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JUNE 30, 1836.]

Joseph Grant-Fortification Bill.

(SENATE.

OM

any time vote for a bill, any part of the object of which

JOSEPH GRANT. was the expenditure of money alone, without regard to

A bill granting a patent to Joseph Grant was read a national utility; and that this was a bill of this character

third time, and passed by the following vote:

third time seemed partially acknowledged by some of its friends.

Yeas--Messrs. Cuthbert, Davis, Goldsborough, Hen. There was no fitness, he said, in establishing arsenals in

dricks, King of Alabama, Knight, Leigh, Linn, Mangum, every State, without regard to location or utility. And

Nicholas, Porter, Preston, Rives, Robbins, Ruggles, one half at least of the arsenals proposed would be as

Swift, Tallmadge, Tipton, White--19. useless as would be a horse stable in the city of Venice.

NAYS--Messrs. Benton, Black, Brown, Ewing of IlliAnd as to the armory in the West, it was about as much

nois, Ewing of Ohio, Grundy, Hubbard, King of Geor. called for as an additional Capitol, or a navy yard in the

gia, Moore, Morris, Robinson, Southard, Tipton, Walkwestern prairies. Where was the necessity for it? We

er, Wall, Wright-16. bad now on hand upwards of 8,000,000 stand of arms, which he himself thought enough, as it was about as

FORTIFICATION BILL. many as France or England had, with their large milita

Mr. WRIGHT, from the Committee on Finance, to ry establishments, and three times our population. The which had been referred the bill making appropriations utmost that any one required was one million, and we for certain fortifications of the United States for the year now proposed to expend $555,000 for an armory, only 1836, reported that the committee had had this bill unrequired to expedite the supply of two hundred thou der consideration; but it having been referred to them sand stand of arms, not needed immediately, and he without instructions, and believing that no reductions believed not needed at all; when the number required could be made consistently with the public service, and would be supplied from existing establishments before in the absence of all information to show the propriety the work would be completed. In answer to all this, of such a reduction, they had come to the determination however, it was said that justice required an expendi- to report back the bill in the same state in which it had ture of money in the West. He could not subscribe to been referred to them. such a principle. The work was a national work, and Mr. W. moved to strike out the appropriations for if it were not necessary any where, it was not necessary | arsenals in Missouri, Arkansas, and at Memphis, Tenin the West. If the Senator from Mississippi wished nessee, the same being included in the arsenal bill just another depot in his State, let him have it; if another passed; which was agreed to. were needed in Missouri, let it be built; and if more were Mr. SOUTHARD moved to strike out the appropriashown to be necessary any where in the West or else- tion of $150,000 for Fort Delaware, and asked the yeas where, he was ready to vote for them, but could not and nays; which were ordered. vote for works of enormous cost in the construction, The question was then taken, and decided as follows: , and which would have to be kept up at a very heavy

1 YEAS-Messrs. Brown, Clay, Crittenden, Ewing of additional annual expenditure, merely for the purpose Illinois, Hendricks, Leigh, Mangum, Moore, Porter, of expending money in any particular section of Preston, Robinson, Ruggles, Southard, Swift, Tipton, country.

Wall--16. In truth, Mr. K. said, the importance of these expend- Nays--Messrs. Bayard, Benton, Buchanan, Cuthbert, itures was greatly overrated by gentlemen. Wealth Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Grundy, Hubwas never created in any community by a mere expend- bard, King of Alabama, King of Georgia, Knight, Linn, iture of money. Jobbers might be enriched by Gov. Nicholas, Page, Rives, Robbins, Tallmadge, Walker, ernment expenditures, but communities were only en | Webster, White, Wright-22. riched by a steady increase of capital, and permanent Mr. CRITTENDEN moved to recommit the bill, with investments increasing the quantity of valuable products. instructions to reduce the appropriations to such sum He could refer his friend from Missouri to an example, as may be judiciously expended by the 4th of March upon a small scale, of a community depending upon next. Government expenditure alone. He referred to the Mr. CLAY made some remarks on the singularity of District of Columbia, whose financial condition the Sen- | the committee having reported the bill back without reator himself had truly stated to be worse than that of ten duction, after the sense of the Senate had been expressmiles square in any part of the globe, not excepting the ed in favor of reduction. deserts of Arabia. He thought uncertain expenditures Mr. WRIGHT replied as to the impossibility of the in this country, where all the population were already committee having any further information since yeswell employed, was attended often with injurious rather terday, which had not been before the committee for than beneficial consequences, as the people are too apt to | months. depend on expenditures alone. After referring to the 1 Mr. CLAY asked for what purpose the bill was comsubject of a national foundry, which, he said, he was mitted. Was it to be permitted that a majority of a disposed to vote for, that we might have a national es-committee should overrule the decision of a majority of tablishment of this kind, although we were pressed by the Senate? After the Senator had made the same no necessity on this head, as we could be abundantly statement yesterday, the Senate ordered the recommitsupplied with cannon from the existing private estab-ment, and here, after a few hours, the bill is brought lishments, he concluded by regretting that he could not back in the same form. vote for the bill, in consequence of the objectionable After some few remarks from Mr. PRESTON and items it contained.

Mr. WRIGHT, The bill was then passed: Yeas 24, nays 15, as fol- ! Mr. CLAY said that it had been stated that two thou. lows.

sand guns were all that would be required to arm the YEAS--Messrs. Benton, Black, Brown, Buchanan, fortifications, and that we had one thousand eight hunCuthbert, Ewing of Illinois, Grundy, Hendricks, Hub- dred and eighteen; and, as liberal appropriations had bard, Kent, King of Alabama, Linn, Morris, Nicholas, been made in another bill, he could not see the proprie. Page, Rives, Robinson, Ruggles, Tallmadge, Tipton, ty of voting the large sumts in this bill. He stated that Walker, Wall, White, Wright--24.

$200,000 was wanted for the transportation of arms; and Nays--Messrs. Calhoun, Clay, Crittenden, Davis, a gentleman of responsibility had stated, in the other. Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, King of Georgia, Leigh, 1 House, that all the arms in the country could be transMangum, Moore, Preston, Robbins, Southard, Swift, ported for $25,000. Tomlinson--15.

Mr. CALHOUN adverted to the necessity for some

SENATE.]

Death of James Madison.

(JUNE 30, 1836.

point at which the accumulation of arms must stop, and rich blessings which have resulted from its establishment. when there would be a tremendous reaction, when the He was the last surviving signer of that sacred instru. losses in consequence of risk, ensurance, impediment, ment. Amid the general grief which pervades the &c., would be infinitely greater than the value of the nation, may we not indulge one consolation at least, in arms."

the hope that his death, whilst adding the last seal to his Mr. CUTHBERT stated his understanding of the own fame and glory, will, in some sort, canonize the feelings and views which influenced the Senate to re work of his hands, and surround with a new veneration commit the bill, and alleged that there was a change of that precious relic of the wisdom of our departed patriground, and, of course, in the action of the gentlemenots and sages. on the other side. He warned them not to incur the But, sir, I will not speak of the public life of Mr. suspicion of acting only for the purpose of winning pop- Madison; it is known to us all; it is appreciated by us ular favor, and to recollect that the verdict of the coun all. It was my privilege to see and to know him in the try had been repeatedly given in favor of the system of scenes of that classic retirement in which he passed the defence on which this bill was founded.

evening of his days. It was there that the mild lustre of Mr. PRESTON said that he was in entire ignorance his private virtues, which formed the crowning grace of the matters on which he was now called to vote. He of his character, and is the indispensable complement of stated what had been for many years the amouut of the | a true public glory, was seen and felt. But who can annual appropriations for fortifications, and protested paint him there? Who can adequately describe that against doubling now, when six months of the year had fascinating suavity of temper and manners, that spirit and expired.

grace of conversation so happily blended with the oraAfter some further debate, the question was taken cles of philosophy and experience, that amiable and culon the motion, and decided in the negative: Yeas 18, tivated benevolence, ever watchful of the feelings and nays 21.

comfort of others, even in the minutest trifles, which, The question was then taken on engrossing the amend. together, formed, around the hearth of Montpelier, a ment, and ordering the bill to be read a third time, by group of social virtues and attractions which, however the following vote:

incompetent the powers of language to portray, none YEAS-Messrs. Bayard, Benton, Black, Brown, Bu. who have felt their influence can ever forget? In speakchanan, Cuthbert, Ewing of Illinois, Grundy, Hendricks, ing of these things, Mr. President, I am but too forcibly Hubbard, Kent, King of Alabama, Linn, Morris, Nicho reminded of my own personal loss in the general and las, Niles, Page, Porter, Rives, Robbins, Robinson, Rugnational calamity which we all bewail. I was the neighgles, Tallmadge, Tipton, Tomlinson, Walker, Webster, bor of Mr. Madison, sir, and enjoyed his kindness and White, Wright--28.

friendship; and if, in speaking of a great national be. Nays--Messrs. Calhoun, Clay, Crittenden, Ewing of reavement, my mind recurs too fondly to the chasm his Ohio, Leigh, Mangum, Moore, Preston, Southard--9. death has left in the immediate circle of his friends, DEATH OF JAMES MADISON.

something, I trust, will be pardoned to the feelings of The following message was received from the Presi

the heart. dent of the United States, by Mr. DonElson, his sec

It is my melancholy satisfaction to have received, in

all probability, the last letter ever signed by his hand. retary: WASHINGTON, June 30, 1836.

It bears date only six days before his death, and furTo the Senate and House of Representatives:

nishes, in its contents, a striking illustration of that It becomes my painful duty to announce to you the

amiable benevolence, and sensibility to the kindness of melancholy intelligence of the death of JAMES MADISON,

others, which formed so prominent a trait in his charac.

temin that letter. wbich is now before me, ne spoke Ex-President of the United States. He departed this life at half past six o'clock, on the morning of the 28th

of his enfeebled health; and his trembling and unsteady instant, full of years and full of honors.

signature, so much in contrast with the usual firmness I hasten this communication, in order that Congress

and regularity of his writing, bore a graphic and melanmay adopt such measures as may be proper to testify

choly intimation of his approaching end. Still I trusted their sense of the respect which is due to the memory of

that his light might hold out to the 4th of July, that he one whose life has contributed so essentially to the hap.

might be restored on that glorious anniversary to an piness and glory of his country, and to the good of man.

immortal companionship with those great men and pa

triots with whom he had been intimately connected in kind. ANDREW JACKSON.

life, and whose coincident deaths, on the birthday of the

nation's freedom, had imparted to that day, if possible, Mr. RIVES addressed the Senate as follows:

an additional and mysterious illustration. But it has Mr. President, I feel that it would be an act of sacri- been ordered otherwise. His career has been closed at legious temerity, were I to attempt to add to the intrinsic an epoch which, forty-nine years ago, witnessed his pathos of the melancholy intelligence just announced to most efficient labors in the illustrious assembly wbich us by the President of the United States, by any thing laid the foundations of our present system of Governin the way of eulogy on the character of the great man ment, and will thus, by the remembrance of his death, whose decease he has communicated to us. The eulogy as well as by the services of his life, more closely assoof Mr. Madison is written in every page of the history of ciate him with that great work which is at once the bis country, to whose service his whole life was devoted, source and the guarantee of his country's happiness and and with every great event in whose annals his name glory. stands conspicuously and enduringly identified. Filled, 1° What honors, Mr. President, are there, by which we however, as his life was, from its dawn to its close, with can do justice to a character which history will hold up labors of patriotism and superior wisdom, there is one to future ages as a model of public and private virtue, great work of his which must ever recur prominently to not surpassed by the brightest examples in ancient or the grateful memory of his country. He was, in an modern times? Sir, there are none. Still it is proper especial manner, the founder and author of that glorious that, as representatives of the American people, we constitution which is the bond of our Union and the should show, by some suitable manifestations, how sincbarter of our liberties; and it was graciously vouchsafed cerely and deeply we participate in the universal feeling to him, in the order of providence, to witness, for a lof grief on this mournful occasion; and I move you, longer period than any of his illustrious colleagues, the I therefore, the following resolution:

JULY 1, 1836.]

Supplementary Deposite Bill-President of the Senate pro tem.

(SENATE.

Resolved, That a committee be appointed on the part and affection it may be proper for the Congress of the of the Senate, to join such committee as may be appoint- United States to express the deep sensibility of the naed on the part of the House, to consider and report by tion in the event of the decease of Mr. Madison, reportwhat token of respect and affection it may be proper fored the following resolutions, which were unanimously the Congress of the United States to express the deep adopted: sensibility of the nation to the event of the decease of "The President of the United States having commuMr. Madison, just announced by the President of the nicated to the two Houses of Congress the melancholy United States.

intelligence of the death of their illustrious fellow-citizen, The resolution was unanimously adopted; and, James Madison, of Virginia, late President of the United

On motion of Mr. RIVES, the committee was appoint- States, and the two Houses sharing in the general grief ed by the Chair, consisting of the following gentlemen: wbich this distressing event must produce Messrs. Rives, CLAY, CALHOUX, GRUNDY, BUCHANAN, Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of LEIGH, and TALLMADGE.

the United States of America in Congress assembled, That SUPPLEMENTARY DEPOSITE BILL.

the chairs of the President of the Senate and of the

Speaker of the House of Representatives be shrouded On motion of Mr. WEBSTER, the bill supplementary in black during the residue of the session, and that the to an act to regulate the deposites of the public money | President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of was taken up for consideration.

Representatives, and the members and officers of both [This bill goes to authorize the Secretary of the Houses, wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty Treasury to transfer money from the deposite banks in days. any State or Territory to any other deposite bank, when Resolved, That it be recommended to the people of it is necessary to prevent the accumulation of too much the United States to wear crape on the left arm, as of the public money in any one bank.]

mourning, for thirty days. Mr. MANGUM moved to lay the bill on the table, but Resolved, That the President of the United States be withdrew the motion.

requested to transmit a copy of these resolutions to Mrs. Mr. WALKER renewed the motion, and it was nega Madison, and to assure her of the profound respect of tived.

the two Houses of Congress for her person and characThe amendment of the committee was concurred in, ter, and of their sincere condolence on the late afflicting and the bill was ordered to be engrossed.

dispensation of Providence. Mr. MANGUM moved that the Senate take a recess

After transacting a large amount of other business, till seven o'clock; which was agreed to.

principally in relation to bills, EVENING SEssioX.

The Senate adjourned at about half past 12 o'clock. The bill supplemental to the act to regulate the pub

FRIDAY, JULY 1. lic deposites was read the third time and passed, by yeas and nays, as follows:

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE PRO TEM. Yeas-Messrs. Bayard, Buchanan, Clayton, Cuthbert, At eleven o'clock, A. M., the Secretary called the Davis, Ewing of Ohio, Goldsborough, Hendricks, Kent, Senate to order; and, King of Alabama, King of Georgia, Linn, Nicholas, On motion of Mr. WEBSTER, the Senate proceeded Niles, Page, Porter, Preston, Robbins, Robinson, South- to the election of a President pro tem.; and the ballots ard, Swift, Tomlinson, Wall, Wright--24.

being counted, the votes appeared to be as follows: Nays-Messrs. Benton, Brown, Mangum, Moore, For Mr. King, of Alabama, . Walker, White-6.

For Mr. SOUTHAND, - .

- 14 WISCONSIN.

Scattering, - -

So that Mr. King, of Alabama, was declared to be The bill to create the office of surveyor of public la

duly elected President of the Senate, pro tem., and was lands in the Territory of Wisconsin was taken up for

conducted to the chair by Mr. WHITE. consideration.

The President pro tem. returned his thanks, to the folMr. TIPTON moved to lay the bill on the table, con

lowing effect: sidering the office unnecessary. Mr. EWING opposed the motion, and, on taking the

Gentlemen of the Senate: question, it was rejected.

This flattering manifestation of the confidence and Mr. TIPTON then moved to amend the bill by stri- | respect of my brother Senators fills my heart with the king out the whole, and inserting a substitute, providing

viding liveliest sensibility. that the office of surveyor general of the public lands,

To be called to preside over the deliberations of the for Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin, shall be held Senate of the United States, distinguished as it is for at , Indiana.

intelligence, moral worth, and a patriotic devotion to the Mr. T. accompanied this motion with some remarks in principles of liberty, is an honor of which the first in its favor.

this land might be justly proud. I shall enter, gentleMr. EWING. of Ohio, said that there were, no doubt, men, upon the discharge of the duties which your kindmany advantages in the proposition of the gentleman

ñ ness has devolved upon me, with the determination to from Indiana, but he thought it too late in the session

assion discharge them zealously, faithfully, and impartially. I now to obtain information from the General Land of

am, however, fully aware that, unless I am sustained by fice, wbich was necessary before making so important a / the Senate, all my efforts correctly and usefully to dischange.

charge them must prove vain and fruitless; but the order, Mr. Tipton's motion was rejected, and the bill was the decorum, which has heretofore so eminently distinordered to be engrossed for a third reading. It was, in

hird rending. It was in guished the Senate of the United States; the courtesy a subsequent part of the evening, read the third time

and good feeling which has uniformly marked the official and passed.

and social intercourse of its members, gives to me the

strongest assurance that I may confidently rely on their RESPECT TO JAMES MADISON.

kindness and support. I earnestly request honorable Mr. RIVES, from the select committee appointed to Senators to make proper allowances for the errors into meet such committee as might be appointed by the other which I may occasionally fall, and to aid me in correct. House to consider and report by what token of respecting them,

22

SENATE.]

Texas.

(JULY 1, 1836.

TEXAS.

ment, carried even to the point of timidity in reference

to Greece; and referred to the fact that General Houston Mr. PRESTON moved the Senate to take up the res- had seconded his resolutions on the subject of sending olution of the Committee on Foreign Relations on the commissioners to that republic. subject of Texas.

Mr. WALKER made some remarks to show that Mr. PRESTON made some remarks, in the course of Mexico had never exercised the power of government which he stated that he had with difficulty restrained in Texas, except during a short interval when Santa himself from offering an amendment to recognise the in- Anna was in Texas. dependence of Texas immediately. He gave a brief Mr. BUCHANAN concurred in every sentiment exnarrative of the events of the revolution in Texas, and pressed in the report of the committee, and congratustated that he had this morning received authentic inforlated the Senate on the spectacle exhibited by the peomation, in the form of a letter from Mr. Austin, which ple of the United States, who, although operated upon confirms the statement that General Filasola had carried by the strongest feelings of indignation at the outrageous into effect the armistice agreed on between the Texian conduct of the Mexicans, had confined themselves within Government and Santa Anna. This treaty Mr. P. re- the limits of our established policy. He did not perceive garded as amounting to a recognition on the part of that any disadvantage could result to Texas from a little Mexico of the independence of Texas. The Vice Presi-delay, now that she is in the full tide of her prosperity. dent of Texas was about to proceed to Vera Cruz, to Mr. CALHOUN congratulated the Senate on the tone enforce from the mouths of the Texian guns the conclu- of the discussion; stated that he had hoped we shoud be sion of a definitive treaty of peace between the two ready to recognise Texas before now; but under existing countries.

circumstances, he thought we should only go at present Mr. P. continued, at some length, to expatiate on the so far as the report and resolution contemplate. situation and achievements and claims of Texas, and ad. Mr. NILES said that he did not wish to prolong the verted to certain treaty stipulations with Mexico concern-debate; yet, from the relation in which he stood to the ing the Indians west of the Sabine, which stipulations it subject, he felt it a duty to express his approbation of would only be in the power of Texas now to carry into the resolution wbich had been reported by the Commiteffect. He concluded with offering to amend the reso- tee on Foreign Affairs. He fully concurred in the lution by adding an expression of the gratification which views of the committee. He thought they had gone the Senate felt on hearing of the course taken by the far enough, and had stopped at the proper point. He President of the United States to obtain information of had on a former occasion expressed the opinion that it the situation of Texas.

would be premature unqualifiedly to recognise the inMr. CLAY said he had no objection to the amend-dependence of Texas at this time, and he had seen nothment, as it is in consonance with the tone of the report. ing to change this opinion. In determining the question He did not agree that the fact of a new State having ex. of the propriety of the recognition of the independence pelled her enemy, or having even captured the head of of Texas, there are two points of investigation: the first, the hostile force, was, of itself, sufficient to warrant a whether the people of that portion of the country are in recognition of her independence as one of the family of fact an independent and distinct community, exercising nations. In reference to the remark of the Senator that the powers of self-government; and, the second, wheTexas only could carry into effect the treaty we have ther there are reasonable grounds to believe that they negotiated with Mexico, (Mr. C. said,) no principle in are in a condition to maintain their independence. the law of nations was more settled than that the branches in relation to the first question, there was no difficul. of a nation were bound to fulfil the stipulations of a ty; the dominion of Mexico over Texas is completely treaty made by the head; and Texas was now as much and effectually overthrown, and the people have estabbound by the treaty with Mexico, as was Mexico herself. lished a constitution and Government for themselves, We are bound to have some sympathy with the people founded on liberal principles, similar to those forming of Mexico, while we heap indignities upon the vain-| the basis of our own institutions. They are at this time glorious and cruel tyrant Santa Anna; and he hoped that I de facto a free and independent State, governing themthis would be a cherished feeling towards the eight selves, and managing their own affairs. This elevated millions of the people of Mexico, and that we would wait | position, and the rights pertaining to it, no people have so long as to give them an opportunity, in the first place, stronger claims to; they have been achieved and won to recognise the independence of Texas, by the treaty by their valor, sacrifices, and sufferings, almost unparwhich the Senator had said the Vice President of Texas alleled in so short a contest. Animated by a spirit of was on his way to Vera Cruz to conclude. This would liberty and independence, they have contended against be the course most glorious and most advantageous to fearful odds, with courage and determination that could Texas. If he were to yield to his own feelings merely, hardly fail of success, and which led to the glorious viche might be inclined not only to recognise Texas, but to tory of Saint Jacinto--a victory not surpassed in the recgo still farther to promote the interests of those who are lords of modern warfare. By this single victory, not only struggling for their freedom. As soon as the information the power of the Mexican chief was overthrown, but desired by the President should be obtained, (and the that of the Mexican nation, which still acknowledges him sooner the better,) he hoped the President would take as at the head of its Government. that course which would be most in conformity with the Texas is now free and independent; she has throwa feelings of the American people.

off the dominion of Mexico, and stands forth to the world Mr. WEBSTER added a few words to express his en as a separate and sovereign State. But before we can tire acquiescence in the resolution of the committee and extend our arms to receive and embrace her as a memthe amendment. He was willing to go so far as to vote ber of the family of nations, we must be reasonably satfunds to enable the President to send out a proper min isfied that she is capable of maintaining the high attitude ister. But against a direct recognition he thought there she has assumed; we must look not only to her military existed strong objections. It was the proper function of power, but to the number and condition of her people. the President to take the lead in this matter. He was of Has she a population, has she resources, sufficient to the opinion that the recency of the revolution was an sustain the rank and character of an independent State? objection to immediate recognition. Time was expe. Her population is limited; in Texas proper it does not dient where the object was not of peculiar urgency. He perhaps exceed sixty thousand; and in the whole terriadverted to the generally cautious policy of our Govern. I tory, including the State of Cohuihui, less than two hunJULY 1, 1836.]

Texas.

[SENATE.

dred thousand. This, it must be confessed, is a small should it ever arise, would probably be found beset with population for an independent State; but it is to be re- many difficulties, and may excite a deep conflict of feel. membered that all power is relative; and, in judging of ings. He would only say, that destiny, which no legis. the capacity of the Texians to sustain themselves as an lative foresight or human sagacity can control, had no independent people, we must also look to the condition doubt intimately connected Texas with the United States. and strength of Mexico. It is well known that the re- 1 Nothing can be more clear than this. She is upon our public of Mexico, if such it can be called, has for more borders, and is and will be settled by citizens of this than twenty years been agitated and distracted by suc Union, speaking our own language, carrying with them cessive revolutions; that the power has been transferred the spirit of our free institutions, and the same love of from one chief to another, according to the fortune of liberty glowing in their hearts. Destiny had established war, or the success of the intrigues and ambitious intimate political connexion between the United States schemes of political aspirants. In these protracted strug- and Texas; but what that relation would be, whether gles, and almost continuous civil broils, the nation has that territory would be annexed to this Union, and form become enfeebled and exhausted, and the people im- one or more States, or whether it would exist as an inpoverished and plundered by the rapacity of the chiefs dependent nation under the protection of the United and military rulers. Although possessed of a consider- States, time only could determine. Such political relaable population, Mexico is a weak and feeble State. She tions were not incompatible with the rights of sovereignhas no navy, and possesses none of the elements forty and independence, and have long existed between constructing one. The physical position and advantages England and Portugal. of a State form an important element in its means and That Texas would be able to sustain the attitude she capacity of defence. On the Rio del Norte there is a had assumed, he had little doubt; yet the recency of desert of sixty miles in breadth, wbich seems to be a events there required that we should not be precipitate; natural barrier that separates the southern from the time alone could test the stability and true condition of northern portion of the Mexican territory. Or it may affairs in that country. He did not, however, concur become the barrier and natural boundary between two with the honorable Senator from Pennsylvania, (Mr. Bugreat nations on this continent; the one extending south CHANAN] that a recognition on the part of this Governto the isthmus of Darien, the other embracing the whole ment at this time would not benefit Texas. He thought country north.

such an act would have great influence on her affairs; it If Texas is a small community for an independent would give them an impetus, powerful and irresistible; State, it is to be borne in mind that there are many small 1 it would be the signal for the bold and enterprising citi. independent States in Europe, surrounded by the most zens of the United States to rush like a swelling flood powerful nations; such are Portugal, Switzerland, and into that country, to share in the toils, the glory, and the others. However small a State may be, yet if it have rewards, of the contest which is going on. But the very asserted and established its independence, and from fact that an unqualified recognition of the independence physical or other causes, or the weakness of the Power of Texas would exert so potent an influence in her cause, claiming dominion over it, it is able to maintain it, the 1 is a strong reason against such a measure in the present small amount of its population, and its weakness, as com-unsettled state of the contest. It might throw a suspi. pared with the large Powers of the earth, form no ob cion upon our neutrality, if an act of this Government jections to its being recognised and received into the should have a direct agency in effecting the independfamily of nations. The same principles of justice and ence of a country lying upon our borders, and which of national law apply to a small State as to a large one. may hereafter be annexed to our territory. The resoIn either case the question is, is it in fact independent? lutions now before us, containing a qualified recognition, Is it in the possession of a Government and civil consti- will no doubt have a favorable and salutary influence on tution, and in a condition to maintain them? In estima- the cause of Texian independence and liberty. It will ting the capacity of Texas to sustain the attitude she has be a voice from a great, free, and kindred people, which assumed in relation to Mexico, we must not overlook the cannot fail to cheer, animate, and encourage the brave character of her population, a large portion of them men on our southern border, who have shown them. having been emigrants from the United States, enter- selves so deserving of freedom and so capable of mainprising and enlightened. The intelligence, the physi- taining it. This voice will reverberate throughout the cal and moral energies, of a people are of more impor Union, and its influence will not be slow nor small on tance than their numbers. How many Mexicans are our own citizens. Aroused by a spirit of liberty and enequal to one Texian! Let the victory of Saint Jacinto terprise, a strong current is setting that way, and its answer.

course will be onward, strong, and irresistible. If the Mr. N. said he would not touch on the ulterior ques adoption of these resolutions shall contribute to give a tions connected with this subject; and he regretted that favorable impulsation to the cause of Texas, he should the honorable Senator from South Carolina (Mr. Cal rejoice at it; for so far as it is right for this Government HOUN) had alluded to the annexation of Texas to the to go, without being exposed to the slightest imputation United States. When considering the question of her of an improper interference or a disregard of the strictindependence, he thought it should be kept free from est obligations of neutrality, so far he was prepared to even any suggestions regarding the probable future des. go. He would scrupulously guard the national honor tiny of that country. It might occasion suspicions inju and faith, and strictly adhere to those principles of action rious to the honor and purity of our conduct, to connect which have ever controlled the course of this Governany views of ultimate aggrandizement or accession of ment in its connexions with other nations; but these territory with the question of doing justice to a brave resolutions will not conflict with those principles, whilst people upon our borders struggling for their rights. I think they may have a favorable and salutary influence Whatever may be the ultimate destiny of that country, on the cause of Texian independence and freedom. He or its influence on that of this republic, he was not dis- hoped they would be adopted with perfect unanimity. posed to inquire on this occasion, as no considerations of Mr. SOUTHARD said: that character ought to influence us, either to grant or Mr. President, the opinion and wishes expressed by withbold a recognition. Whether it would be for the the Senator from South Carolina (Mr. Calioux) induce interest and safety of the United States to purchase me to say a few words before the vote is taken. I am Texas, was a question that he did not wish to see con- willing to give my assent to the resolution presented for nected with the one before the Senate; that question, I our consideration by the Committee on Foreign Rela

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