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first time. The purchase of a Penguin by the Zoological Society has afforded the rare opportunity of watching its subaqueous proceedings (p. 4262), which have proved most interesting. At p. 4197 will be found a brief account of the nesting of the Crowned Pigeon, showing a strange discrepancy between the economy of this and the other species of the same order: the young of the Crowned Pigeon being about one-third the size of the adult when it leaves the nest; the Domestic Pigeon being full grown; and both being fully feathered. At p. 3998 is an extremely interesting, and I believe quite original, observation, by Mr. Barrington, on the position in which the Tree Creeper holds its legs when climbing a vertical trunk.

Fishes.—I would emphatically call attention to the observation of Mr. Hughes (p. 3895) on the sleep of Fishes: the enquiry whether Fishes sleep has been repeated over and over again; and to Mr. Hughes is due the credit of giving a satisfactory reply:—Fishes not only sleep, but sleep soundly, lying perfectly still at the bottom of little rock-pools left by the retiring tide; and in the instance recorded allowing Mr. Hughes to take them, one by one, out of the water, while they still continued slumbering unconscious of danger. At p. 3872 I have reprinted from 'Nature' a paper by Mr. Saville-Kent, intituled, "Fish distinguished by their Actions." Mr. Kent was kind enough to send me this for republication, knowing the extreme interest I took in the doings of all living animals. The Fishes principally noticed are the Smooth Hound, the Spotted Dog-fish, the Angel-fish, the Gurnards, the Gemmeous Dragonets, the Pipe-fish, the Sea-horses, and the John Doree, concerning all of which he has made original observations. Again at p. 3838 Mr. Howard Saunders has, I believe, for the first time, recorded the spawning habits of the Flying Fish, as observed by himself at the Chincha Islands, on the coast of Peru.

Crustaceans.—The capture of the American King Crab, or Horseshoe Crab, off the coast of Holland, as recorded in the 'Zoologist' last year, was regarded as a problem extremely difficult of solution; but in the January number of this year (p. 3845) Mr. Lloyd informed us that, when manager of the Hamburg Aquarium, having received a greater quantity of King Crabs than he could possibly accommodate, he packed them in a cask, shipped them on board a steamer bound for London, and had them thrown into the sea on the British side of the little island of Heligoland. This was in August, 1866; and there is no reason to doubt that either these very Crabs or their descendants were captured on the same spot in 1874.

Such are some of the results obtained already by diverting observation into a channel comparatively new.

Edwabd Newman.

CONTENTS.

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.

Bailey, H. F.

Ostriches pairing, 8916

Balkwill, Francis Hancock

Curious malformation of the incisor

teeth in the skulls of two rats,

8935

Ball, Richard
Affection of the sea gull for its
young, 4201
Barclay, H. A.
Hoopoe at Knotts Green, Leyton,
4035

Barrington, Richard M.

Siskins breeding in Ireland, 8914;

Golden eagle at Powerscourt,

8952; Peculiar position in feet

of Certhia familiaris, 8998; The

hairy-armed bat (Scotophilus

Leisleri) in Ireland, 4071; Mi-

grations of spring immigrants,

4100

Bell, Thomas, F.R.S.

Scarcity and late stay of martins
and swallows at Seiborne, 8833
Borrer, William, F.L.S.

Notes on British bats, 4125

Bowerbank, J. S., LL.D., F.R.S.

Fishing frog at St. Leonard's, 4000;

Beaumaris shark taken off Hast-

ings, 4201

Boyes, F.
Glaucous gulls in East Yorkshire,
8836; Little bittem in East
Yorkshire, 4118

Brigos, T. R. Archer, F.L.S.

Autumnal song of the chiffchaff,

4238

Brown, John A. Harvte

Osprey carrying off chickens, 4117;
Glaucous gull, 4120

Brunton, T.

Birds observed at Glenarm Castle,

3829; Arrival of summer birds

at Glenarm, 4082

Butler, A. G., F.L.S.
Robins feeding young thrushes,

4038; Starlings laying in tho

hole of a sand martin, 4077

Cambridge, Rev. O. P., M.A.

Fieldfares feeding upon apples,

3830; Late stay of house martins,
8833; Conclusion of the 'Ento-
mologist's Annual,' 8955

Cane, T.

Great crested grebe at Luton,
3836

Carey, C. B.

A word about museums, 4056; song

of the swallow, 4156; Ornitho-

logical jottings, 4231; Cuckoo

singing at night, 4238

Clark-kennedy, Capt., F.R.G.S..&C.

Ornithology of the Orkneys, 8883;

On the occurrence of Emberiza

nivalis in full summer plumage,

8914

Clark-kennedy, Arthur John
An osprey carrying off young
chickens, 8996; A flight of bats,
Complaint in nestling birds, 4075;

Iceland gull, 4078; Baillon's

crake near Eastbourne, 4159;

Gray phalarope in Cheshire,

4289; Rare birds at Eastbourne,

4258; Late breeding of par-
tridges, 4260

Clogg, Stephen
Black redstart in summer plumage

in November, 3832; Martins and

swallows—is their late stay de-

pendent on the wind? Indif-

ference of small birds to tho
kestrel, 3834; Greater forkbeard
off Looe, Cornwall, 8839; Early

congregation of martins, 4157;

Salmon peal attacked by a gar-

fish, 4160; Gray phalarope in

Cornwall, 4239

Cooke, Nicholas

Eagle owl at Bridgnorth, 3997

Cord In, G. B.

A four-legged chicken, 3835; Food

of the salmon, 3839; Corn crake,

3881; The mute swan and its

food, 3915; Lesser redpoll and

siskin, 4034; Swallows roosting
on rushes, 4035

Cordeaux, John

Ornithological notes from North

Lincolnshire, 3856, 3942, 4029,

4059, 4224

Cornish, Thomas

Small lumpsucker, 3839; Lump-

sucker and whiff off the Cornish

coast, The species of mackerel,

4037; Fox shark off Scilly, Dorse

near the Lizard, Cornwall, 4080;

Turtle in Mount's Bay, 4242;

Pimelepterus Cornubiensis, a sup-

posed new fish, at Penzance,
4255; Kay's bream near Pen-
zance, 4266
Couch,James
Birds in Guernsey, 4237; Mute
swan in Guernsey, 4239
Crewe, Rev. H. Harpur, M.A.
House martin near Aylesbury on
the 5th of December, 3833
Crosfield, Albert J.

Late martins and swallows, 3881

Dockray, John A.

Curious nesting of the flycatcher,

4197

DOUBLEDAY, HENRY

Tree sparrow, 3997; Little bittern
near Epping, 4199

Durnford Henry

Note on the water rail, 3881; Or-

nithological notes from Lanca-

shire, 3912; Malformation in

upper mandible of a redshank,
3999; Ornithological notes, 4063;
Notes on the birds of Walney
Island, 4191
Eaton, Rev. A. E., M.A.
Notes on the Fauna of Spitsbergen,
3805
Edson, Mr.
Communications and extracts con-
cerning the marsh sandpiper,
4054
Foster, J. A.

Curious instinct in the mole, 3879

Fryer, Alfred

Bluethroated warbler at Chatteris,

Cambridgeshire, 3953

Gatcombe, John
Ornithological notes from Devon-

shire, Cornwall, &c., 3826, 3909,

3943, 4102,4226,4253; Plumage

of the black redstart, 3913; Pie-

bald and malformed rat, 3996;

An octopus at Plymouth, 4037;

Rabbit with one ear, 4153;
Greater shearwater on the coasts

of Devon and Cornwall, 4262;

Pilot-fish at Plymouth, 4266

GODLEE, RlCKMAN J.

The bite of a viper, 4079

Groves, H.

Clausilia Rolphii in Surrey, 4243

Gunn, T. E.

Buzzards in Norfolk, Marsh harrier

in Suffolk, Food of barn owl and

-great spotted woodpecker, Pied

flycatcher in Norfolk, Lesser red-

poll breeding near Norwich, 4117

Gurney, J. H.
Note on the longevity of the royal
kite, 3830; Note on the occur-
rence of the greater shearwater
in Bridlington Bay, 3882; Note
on the changes of plumage in
guillemots and razorbills, 3954;
Water rail, 4036; Greater spotted
woodpecker and starlings, 4077;
Note on the voracity of a tame
duck, 4078; Note on a pied lob-

ster, 4080; Food of the noctule

bat, 4153; Nidification of the

snowy owl in confinement, 4154;

Salmon in the River Coquet in
the last century, 4160; Note on
the noctule bat, Accident to a

weasel and to a redbreast, 4194

Gurney, J. H., jun.

Shore birds on the Cley and Blake-

ney muds, 4196

Hadfield, Capt. Henry

Remarks on birds seen during a
three weeks' tour in Brittany,
3945; Fish and Crustacea in the
tanks, &c., at Concarneau, 3947;
Large otter in the Isle of Wight,
3952; Pairing of birds, 3954;
Common buzzard in the Isle of
Wight, 3996; Peregrines in the
Isle of Wight, 4032; Nesting of
the tree sparrow, 4076; Mortality
of the house sparrow and martin,
4155; Little auk and dunlin,

4200; Autumnal migration of the

willow wren, swallow and black-

cap, 4259

Haet, W. E.
Partridge perching in a tree,
8834

HODgkINSON, J. B.

Glossy ibis and roller, 4158
Hornby, Hugh P.

Cuckoo in confinement, 3833
HiigEl, Baron A. Von

Ornithological notes from Torquay,
3906, 4065
Hughes, W. R., F.L.S.

The sleep of fishes, 3895
Jeffery, W., jun.

Ornithological notes from West
Sussex, 8822; Food of water
shrew, 8829
Jones, J. Matthew, F.L.S.

A new fish, 8837
Kent, W. Saville, F.L.S.
Fish distinguished by their action,
3872
Kerr, W. J.

Ornithological notes from Den-
bighshire, 3913; Ferocity of the
jackdaw, 8915; Crossbills in
Denbighshire, Ravens nesting
in North Wales, 4156; Shicl-
drakcs breeding in Merioneth-
shire, 4159
Lego, W. H.

Greater spotted woodpecker near
Farnham, 4077; Name of a bird,
4201
Lloyd, W. A.

On tho occurrence of Limulus Poly-
phemus off the coast of Holland,
and on the transmission of aqua-
rium animals, 3845
Mathew, Gervase F., R.N., F.L.S.
A visit to the breeding haunts of
the frigate-bird, 3991; Ornitho-
logical notes from North Devon,
4131,4249; Lesser spotted wood-
pecker at Instow, 4156; Green
sandpiper, 4159; Ornithological
notes from Dartmouth, 4230
Mathew, Rev. Murray A., M.A.

Bird notes from the west, 3824
Mitchell, J. G.

Economic value of alligators, 3954
Moore, George W. P.

Habitat of "rat-bats " (?), 4075;
Curiously situated nests of tits,
Treo sparrow building in Cam-
bridgeshire, 4076
More, A. G., F.L.S., M.R.I.A.
Salpa spinosa off the West Coast of
Ireland, 4202

Newman, Edward, F.L.S.

The denizens of aquariums, 3876;
Rhinoceros Sondaicus at the Zoo-
logical Gardens, 8949; Astroides
calicularis of Milne - Edwards,
3955; Curious malformation in
the mandibles of a shortfaced
tumbler, 8998; Zoology of tho
Royal Academy, 4021; Collected
observations on White's thrush,
4045; Communications and ex-
tracts concerning the marsh
sandpiper, 4054; Gigantic squids,
4105; Tho guillemots at the Zoo-
logical Gardens, 4119; Memo-
randum on the crowned pigeon,
4197; Zoological Society's Gar-
dens in Regent's Park, 4202,
4243; The explosion on tho
Regent's Canal, 4244; Moulting
freak in a robin, 4258; Tho ka-
kapo, owl-parrot, or night parrot,
4260; Didunculus strigirostris,
4201; The penguin at the Zoo,
4262; King crabs at tho Crystal
Palace Aquarium, 4266

Newton, Prof. Alfred, M.A., F.R.S.
The lesser redpoll not in Spits-
bergen, 3880; Correction of an
error, 4236

Nicholson, Francis
Honey buzzard in Cheshire, 4237;
Orangelegged hobby in Cheshire,
Chaffinch nesting in confine-
ment, 4288

Norgate, Frank
Rednecked phalarope at Salthouse,
Norfolk, 4159; Lesser shrews
and bank voles, 4236

Ooilby, J. Douglas
Hairy-armed bat in County Dublin,
4236

Ogilvy, Walter T.
Buff variety of the house sparrow,
3914
Palmer, J. E.

Honey buzzard near Huddersfield,
4153; Baillon's crake near Hud-
dersfield, 4149

PllLEy, J. B.

Landrail in January, 3953
Potts, T. H., F.L.S.

Notes on the birds of New Zea-
land, 3898, 3936, 3979, 4014; On
recent changes in tho Fauna of
New Zealand, 4135; Recent oc-
currence of Apteryx Haastii of
Potts, 4158

b

Smith,.joseph, M.E.C.S., F.L.S., &o.

Notes on a mongoose, 4183
Stafford, William
Large snake at Godalming, 8837;

Hobby at Godalming, Black red-

start near Godalming, 3997;

Wood pigeons laying in January,

8998; Cuckoo in confinement,

4035

Stevenson, H., F.L.S.

Ornithological notos from Norfolk,

3859, 4185; Dartford warbler in

Suffolk, 3914

Sweetapple, Edward

English sparrows in Philadelphia,
4197; An old tortoise, 4242

Tatton, T. E.

Curious nesting-place of the greater

tit, 4076

Taylor, W.

Caspian tern at Birmingham, 4036;

Black gannet, 4199

Thomas, W.

Yellow wagtail and wild goose near

Guildford, 4118

Tuck, Julian G.

Birds in Cambridge Market, 4116

Walker, Bev. F. A., M.A., F.L.S.
Notes on the Lido, Torcello, and
the Pineta, 3977
Wallis, Henry Marriage

Fossils from recent deposits in the

Valley of tho Thames, 3995;

How the puffin ascends to its

nest, 4118

Wharton, C. Bygrave

Nesting of the blue tit, 4034
Whitaker, J.

Siskins near Mansfield, 3880;
Egyptian geese in Nottingham-
shire, 3882; Ducks breeding on
the Hainworth Water, 4159; Ar-

rival of spring birds in Notting-

hamshire, 4196; Chiffchaff, swift

and fieldfare, 4197; Bartailed

godwit in Nottmghamabire, 4199;

White swallow, 4238

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