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Indian Appropriations-Pre-emption Claims.
(JUNE 9, 1836.
quisition for taxes. He concluded by asking for the yeas a set of purjured rascals. They were as high-minded and nays; which were ordered.
and as honorable a set of men as any on the face of the After some further explanation by Messrs. WRIGHT earth, and as little deserved the imputations that had and CLAY,
been cast on them as their libellers on that floor. He Mr. WEBSTER said that it was not ten days since he | did not know where gentlemen got their habit of speakfirst heard that it was in contemplation to change this ing of these men, who, for honest integrity, virtue, part of the compact. He considered it important, and and patriotism, would compare with any people on the hoped no change would be made without some more face of the earth, unless it was from the English and mature deliberation. If any change was to be made, it Scotch reviewers. Go back (said Mr. W.) to the pe. ought to be done by a general law, applicable to all the riod of the last war, and say who it was that filled up the States, and he hoped the change would not be pressed ranks of our army. Who was it that defended New Or. in this instance.
leans and the valley of the Mississippi from the polluAfter a few words of explanation from Mr. EWING, tion of the footsteps of a foreign foe, but these pur. of Ohio,
jured rascals; that, gentlemen so vehemently denounced The question was taken upon the amendment moved on that floor? In reply to the objections of Mr. Ewing, by Mr. CLAY, and decided as follows:
Mr. W. said that it was impossible that purjuries could YEAS---Messrs. Calhoun, Clay, Crittenden, Davis, be committed under this bill; because, as the evidence Goldsborougb, Grundy, Kent, Knight, Leigh, McKean, must be taken within separate land districts, and before Naudain, Prentiss, Preston, Robbins, Southard, Swift, | the Register and Receiver, each settler would be known, Tipton, Tomlinson, Wall, Webster-20.
and no one of them could swear to more than one Nars-Messrs. Benton, Black, Brown, Cuthbert, case, or personate more than one claim. Mr. W. Ewing of Illinois, Ewing of Ohio, Hendricks, Hubbard, also showed that the tracts of country between the King of Alabama, King of Georgia, Linn, Mangum, Des Moines and Lake Michigan, and above the raft Moore, Morris, Nicholas, Niles, Rives, Robinson, Rug. of Red river, referred to by the Senator from Ohio, gles, Shepley, Tallmadge, Walker, White, Wright--24. could not be affected by this bill, as all these lands have So the amendment was negatived.
been acquired by Indian treaties since 1834, and the The bill was then passed, in the modified form pro bill excludes any claimant who has settled on lands to posed by Mr. WRIGHT.
which the Indian title had not been extinguished before 'INDIAN APPROPRIATIONS.
that time. [Mr. W. read the dates of the treaties by
which these lands were acquired.] Mr. W. urged a On motion of Mr. WHITE,
variety of arguments in support of the bill, contending The Senate took up the bill making appropriations that it would by no means extend as far as was appre. for the Indian department, and amendments; the ques-- hended by the Senator from Ohio; that these settlers, tion being on concurring with the House in the addi for whose benefit the bill was intended, bad a vested tional appropriations for the removal of the Creek In-right in the lands they had setiled, relying on the faith dians.
of the Government, and that it would be impolitic as Mr. WHITE moved to amend the amendment, by well as unjust to deprive them of the land defended by providing that no private contracts shall be made under their blood and enriched by their industry, for the palthis appropriation, without giving previous public notice; try consideration of the additional two cents per acre which being agreed to, the amendment of the House as they would get at the public sales from the land specuamended, was concurred in.
lators. PRE-EMPTION CLAIMS.
Mr. MORRIS observed that, when this bill was before
the Senate the other day, he was not altogether satisfied The bill to extend the time for receiving the proof of
with its provisions, and therefore did not vote for its encertain pre-emption claims under the act of the 19th of grossment. This bill contemplated extending the time June, 1834, came up on its third reading
for making proof of pre-emption claims under the law Mr. EWING, of Ohio, opposed the bill, on the of 1832, extended by the law of 1834. Now, he wishground that a great mass of fraud and perjury would be ed to know whether the Secretary of the Treasury had practised under it, and that the United States would be
decided that the claimant, under the law of 1832, was deprived of a vast quantity of its best lands, to enrich entitled, whether the land he settled had been surveyed those who had no claim whatever on them. The gen or not? tleman from Mississippi who introduced this bill Mr. | Mr. WALKER replied in the affirmative. WALKER) could not possibly be aware of the extent of | Mr. MORRIS thought that the Secretary had decided the frauds that would be perpetrated under it. Mr. E. wrong, and that the law of 1832 never contemplated apinstanced the vast tracts of valuable lands acquired from plying to unsurveyed lands. This law spoke of quarter the Indians in Wisconsin, and above the rafts of the Red sections; and how could the settler prove a quarter sec. river, worth four dollars per acre, that would be entire tion unless the land had been surveyed? Mr. M. said ly swept away by persons who had gone on them, to he was for extending every encouragement to settlers wait for some such law of this kind. The bill, he said, on the public lands, by a reduction of prices, as far as held out a bribe to falsehood, fraud, and perjury. If it any gentleman would, go; but he was not in favor was a small matter, as the Senator from Mississippi sup of pre-emptions, as he thought the system had not workpoged, he would not so earnestly oppose it he would ed well. If claimants under the pre-emption laws had not object to giving each rascal who crossed the Missis been prevented, by any fault of the Government, from sippi his $1,000 in order to get rid of him; but the man completing their proof, he would grant relief in indiwho was disposed to defraud the Government under this vidual cases, as they were substantiated; but he was bill, must be a worthless rascal indeed, if he could not opposed to any general law, which must necessarily make bis tens of thousands and hundred of thousands. lead to great difficulties and embarrassments. They had evidence enough of the frauds that had been Mr. EWING, of Ohio, denied that he had made any perpetrated under these pre-emption laws. Some of these general accusation against the settlers on the public claimants would have no difficulty in swearing to at least | lands. What he said was, that numerous frauds and a dozen cases.
purjuries had been committed with regard to the public Mr. WALKER rose to defend the character of the lands, of which their tables groaned with the fullest evisettlers on the western lands. He denied that they were dence, and that these persons whom he begged leave
still to designate as rascals, would avail themselves of to surveyed lands? If there was to be a general scramthe provisions of this bill, to perpetrate more frauds ble for the public lands, let the poor honest man every and perjuries. The Senator from Mississippi might where have a chance, as well as these pre-emptioners. say, if he chose, that there was not a rascal in the West, Let us, said he, understand the grounds on which we but he knew that innumerable frauds and perjuries bad legislate, and not hold out advantages, as was done by been committed there, and their files showed abundant this bill, to lawless depredators, and who drive out every evidence of it. He cast no general imputation on the honest man from competition with them. He considered settlers of the West; he considered bimself one of them, the system under which they had acted ever since the and it was natural for him to speak of them, as he did, pre-emption laws commenced, as disgraceful to the in the most favorable terms.
| Government, and as a reward for the violation of the Mr. E. recapitulated bis objections to the bill, and laws. He had not read the review referred to by the enlarged on the evils that would grow out of it. He Senator from Mississippi; but, on hearing the extract denied that the claimants under the laws of 1832 and read by the gentleman, he could not but be struck with 1834 had any vested rights in the lands-his colleague the remarkable intelligence of the people on the other having well said that the act of 1832 never contemplated side of the water, with regard to their opinions of those applying to unsurveyed lands. He agreed that the persons he termed squatters. The gentleman was more checks and guards in this bill would, to some measure, comprehensive than he was in his application of the prevent the reception of false evidence, but not to the term “squatters," for be applied it to the first settlers extent desired. He had no sort of doubt but that an at Jamestown, to the pilgrims, and even to Columbus; individual might so disguise himself as to personate ten and he said that they were squatters who saved New or fifteen different claimants. This had been done be Orleans, and would have conquered at Bladensburg, had fore, and would be done again. Experience had suffi they been there. Now, he was by no ineans so compreciently shown them what frauds could be perpetrated hensive in his application of the term. He applied it to under these pre-emption laws. In one case an individ those persons who had gone beyond the limits of the ual settled on a tract of land in the neighborhood of a settlements, and were wholly reckless of the laws, either fort, and the courts had decided that he was entitled to of God or man. They were the non-consumers of the bis pre-emption, because it was public land, though the country, performed no duties, either civil or military, tract was worth five hundred thousand dollars. Suspi- and led lives without Jabor. They went beyond the cions were entertained that the Register and Receiver civil organization of the country, for the purpose of driwere interested with him; but this was of no avail, as it ving the Indians off their lands, and eventually securing could not be proved. Mr. E. said it was not out of want them by pre-emption, and paid a habitual disregard to of regard to the actual and honest settlers that had gone all laws, human and divine, unless, indeed, it was preupon the public lands that he opposed the bill, but it emption laws; and these they only cared for because was to guard against fraud, perjury, and speculation, they enabled them to sell the lands they had so lawlessly that he had set his face against it.
acquired. They took possession of the lands, and would Mr. WALKER said that if the term “public lands" | not permit any man who went there to locate buy them, comprehended unsurveyed lands, these settlers undoubt. | unless they were well paid for the permission. edly had vested rights in the lands they claimed. This From the act of 1832 it appeared evident that Conquestion was first raised in 1833, and was referred by gress could never have intended it to apply to lands bethe Commissioner of the General Land Office to the yond the survey. There could have been no possible Secretary of the Treasury, who solemnly decided that motive for encouraging men who had gone so far be. pre-emptioners on the unsurveyed lands were entitled yond the settlements as to leave the surveys behind to their pre-emptions, because they were as much public them. Jands as those that had been surveyed. To be sure, they After some remarks from Mr. BLACK, in favor of the were required to make their proof in two years; but, byl bill, the question was taken on its final passage, and it omitting to appoint a surveyor, they were deprived of was rejected by the following vote: the chance of doing so.
Yeas - Messrs. Benton, Black, Buchanan, Ewing of Mr. CLAY said if there was any one thing on which Minois, Grundy, Hendricks, King of Alabama, Lino, he supposed the mind of Congress was made up when Moore, Nicholas, Porter, Rives, Robinson, Talimadge, he first came here this winter, it was to put an end to | Walker, White, Wright--17. this nefarious system of pre-emptions. He bad been Nars--Messrs. Brown, Calhoun, Clay, Crittenden, informed, by the most undoubted authority, that printed Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Kent, King of affidavits were regularly sold in the market at New Or- / Georgia, Knight, Leigh, McKean, Mangum, Morris, leans, containing all the requisites to establish a good | Naudain, Prentiss, Preston, Robbins, Southard, Swifi, pre-emption claim. On one occasion the Governor of Tomlinson, Wall, Webster-23. Louisiana was called on to certify an affidavit purporting
THE PUBLIC DEPOSITES. to have been signed by a justice of the peace who he knew was one hundred and fifty miles ofl'; and on an- 1 The Senate proceeded to consider the bill to regulate other he was called on, with the signature of a justice he the deposites of the public money. had suspended from office six months before. While The question being on the amendment proposed by the system was liable to such glaring abuses, he hoped ! the committeegentlemen would not agree to extend it.
Mr. WRIGHT (the chairman of the committee, said Mr. KING, of Georgia, contended that it never could that his only object now was to call the attention of the have been the intention of Congress to extend the privi Senate to that part of the bill which particularly related lege of pre-emptions beyond the surveys, and beyond to the regulation of the public deposites in the deposite the civil organization of the country; and it was appa- banks. The other part of the bill, which related to the rent on the face of the act that it was only intended to disposition of the surplus, he should not now refer to. He apply to surveyed lands. This act ought to be construed wished to call the attention of Senators particularly to like all other acts, by considering the whole of it, in those parts of the bill on which some unavoidable diffiorder to arrive at its true meaning:
culties existed, in order that they might suggest such [Mr. K. here read the act.]
amendments as they deemed necessary. In the third How could this act designate a quarter section as the section of the bill the deposites were restricted to banks portion for each settler, unless it was intended to apply incorporated by the States, by Congress for the District SENATE.]
(JUNE 9, 1836.
of Columbia, and by the legislative councils of the Ter- ers of her banks. If this could not be done, an amend. ritories. Now, there was one State in this Union (the ment might be made preventing this provision of the State of Missouri) which had no bank, and the deposites bill from applying to banks which were probibited from of this State were made in an agency of one of the Ohio discounting on their deposites. banks at St. Louis. His construction of the bill was, Mr. HENDRICKS, in reference to Indiana enlarging that it would probibit the Secretary of the Treasury the power of the banks in the particular referred to, from continuing this agency; and, if he construed it in said ibat the difficulty was felt last year, and an attempt the same way, be must select, for the deposites of Mis- was made in the Legislature for that purpose, but that souri, some other bank nearest to that State, which must it had failed. He would prefer, he said, an amendment be some bank in Indiana. But Indiana would probably as suggested by the Senator from Massachusetts. bave as much money deposited in her banks as the bill Mr. BENTON observed that the Senator from New would allow them to have. Again: in the State of Illi York had very properly confined his explanations to one nois there was a bank incorporated by the State laws; but part of the bill, without turning his attention to another it was a mooted question whether this bank was incor-subject which ought not to be in it, and which belonged porated in accordance with the provisions of her consti- to the distribution land bill. But, while he applauded tution. In Indiana the banks were prohibited by their the Senator for bringing to the attention of the Senate charters from discounting on their deposites; and there but one subject at a time, he could not agree with him fore, being unable to use the public money committed | as to the one he had selected. He hoped the Senator to them, they would not consent to pay interest, in ac would drop the first half of the bill, and take up that cordance with one of the prorisions of the bill. With part which proposed to divide the public money among respect to the specie provisions in the bill, he thought the States. It would be an unnecessary labor for them it ought to have been more explicit on that head; but, to go on with their arrangements for filty or sixty deon examining the statements of the deposite banks, he posite banks, when, by a subsequent provision in the found that those of five of the States, say Virginia, Ten- bill, they would have no money to deposite with them, nessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama, would by or so small an amount that no banks of any character this bill be compelled to double their amount of specie, would think it worth while to enter into arrangements or decline the public deposites. This provision would for it. lle, for one, would neither compromise rior tcmnot affect the northern and northwestern banks, nor the porize with this distribution principle; the country would banks of South Carolina, because they had more specie take care of itself; and it would be found that the vati. than was required. The bill originally provided that cinations with respect to ruin from having too much mo, the power of discontinuing a deposite bank should be ney, would turn out just as did those of the panic sesdiscretionary with the Secretary of the Treasury; but sion, about having too little. As to Missouri, she was the committee had thought proper to enumerate the expunged from this bill. A State which received and cases under which deposite banks might be discontinu- distributed more money than any of the western Statesed; but in doing so, they bad left the matter still doubt. a State which, from her position, and her safe and rapid ful, and he wished this provision to be made more ex- communication to every quarter, was the first in imporplicit.
tance in the West to the fiscal concerns of the GovernIn the first section of the bill it was provided that ment, and from whence the paymasters, quartermasters, there should not be deposited in any one bank an amount | surveyors, and Indian agents, all took their departure to exceed three fourths of its capital. This provision, with their supplies of every description--was to be ex. he thought, would occasion embarrassment to the re- punged from the bill. He did not perceive that his ceivers of the public moneys; because they might want friend from New York had taken up the idea, suggested to deposite the public funds they had collected at a time by the Senator from Louisiana, that the Government when the bank had already received its full amount, and | was to establish a bank at St. Louis, under the name of therefore be compelled to retain the money, or to de an agency, to issue five dollar notes, and to have a capiposite in some other bank. He thought, therefore, that tal consisting of " funds and property equivalent to spethe business of equalizing the deposites should be left cie," like the District banks. 'His friend from New entirely to the Secretary; and that it would be better York would make no such proposition; but those wlio to provide, instead of the present provision, that not had charge of this bill had better make it, to establish a more than three fourths beyond their capital should re- bank at St. Louis, or an agency of the Patriotic Bank of main in each bank.
this city. Mr. WRIGHT then proposed an amendment, wbich The deposite system had gone on well for two years, was agreed to, providing that the deposite banks shall though it had been prophesied over and over that it render to the Government all the duties that were re- would not work. Those who had made these prophequired of the Bank of the United States and its offices. cies had now the control of this bill, and they had
Mr. PORTER supposed that the moneys collected in brought it in to make their prophecies come true; for Missouri might be managed by an agency of one of the this bill was as much intended to break the deposite New Orleans banks, or that Congress might create an
banks as if it was expressed so on the face of it. lle agency at St. Louis.
was inclined to think that if Congress would let the Mr. ROBINSON stated that there were some doubts system remain as it was, things would go on well; but if at the Treasury in relation to the State Bank of Illinois, Congress undertook to expunge the system, the greatwhether it was constitutionally chartered; but he had no l est difficulties would ensue. doubt but that the difficulty would be removed at the Mr. WALKER referred to the provisions in the constinext session of the Legislature.
tution of Mississippi which would prevent her from reMr. HENDRICKS Thought that the provisions of the ceiving any portion of the surplus to be distributed bill, with respect to the payment of interest, would ef. under the 13th section of the bill, and he hoped that that fectually prevent the banks of Indiana from receiving section would not be permitted to remain in the bill. the public deposites; because, being probibited by their He opposed, with great force and energy, the distribucharters from discounting on them, they could make notion principle in the bill; considering it, to all intents and profits out of which to pay interest.
purposes, a free gift; for, from reasons he stated, it never Mr. WEBSTER said that as it was undoubtedly of could be returned by the States. He also opp, sed the some importance to a State to have these deposites, in- | inequality of the distribution, which is proposed to be diana might consider it worth wbile to enlarge the pow. I made according to the census of 1830, while Mississippi, JU NE 10, 1836.)
Constitutional Currency-- Increase of the Army.
having more 'han doubled her population since that time, than five hundred dollars, none after the 3d day of would not get more than one half of what her present March, 1840; of less denomination than one thousand population entitled her to. Mr. W. felt anxious that dollars, none after the 3d day of March, 1841; and none the vote should be first taken on the distribution part of of any denomination from and after the 3d day of March, the bill, as he considered it wholly unconnected with 1842. the principal object in view. If it should pass, he Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That any person hoped that he might be permitted, as a Senator from holding an appointment under the laws of the United Mississippi, to enter on the journal a calm, dispassion States, and any bank employed to keep public moneys, ale, and, at the same time, solemn protest against it. which person or bank shall neglect, evade, or attempt
Mr. WEBSTER replied to the objections of Mr. to elude the provisions of this act, shall be guilty of an WALKER. He thought that the postponement of the offence against the laws; and the person so offending benefits of this bill to the State of Mississippi, till she shall be liable to be dismissed from the service, and the provided by law for their reception, was not to be bank so offending shall, on satisfactory information, be weighed against the general benefits of the whole discontinued as a depository of the public moneys.
Mr. BLACK, after taking a view at considerable length of the surplus that would be in the Treasury, and
INCREASE OF THE ARMY. the necessity for providing some mode of disposing of The Senate, on motion of Mr. BENTON, proceeded it, and referring also to the distribution land bill, which to consider the bill to increase the present military eshe highly commended, gare it as his opinion that the tablishment of the United States. . great benefits to be derived from this bill were such Mr. BENTON said that this was a measure of western hat, though a representative of Mississippi, be must origin, and eminently called for by the present and give it his support. He did not, bowever, apprehend prospective condition of the West. Early in the session the difficulties stated by his colleague, for he believed his colleague [Mr. Linn) and a Senator from Indiana that the Legislature of his State would make such pro. (Mr. Tipton] had submitted resolutions calling upon the visions as eventually to entitle her to the benefits of this Secretary of War to report the number of Indians upon bill, and in the mean time she would not be injured by the western frontier, and to give his opinion upon the the other States receiving their quotas, while hers re propriety of increasing the strength of the army, with a mained waiting for her disposal.
view to the security of that frontier. The Secretary Mr. CALHOUN denied that this was intended as a had answered promptly and satisfactorily.' His report, distribution bill-it was in good faith a deposite bill, and dated on the 8th of March, and No. 228 of the nothing more. Gentlemen on all sides, he said, admit-Senate documents, showed that the number of Indians ted that there would be a very large surplus at the end on the western and northwestern border, including those of the year, and that it would continue to increase for yet to be removed by the Government, amounted to two or ihree years to come. Now, he put it to gentle. 253,000 souls; all of whom are either in the immediate men, could they consider this vast sum safe as it was? neighborhood, or within striking distance, of the frontiers Was there not a necessity for depositing it somewhere? of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, the Des Moines settleAud wbere could that be so safely done as in the treas- / ments, and the Wisconsin and Michigan Territories. uries of the States? If the Government was only eco. At the usual proportion of warriors in an Indian popula. nomically administered, the money would probably tion, that of one to five, this aggregate of 253,000 souls never be called for; but if there should be war, or it would give 50,000 warriors; being the largest Indian the revenue of 1842 should fall short, the States would force ever yet arrayed on the frontier settlements of the pay it without the slightest difficulty, rather than have a Union. To cover the people of the West and Northdirect tax, as the events of the last war proved. Mr.
west from the incessant danger of such a vast array of C. replied to the objections of Mr. WALKEN, as to the savages, they had their proportion of a small army of inequality of the distribution, by saying that it was pro. six thousand men, which in point of effective force, and posed in the only way that it could be madc; that is, on
after making allowances for the casualties of service, the principle on which the direct taxes would have to could not be expected to present, at any one time, more be levied; so that if Mississippi lost now, she would
than 4,500 for action. This small force, then, was divihave a corresponding gain when a direct tax came.
ded out between the lake, the maritime, the gulf, and After some further remarks from Mr. C., but before
the western frontiers; a circuit which had been officially the question was taken,
computed at about 12,000 miles, following its meanders, The Senate adjourned.
and about 9,000,* following its general courses; so that our army, if stretched round the frontier, would afford
about one man to every two miles. The fortifications Friday, June 10.
upon the maritime and gulf coast required a good part CONSTITUTIONAL CURRENCY.
of this force; of that allotted to the West, a part had to Mr. BENTON, in pursuance of notice given, asked
be kept, not on the frontier, but at a convenient position and obtained leave, and introduced the following bill;
for looking out for danger, and proceeding to meet it. which was read, and ordered to a second reading:
It was upon this principle that a regiment was usually
in the neighborhood of St. Louis; not that troops were A BILL to re-establish the currency of the constitution
wanted there, but that there not being a sufficient numfor the Federal Government.
ber in service to guard all the exposed points, a corps Be it enacted by the Senate and flouse of Representa was therefore placed at a half-way point between the tives of the United States of America in Congress assem head and mouth of the Mississippi, and near the conflu. bled, That bank notes and paper currency of every de. lence of the Missouri, where the means of transportation scription shall cease to be received or offered in pay. were at hand, to be ready from that point to go north, ment on account of the United States, or of the Post south, or west, as events might require. Thus, these Office, or in fees in the courts of the United States, as troops within a few years past had ascended the Mis. follows: Of less denomination than twenty dollars, none after the 3d day of March, 1837; of less denomination * To be precise, 12,885 miles by the meanders; 9,840 than fifty dollars, none after the 3d day of March, 1838; miles by the general courses. ---Mr. Colhoun's report of less denomination than one hundred dollars, none against reducing the army in 1818, and before the acquisiafter the 3d day of March, 1839; of less denomination tion of Florida.--Note by Mr. B.
Increase of the Army.
(June 10, 1836.
souri; once to the Yellow Stone river; three times to the the army, General Macomb, concurs in this opinion, and Upper Mississippi; and now were on the Red river, shows it to be necessary to authorize an establishment watching the progress of events on the Texas frontier. of twelve thousand men, in order to have a force of ten The result was that the West and Northwest, always in thousand. He thus expresses himself on this point: sufficiently guarded, were now nearly stripped of de “Although, according to the instructions of the Secfence; and this at a time when the Indian wars in the retary of War, the organization here proposed is limited South were having their natural effect of exciting the to ten thousand men, and which may be considered as Indians in all quarters, and doubling the necessity for a minimum force for the purposes for which the army defence where it was so much weakened. In view of is intended, it is respectfully recommended that, in all the dangers of this state of things, the Secretary of order to bave the amount of force always effective, War, Governor Cass, earnestly recommends an augmen eighteen men be added to each company of infantry tation of the army, and shows an increase to be called and artillery, wbich would increase the nominal force to for, both on account of our fortifications and the inland something below twelve thousand men; but, owing to frontier. These are his words:
the fact of the men being enlisted for only three years, “ Extensive and permanent fortifications have been the great distance the recruits bave generally to march, constructed upon the seaboard; and it seems to be gene. and the time consumed in joining the regiments on the rally conceded, that our most important points of com frontiers, and the necessity of keeping within the authomunication with the ocean should be gradually rendered | rized numbers, it hardly can be expected that ten thousecure by similar works against the advance of an enemy. sand men would ever be exceeded, should Congress auThese forts, as they are finished, should be occupied by thorize twelve thousand men, as bere recommended. troops, not only to prevent such insults and injuries as "Upon a review of the fortifications which have been Jarge commercial places are exposed to, whose ap erected, and which are now in progress, for the defence proaches are not sufficiently guarded, but also to keep of the seacoast, it is found that there is a considerable the works in a proper state of preservation. These deficiency of artillerists to serve the guns, and to guard duties, it is believed, will require the artillery force pro and preserve the forts, as well as the valuable property posed to be maintained. Experience has shown that we in them. It is therefore proposed, as above recomare perpetually liable to occurrences which demand the mended, to augment the number of companies in the concentration and movement of the troops. Whenever artillery from thirty-six, as now authorized, to forty. these happen, the positions occupied must remain de These companies of artillery it is proposed to distribute fenceless, unless a greater force is raised. This is now along the seaboard, from Eastport, in Maine, to the delta the state of things along almost all our Atlantic border. of the Mississippi; and, in order to show the proposed
“With respect to the inland frontier, circumstances distribution, two tables are here annexed, marked C and of a still more imperative character require an augmen D. That marked C shows how the existing thirty-six tation of the army. Events have shown that our force companies may be most advantageously disposed of; and in that quarter is not sufficient to keep the Indians in that marked D, how it is proposed to distribute the forcheck. Disturbances are continually occurring, at com ty companies. Also a list of forts on the seacoast, preparatively short intervals, some of which terminate pared by the adjutant general, marked E. merely by alarming and agitating the country, while " The infantry force, with that of the regiment of others lead to hostilities more or less extensive. On dragoons, is best adapted to the defence of the frontiers, these occasions, the regular troops are collected from including the Gulf of Mexico. The present amount of great distances, and a militia force is usually called out. | infantry is not sufficient, in the opinion of the underHeavy expenditures are the necessary consequence, signed, to afford adequate protection to the inhabitants besides the loss of property and derangement of busi- | residing in the States and Territories bordering on our ness in the section of country where these troubles Indian and other frontiers, and guarding the arsenals in exist. Instead of having a force at all times imbodied the southern and western States. sufficient to overawe the Indians, or if they commence “If the project above recommended, of organizing hostilities, immediately to subdue them, much time is the infantry, as exhibited in the paper marked B, be lost in the necessary arrangements, while the spirit of adopted, making the infantry consist of nine regiments, disaffection is spreading, and the hostile force becomes instead of seven, it is proposed that they be distributed thus greatly increased. Within the last nine years we on the frontiers, and on the Gulf of Mexico, as shown in have had four difficulties of this nature-one with the paper marked F; which organization and distribution, Winnebagoes, two with the Sacs and Foxes, and one it is believed, will be the most effectual for maintaining with the Florida Indians; which, altogether, have occa the discipline of the army, and affording protection to
sioned great loss of property, great derangement of busi our extensive frontiers.” - ness, a heavy expenditure of money, and much incon Mr. B. said that this report of the Secretary of War * venience in those portions of the country affected by had been referred by the order of the Senate to the
these troubles, and which furnished the militia, whose Committee on Military Affairs, and this committee had services were required to aid the regular troops in their concurred in the opinion of the Secretary, and the geneoperations. An augmentation of the army to a reason- ral-in-chief of the army, that an augmentation of the able extent, if it did not prevent these occurrences al troops was necessary. They believed that ten thousand together, would certainly render them less frequent, as men for service would not exceed the number required; well as less injurious and extensive. And this policy is and, to obtain that vumber for service, they fully conpot less humane than useful. It is far better, by the curred in the opinion that it was necessary to authorize display of force, tu render its actual employment un an establishment of twelve thousand troops. The necessary, than it is to be compelled to resort to it, with committee had reported their bill accordingly; and, all the usual accompaniments of an Indian campaign." while providing for this augmentation of the number,
A force of ten thousand men is deemed to be neces they had also proposed to diversify the arms of the sary by the Secretary of War; but, to obtain that force troops, and to add riflemen and light infantry; two spefor service, he shows the necessity of authorizing a lar cies of troops peculiarly adapted to frontier service and ger number; as the casualties of service, with rapid dis. Indian wars, of which our military establishment was charges from three years' enlistments, will make a dif now destitute, and which were called for by the united ference of about one third between the authorized and opinions of military men. the actual effective force. The commander-in-chief of Having thus explained the origin of the measure, and