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first time. The purchase of a Penguin by the Zoological Society has afforded the rare opportunity of watching its subaqueous proceedings (p. 4262), which have proved most interesting. At p. 4197 will be found a brief account of the nesting of the Crowned Pigeon, showing a strange discrepancy between the economy of this and the other species of the same order: the young of the Crowned Pigeon being about one-third the size of the adult when it leaves the nest; the Domestic Pigeon being full grown; and both being fully feathered. At p. 3998 is an extremely interesting, and I believe quite original, observation, by Mr. Barrington, on the position in which the Tree Creeper holds its legs when climbing a vertical trunk.
Fishes.—I would emphatically call attention to the observation of Mr. Hughes (p. 3895) on the sleep of Fishes: the enquiry whether Fishes sleep has been repeated over and over again; and to Mr. Hughes is due the credit of giving a satisfactory reply:—Fishes not only sleep, but sleep soundly, lying perfectly still at the bottom of little rock-pools left by the retiring tide; and in the instance recorded allowing Mr. Hughes to take them, one by one, out of the water, while they still continued slumbering unconscious of danger. At p. 3872 I have reprinted from 'Nature' a paper by Mr. Saville-Kent, intituled, "Fish distinguished by their Actions." Mr. Kent was kind enough to send me this for republication, knowing the extreme interest I took in the doings of all living animals. The Fishes principally noticed are the Smooth Hound, the Spotted Dog-fish, the Angel-fish, the Gurnards, the Gemmeous Dragonets, the Pipe-fish, the Sea-horses, and the John Doree, concerning all of which he has made original observations. Again at p. 3838 Mr. Howard Saunders has, I believe, for the first time, recorded the spawning habits of the Flying Fish, as observed by himself at the Chincha Islands, on the coast of Peru.
Crustaceans.—The capture of the American King Crab, or Horseshoe Crab, off the coast of Holland, as recorded in the 'Zoologist' last year, was regarded as a problem extremely difficult of solution; but in the January number of this year (p. 3845) Mr. Lloyd informed us that, when manager of the Hamburg Aquarium, having received a greater quantity of King Crabs than he could possibly accommodate, he packed them in a cask, shipped them on board a steamer bound for London, and had them thrown into the sea on the British side of the little island of Heligoland. This was in August, 1866; and there is no reason to doubt that either these very Crabs or their descendants were captured on the same spot in 1874.
Such are some of the results obtained already by diverting observation into a channel comparatively new.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.
Bailey, H. F.
Ostriches pairing, 8916
Balkwill, Francis Hancock
Curious malformation of the incisor
teeth in the skulls of two rats,
Affection of the sea gull for its
Barclay, H. A.
Hoopoe at Knotts Green, Leyton,
Barrington, Richard M.
Siskins breeding in Ireland, 8914;
Golden eagle at Powerscourt,
8952; Peculiar position in feet
of Certhia familiaris, 8998; The
hairy-armed bat (Scotophilus
Leisleri) in Ireland, 4071; Mi-
grations of spring immigrants,
Bell, Thomas, F.R.S.
Scarcity and late stay of martins
and swallows at Seiborne, 8833
Borrer, William, F.L.S.
Notes on British bats, 4125
Bowerbank, J. S., LL.D., F.R.S.
Fishing frog at St. Leonard's, 4000;
Beaumaris shark taken off Hast-
Glaucous gulls in East Yorkshire,
8836; Little bittem in East
Brigos, T. R. Archer, F.L.S.
Autumnal song of the chiffchaff,
Brown, John A. Harvte
Osprey carrying off chickens, 4117;
Glaucous gull, 4120
Birds observed at Glenarm Castle,
3829; Arrival of summer birds
at Glenarm, 4082
Butler, A. G., F.L.S.
Robins feeding young thrushes,
4038; Starlings laying in tho
hole of a sand martin, 4077
Cambridge, Rev. O. P., M.A.
Fieldfares feeding upon apples,
3830; Late stay of house martins,
8833; Conclusion of the 'Ento-
mologist's Annual,' 8955
Great crested grebe at Luton,
Carey, C. B.
A word about museums, 4056; song
of the swallow, 4156; Ornitho-
logical jottings, 4231; Cuckoo
singing at night, 4238
Clark-kennedy, Capt., F.R.G.S..&C.
Ornithology of the Orkneys, 8883;
On the occurrence of Emberiza
nivalis in full summer plumage,
Clark-kennedy, Arthur John
An osprey carrying off young
chickens, 8996; A flight of bats,
Complaint in nestling birds, 4075;
Iceland gull, 4078; Baillon's
crake near Eastbourne, 4159;
Gray phalarope in Cheshire,
4289; Rare birds at Eastbourne,
4258; Late breeding of par-
Black redstart in summer plumage
in November, 3832; Martins and
swallows—is their late stay de-
pendent on the wind? Indif-
ference of small birds to tho
kestrel, 3834; Greater forkbeard
off Looe, Cornwall, 8839; Early
congregation of martins, 4157;
Salmon peal attacked by a gar-
fish, 4160; Gray phalarope in
Eagle owl at Bridgnorth, 3997
Cord In, G. B.
A four-legged chicken, 3835; Food
of the salmon, 3839; Corn crake,
3881; The mute swan and its
food, 3915; Lesser redpoll and
siskin, 4034; Swallows roosting
on rushes, 4035
Ornithological notes from North
Lincolnshire, 3856, 3942, 4029,
Small lumpsucker, 3839; Lump-
sucker and whiff off the Cornish
coast, The species of mackerel,
4037; Fox shark off Scilly, Dorse
near the Lizard, Cornwall, 4080;
Turtle in Mount's Bay, 4242;
Pimelepterus Cornubiensis, a sup-
posed new fish, at Penzance,
4255; Kay's bream near Pen-
Birds in Guernsey, 4237; Mute
swan in Guernsey, 4239
Crewe, Rev. H. Harpur, M.A.
House martin near Aylesbury on
the 5th of December, 3833
Crosfield, Albert J.
Late martins and swallows, 3881
Dockray, John A.
Curious nesting of the flycatcher,
Tree sparrow, 3997; Little bittern
near Epping, 4199
Note on the water rail, 3881; Or-
nithological notes from Lanca-
shire, 3912; Malformation in
upper mandible of a redshank,
3999; Ornithological notes, 4063;
Notes on the birds of Walney
Eaton, Rev. A. E., M.A.
Notes on the Fauna of Spitsbergen,
Communications and extracts con-
cerning the marsh sandpiper,
Foster, J. A.
Curious instinct in the mole, 3879
Bluethroated warbler at Chatteris,
Ornithological notes from Devon-
shire, Cornwall, &c., 3826, 3909,
3943, 4102,4226,4253; Plumage
of the black redstart, 3913; Pie-
bald and malformed rat, 3996;
An octopus at Plymouth, 4037;
Rabbit with one ear, 4153;
Greater shearwater on the coasts
of Devon and Cornwall, 4262;
Pilot-fish at Plymouth, 4266
GODLEE, RlCKMAN J.
The bite of a viper, 4079
Clausilia Rolphii in Surrey, 4243
Gunn, T. E.
Buzzards in Norfolk, Marsh harrier
in Suffolk, Food of barn owl and
-great spotted woodpecker, Pied
flycatcher in Norfolk, Lesser red-
poll breeding near Norwich, 4117
Gurney, J. H.
Note on the longevity of the royal
kite, 3830; Note on the occur-
rence of the greater shearwater
in Bridlington Bay, 3882; Note
on the changes of plumage in
guillemots and razorbills, 3954;
Water rail, 4036; Greater spotted
woodpecker and starlings, 4077;
Note on the voracity of a tame
duck, 4078; Note on a pied lob-
ster, 4080; Food of the noctule
bat, 4153; Nidification of the
snowy owl in confinement, 4154;
Salmon in the River Coquet in
the last century, 4160; Note on
the noctule bat, Accident to a
weasel and to a redbreast, 4194
Gurney, J. H., jun.
Shore birds on the Cley and Blake-
ney muds, 4196
Hadfield, Capt. Henry
Remarks on birds seen during a
three weeks' tour in Brittany,
3945; Fish and Crustacea in the
tanks, &c., at Concarneau, 3947;
Large otter in the Isle of Wight,
3952; Pairing of birds, 3954;
Common buzzard in the Isle of
Wight, 3996; Peregrines in the
Isle of Wight, 4032; Nesting of
the tree sparrow, 4076; Mortality
of the house sparrow and martin,
4155; Little auk and dunlin,
4200; Autumnal migration of the
willow wren, swallow and black-
Haet, W. E.
Partridge perching in a tree,
HODgkINSON, J. B.
Glossy ibis and roller, 4158
Hornby, Hugh P.
Cuckoo in confinement, 3833
HiigEl, Baron A. Von
Ornithological notes from Torquay,
Hughes, W. R., F.L.S.
The sleep of fishes, 3895
Jeffery, W., jun.
Ornithological notes from West
Sussex, 8822; Food of water
Jones, J. Matthew, F.L.S.
A new fish, 8837
Kent, W. Saville, F.L.S.
Fish distinguished by their action,
Kerr, W. J.
Ornithological notes from Den-
bighshire, 3913; Ferocity of the
jackdaw, 8915; Crossbills in
Denbighshire, Ravens nesting
in North Wales, 4156; Shicl-
drakcs breeding in Merioneth-
Lego, W. H.
Greater spotted woodpecker near
Farnham, 4077; Name of a bird,
Lloyd, W. A.
On tho occurrence of Limulus Poly-
phemus off the coast of Holland,
and on the transmission of aqua-
rium animals, 3845
Mathew, Gervase F., R.N., F.L.S.
A visit to the breeding haunts of
the frigate-bird, 3991; Ornitho-
logical notes from North Devon,
4131,4249; Lesser spotted wood-
pecker at Instow, 4156; Green
sandpiper, 4159; Ornithological
notes from Dartmouth, 4230
Mathew, Rev. Murray A., M.A.
Bird notes from the west, 3824
Mitchell, J. G.
Economic value of alligators, 3954
Moore, George W. P.
Habitat of "rat-bats " (?), 4075;
Curiously situated nests of tits,
Treo sparrow building in Cam-
More, A. G., F.L.S., M.R.I.A.
Salpa spinosa off the West Coast of
Newman, Edward, F.L.S.
The denizens of aquariums, 3876;
Rhinoceros Sondaicus at the Zoo-
logical Gardens, 8949; Astroides
calicularis of Milne - Edwards,
3955; Curious malformation in
the mandibles of a shortfaced
tumbler, 8998; Zoology of tho
Royal Academy, 4021; Collected
observations on White's thrush,
4045; Communications and ex-
tracts concerning the marsh
sandpiper, 4054; Gigantic squids,
4105; Tho guillemots at the Zoo-
logical Gardens, 4119; Memo-
randum on the crowned pigeon,
4197; Zoological Society's Gar-
dens in Regent's Park, 4202,
4243; The explosion on tho
Regent's Canal, 4244; Moulting
freak in a robin, 4258; Tho ka-
kapo, owl-parrot, or night parrot,
4260; Didunculus strigirostris,
4201; The penguin at the Zoo,
4262; King crabs at tho Crystal
Palace Aquarium, 4266
Newton, Prof. Alfred, M.A., F.R.S.
The lesser redpoll not in Spits-
bergen, 3880; Correction of an
Honey buzzard in Cheshire, 4237;
Orangelegged hobby in Cheshire,
Chaffinch nesting in confine-
Rednecked phalarope at Salthouse,
Norfolk, 4159; Lesser shrews
and bank voles, 4236
Ooilby, J. Douglas
Hairy-armed bat in County Dublin,
Ogilvy, Walter T.
Buff variety of the house sparrow,
Palmer, J. E.
Honey buzzard near Huddersfield,
4153; Baillon's crake near Hud-
PllLEy, J. B.
Landrail in January, 3953
Potts, T. H., F.L.S.
Notes on the birds of New Zea-
land, 3898, 3936, 3979, 4014; On
recent changes in tho Fauna of
New Zealand, 4135; Recent oc-
currence of Apteryx Haastii of
Albino water rat, 4074
Rake, N. Beaven
Nesting of the tree sparrow, 4154
Randall, W. Sidney
The common gull in captivity, 4129
Rickards, Marcus S. C, F.L.S.
Pomarine skua in North Devon,
4240; Richardson's skua near
Clevedon and at Instow, 4241
Communications and extracts con-
cerning the marsh sandpiper,
Eobinson, Rev. E.
White woodcock in Ireland, 3915
Rood, Edward Hearle
White's thrush near Grampound,
Cornwall, 3880; Garganey teal
at the Land's End, 3953; Spring
migrants, 3997; A vegetarian cat,
4031; Spring migration of the
British warblers, 4032; Varia-
tion in the song of the blackcap
warbler, 4075; Pratincole at the
Lizard, Cornwall, 4077; Mon-
tagu's harrier, 4153; Buffon's
skua near Falmouth, 4239;
Woodcocks in the Scilly Isles,
4260; Greater shearwater on tho
Cornish coast, 42C1
Eope, G. T.
Notes from Leiston, Suffolk, 8865;
Early nesting of the sky lark,
4034; Nesting of tho garganey
and wild duck, 4036
Spawning of flying-fish, 3838
Saxby, Rev. S. H., M.A.
Ornithological query, 4116
Notes from Castle Eden, 4066, 4221
Ring ouzel, &c, at Exmouth, 3831;
Ornithological notes from Somer-
setshire, 3868; The black gan-
Smith,.joseph, M.E.C.S., F.L.S., &o.
Notes on a mongoose, 4183
Large snake at Godalming, 8837;
Hobby at Godalming, Black red-
start near Godalming, 3997;
Wood pigeons laying in January,
8998; Cuckoo in confinement,
Stevenson, H., F.L.S.
Ornithological notos from Norfolk,
3859, 4185; Dartford warbler in
English sparrows in Philadelphia,
4197; An old tortoise, 4242
Tatton, T. E.
Curious nesting-place of the greater
Caspian tern at Birmingham, 4036;
Black gannet, 4199
Yellow wagtail and wild goose near
Tuck, Julian G.
Birds in Cambridge Market, 4116
Walker, Bev. F. A., M.A., F.L.S.
Notes on the Lido, Torcello, and
the Pineta, 3977
Wallis, Henry Marriage
Fossils from recent deposits in the
Valley of tho Thames, 3995;
How the puffin ascends to its
Wharton, C. Bygrave
Nesting of the blue tit, 4034
Siskins near Mansfield, 3880;
Egyptian geese in Nottingham-
shire, 3882; Ducks breeding on
the Hainworth Water, 4159; Ar-
rival of spring birds in Notting-
hamshire, 4196; Chiffchaff, swift
and fieldfare, 4197; Bartailed
godwit in Nottmghamabire, 4199;
White swallow, 4238