortifications on the seaboard, and at the same time give the time, in declaring their independence, he should not protection to the inhabitants residing in the States and discuss, nor should he decide; but, as a man, and an Territories bordering on the Indian frontier; if not, American, he should be rejoiced to see them successful what force will, in his opinion, be necessary to such proin maintaining their liberties, and he trusted in God | tection." they would be so. He would, however, leave them to In reply to this call, the Secretary at War returned rely on their own bravery, with every hope and prayer an interesting and elaborate reply, on the 8th of March. that the God of battles would shield them with his pro- He was decidedly of opinion that great danger existed tection.

from the Indians to the frontier States, and that it was If Santa Anna excited the Indians within our territo. the duty of Congress to protect them against aggresry to deeds of massacre and blood; if he should excite sions, by having an adequate force stationed there, suffia spirit among them which he cannot restrain; and if, cient to look down opposition, and prevent bloodshed. in consequence, the blood of our women and children He said he felt deeply for the Texans; and, great as on the frontiers shall flow, he undoubtedly ought to the calamities of war were, he almost desired that Mexibe held responsible. Mr. B. saw a strong necessity for co would give us sufficient reason to embark in one; sending a force to the frontiers, not only to restrain the and he was not sure but they had placed themselves out natural disposition of the Indians to deeds of violence, of the pale of law by the assassination of Colonel Fanbut because they could place no confidence in a man nin and his followers. who had so little command of his temper, who had The question was then taken, and the motion of Mr. shown so cruel and sanguinary a disposition as Santa Benton was negatived. Anna had. He was for having a force speedily sent to

LAND BILL. that frontier, and a force of mounted men or dragoons, as suggested by the Senator from Missouri, (Mr. Linn;] The bill to appropriate for a limited time the proceeds but he was against interfering in the war now raging in of the sales of the public lands among the States, and to Texas, unless an attack should be made on us.

grant land to certain States, was taken up; when Messrs. If it was left for him to decide which bill a preference WRIGHT and BENTON severally addressed the Senate should be given to by the Senate, he would first take in speeches of some length in opposition to the bill; after up the bill providing for this additional force for the which the question was taken, “Shall this bill pass?" protection of the frontiers; but he had been instructed and it was decided in the affirmative: Yeas 25, nays 20, by an authority which he was bound to respect and as follows: obey, and he must therefore vote to take up the land YEAS--Messrs. Black, Buchanan, Clay, Clayton, Cricbill. He should vote with the warmest friends of that tenden, Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Hendricks, bill in its favor, till it was either carried through or de Kent, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Mangum, Naudain, Nichfeated. To-day or to-morrow the land bill would be olas, Porter, Prentiss, Preston, Robbins, Southard, Swift, finally disposed of; it now stood in the way of every Tomlinson, Webster, White--25. thing else; and he would then be for proceeding with Nays-Messrs. Benton, Calhoun, Cuthbert, Ewing of the appropriation bills as rapidly as possible. He should Illinois, Grundy, Hill, Hubbard, King of Alabama, King have said nothing about instructions, had not this ques. of Georgia, Linn, Moore, Morris, Niles, Rives, Robinson, tion of preference been brought up. After the decision Ruggles, Shepley, Tallmadge, Walker, Wright-20. of the land bill, he should give his hearty support to The Senate then adjourned. carry through the bills necessary for the defence of the country, with as much expedition as possible. Mr. CLAYTON stated that he should vote for the

THURSDAY, MAY 5. land bill in preference to this bill, because the former

LAND BILL would have still to pass the other House, while the bill now asked to be considered had passed that House. Mr. EWING rose to move a correction of the Journal As far as he had seen of this bill, he was favorably dis- of yesterday's proceedings. He observed, on hearing posed towards it. But he was desirous to have a day it read by the Secretary, that the yeas and nays on the or two to consider of the amendments. He did not final passage of the land bill were stated to have been wish it to be said of bim that he had thrown any diffi- ordered on his motion. Now, as he made no such moculty in the way of the public defence, and he only de- tion, he wished the Journal to be so corrected that the sired so much delay as would enable him to become ac- yeas and nays might not appear to have been ordered at quainted with the character of the amendments.

his instance. Mr. LINN said that gentlemen were much mistaken! Mr. HUBBARD felt confident that the yeas and nays in supposing that this proposition to increase the army were ordered, but on whose motion he would not pregrew out of a desire to increase unnecessarily the extend to say. He was under the impression that they penditures of the Government, or out of the state of af were ordered shortly after the bill was ordered to be enfairs in Texas, or with a view to a war with Mexico. It grossed for a third reading. was a calm, deliberate proposition of his own, resulting Mr. CLAY believed that the yeas and nays were not from his knowledge of Indian character, and the dangers called for, but were taken under an impression that they to which his constituents were exposed. He had con had been ordered. He was certain, at all events, that sulted the Secretary of War, and many of his friends, they were not ordered on the motion of his friend from on this subject, and on the 2d of February he intro. Ohio, who, he was certain, had reasons, as well as himduced the following resolutions.

self, for not calling for them, in reference to a gentleman 1. Resolved, That the Secretary at War inform the opposed to the bill, who was absent. Senate what number of Indians now occupy the frontier M. WEBSTER suggested that the correction could on the southwest, west, north, and the northeast of the be made by striking out the words "son motion by Mr. United States, and what number it is probable will be EWING," so as to let it appear on the Journal that the transferred from the States and Territories to the fron. yeas and nays were ordered by one fifth of the members liers of the United States.

present. 2. "Resolved, That the Secretary at War also inform the correction, as proposed by Mr. Ewing, was then the Senate whether, in his opinion, the present milita- ordered.

Mar 5, 1836.)

Duties on Hemp.

[SENATE.

DUTIES ON HEMP.

tion on the engrossment of the bill was carried. The The following resolution, offered yesterday by Mr. fact was now allowed by the Senator from Kentucky, CLAT, was taken up for consideration:

that an increase of the tariff was inevitable, unless we Resolved, That the Committee on Manufactures be di- abandon the fortifications--unless we abandon the conrected to inquire into the expediency of so amending the stitution and the defences of the country. If we are existing laws as to subject all hemp exported into the to be involved in a war, our soldiers must march to United States from any place whatsoever, to the same an undefended frontier to shed their blood, instead duty as Russian hemp may be liable to pay for the time of having the assistance of fortifications, by which being.

blood would be saved. He denied that there was any Mr. CLAY stated that there was in the course of trade such sum appropriated for defences as by the land a habit of introducing Bengal hemp, and some other bill, which gave thirty or forty millions away; the first kinds under different denominations, free from duty, ac-fourteen millions to be drawn out on the 1st of July, cording to a construction (and, as he thought, an errone which would have a greater tendency to render an inous one of the Secretary of the Treasury. He wished crease of the tariff necessary than the operation of the to guard against this evasion of the laws, and have it subland bill, which threw the Government for its resources jected to the same duties that Russian hemp was. It on the tariff alone. Since the land bill had passed, it came into competition with the flax and manufactured would be necessary to increase the tariff. If this was a hemp of this country; whereas that of Russia, so far as mere evasion of the law, there could be no legislation the rigging of vessels was concerned, did not interfere necessary: the duties could be recovered by process of with our dew-rotted hemp: because this last, not absorb-law. We shall hear more of these evasions, if we adopt ing tar, and from other causes, was not calculated for this resolution, and act according to its spirit. This is rigging.

the plan by which the tariff is to be increased. We shall A measure bad been proposed for allowing a drawback have evasions on sugar, evasions on every article of proupon Russian hemp when exported to foreign countries. | duce. There is another measure, also, which is to be Though he came from a hemp-growing section, he should carried into effect by means of the land bill. These offer no objection to it: on the contrary, he would give miserable banks, as the Senator calls them, are to it his vote. His only object in rising, however, was to put down. If the people can be made to believe that ask for a consideration of this resolution now, to prevent the money is unsafe in these banks, the effect will be to any further evasion of existing laws.

bring about that very insolvency which is foretold. On Mr. WALKER expressed a bope that it would be put the 1st of July, fourteen millions are required by the on record that the day after the Senator from Kentucky land bill to be drawn out of the Treasury; and a distrust and his friends had obtained their victory, in the passage is to be scattered among the people, which will tend to of the land bill, that Senator had offered a resolution to put down these banks. increase the tariff. He did not intend to oppose the Mr. CLAY said he regretted being called upon to say resolution of inquiry, but he wished the fact to be placed one word more. He did not know to what he was inon record.

debted for the honor an honor very often tendered Mr. CLAY replied that he had no objection to have bim-of being replied to and opposed by the Senator the fact recorded in any book of record whatever, pro- from Mississippi. He will, for the future, however, vided that, when recorded, no motion should afterwards allow me to use my own language, and not put words be entertained for expunging it. He wished also to have into my mouth which I have not used. He had made the fact accurately stated. This proposition was not no avowal of a wish or intention to increase the tarift; made, as stated by the Senator from Mississippi, on the he had merely said that, in the contingency of such an day after the passage of the land bill. It was made yes- extravagant course being continued in, such an increase ferday-on the very day of the passage of that measure; / would inevitably take place. and it came up now in the regular course of business. If, however, the affairs of this Government were wisely Neither is it true that it is a proposition to increase the administered, there would be no necessity of augmentduties; it is merely to prevent an evasion of existing laws. ing the existing duties; on the contrary, a reduction in Whenever it should come up for discussion, he should them might very properly take place. We were told be happy to listen to the arguments of the gentleman | by one of the wisest of the numerous wise heads that have against its expediency, and should no doubt be convinced been in the Treasury, that fifteen millions per annum was by them. He would advise that Senator, however, and required for our current wants; and now seventeen milthose who acted with him, if they wished to avoid an in-lions was proposed by the Senator from New York. Nor crease of the tariff, to stop where they were; to make was that all. Lieutenants in the army, subaltern officers, no more extravagant appropriations; to pursue no longer and others, had offered their suggestions; and thirty or the course they had adopted. Ten millions for the Navy, forty millions was to be appropriated for the defences of and fifteen millions for the War Department! Did any ) the country! Magical words! Who was not anxious for the one believe that an augmentation of the tariff was not in safety of the country? But were we to be thus deceived? evitable, if this wasteful expenditure was countenanced In England, at this very moment, there was no city of and sustained? Let the gentleman and those who, with consequence--neither Liverpool, Manchester, Birminghim, have the power, remove the public treasure from bam, nor York-which was fortified, or had even the these miserable deposite banks. By following his advice, appearance of a fort. And why? Because they trusted wholesome as it was, they might remove the calises of to their navy for the preservation of the great interests their real or pretended alarm. He did not expect any of that country. discussion, however, on the adoption of a mere resolution Gentlemen, however, were not satisfied with an ap. of inquiry, much less to be called upon to reply to al propriation of ten millions for the navy; they wanted the charge of this kind.

whole line of coast fortified, so that, as his colleague had Mr. WALKER said it was his opinion, when he made observed the other day, gun for gun might be heard his former remarks, that the resolution of the Senator from one extremity of the coast to the other--a measure from Kentucky had been offered this morning; but whe-got up and advocated for the one and only purpose of ther the fact was so or not, it had no bearing on his ob- preserving in these deposite banks, and keeping from servations; still the resolution had been offered after distribution, the public money--money which belonged the victory had been obtained by the friends of the land to the country at large, and for which, if a demand was bill, because that victory was achieved when the ques. made, the consequence would be a failure to meet it. I 1

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