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more in number, and altogether more evidently embryonic and Lacertian than the homologous parts of other birds. The writer therefore seeks to introduce a new morphological term for these birds as a group, having relation to their face, namely, the term ' Saurognathse;' for none of Professor Huxley's terms' is appropriate for this type of palate. The writer has been able to work out these parts in the nestlings of Yunx torquilla, in four stages of Gecinus viridis, in the young of Picus minor, and in the adult of P. major, P. analis, Hemilophus fulvus and Picumnus minutus."

April 16, 1874.—H. Trimen, Esq., M.B., in the chair.

A letter was read from Prof. Parlatore, of Florence, inviting the Society to send representatives to the International Horticultural and Botanical Congress to be held in that city in May. On the motion of Mr. A. Murray, seconded by Prof. Thiselton Dyer, Dr. Masters, Mr. George Maw and Mr. Hiern were accredited by the Society to the Congress.

Mr. A. Murray exhibited some remarkable specimens of silicified wood from N.W. America, one of which had a peculiar charred appearance. Trof. Thiselton Dyer remarked that Mr. Murray's specimens were extremely similar to the silicified wood of Lough Neagh (Cupressoxyhn Pritchardi). The specimens with a deeply discoloured interior, he thought, had not necessarily undergone anything like charring from fire, but had probably been partially converted into lignite by slow decay before silicification. The Lough Neagh wood was attributed to the Miocene, but the fragments wero found imbedded, like Mr. Murray's specimens, in a clay, and this was of lato Tertiary age. Prof. Busk compared the substance to jet, and described a bed of lignite in the North of France in which a similar phenomenon was presented, the interior part of the wood being converted into charcoal, while the exterior part retained its original condition.

The following papers were then read, viz.:—" Contributions to the Botany of H.M.S. 'Challenger' Expedition." Communicated by Dr. Hooker. Nos. HI. to XIV. "Notes on Freshwater Algae collected in the Boiling Springs at Furnas St. Michael's, Azores, and their neighbourhood." By Mr. H. N. Moseley. In the valley of Furnas are two distinct sets of hot springs—one at the village, and the other at a distance of two or three miles, on the shore of the lake. In the principal one of the springs at the latter locality ebullition is constantly going on, and no Algae were found in it. At a short distance is another spring of sulphurous, intensely hot, but not boiling, water; and the water is here covered to the depth of almost one inch and a half by a shining substance composed entirely of Oscillatoriae mixed with a Botryococcus and a few skeletons of Diatomaceae, including a species of Navicula. Close by these sulphurous springs are shallow pools of hot water edged round with a Botryococcus. At the other set is a sulphurous spring of boiling-hot muddy water. Immediately below is a swamp of hot mud, also full of Botryococcus unmixed with Oscillatoriae. The exact temperature of the hot springs was not taken. The Algae appear to resemble those described by Rabenhorst as growing in warm springs in Europe. In a warm stream of about 95° F. a Conferva was found growing amongst the fibres of a moss. The neighbouring lake of Furnas contains several patches from which sulphurous gas is discharged, and is rich in various Algae, such as Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Hydrodictyon, Ac. "Note on the foregoing communication." By Prof. Thiselton Dyer. The Diatoms sent home by Mr. Moseley were submitted to the Rev. E. O'Meara, who found them to belong to species of the most frequent occurrence in fresh water, apparently in no way affected by the high temperature of the water.

May 7,1874.—G. Busk, Esq., Vice-President, in the chair.

Mr. J. R. Jackson exhibited a piece of copal from Zanzibar riddled by ants. After having been some time in the Kew Museum, the living creature was found in the copal and sent to Mr. F. Smith, who determined it to be a species of Termes or white ant, Eutermes lateralis of Walker. Great interest in the specimen presented was expressed by entomologists present, who had never seen a white aut alive, Mr. R. M'Lachlan remarking that a species introduced in this way to the Botanic Gardens at Vienna had become a great pest in the hothouses.

The following paper (amongst others) was read:—" On some Atlantic Crustacea from the ' Challenger' Expedition." By R. v. Willemoes-Suhm. Communicated by Prof. Wy ville Thomson. Among the many deep-sea crustaceans which have been brought up either by the dredge or the trawl during the ' Challenger's' cruise in the Atlantic, the most interesting are described in the present paper—in addition to descriptions of both sexes of the interesting Ncbalia from the shallow water of Bermuda, some remarks on the male and the structure of Cystosoma (Thaumops), and some additions to our knowledge of the natural history and development of a land-crab from the Cape-Verdes Islands. More detailed descriptions of these forms are given than in the papers already printed elsewhere, as well as an attempt to settle their systematic position. The paper is divided into seven parts, as follows:— (!) On a blind deep-sea Tanaid; (2) on Cystosoma Neptuni (Thaumops pellucida): (3) on a Nebalia from Bermudas; (4) on some genera of Schizopoda with a free dorsal shield; (5) on the development of a land-crab; (6) on a blind deep-sea Astacus; (7) on Willemoesia (Grote), a deep-sea Decapod allied to Cryon.

Zoological Society Of London.

April 21,1874.—The Viscount Walden, F.R.S., President, in the chair. The Secretary read a report on the additions that had been made to the Society's Menagerie during the mouth of March, 1874. Amongst these particular attention was called to a scarce parrot (Chrysotis Finschi), of which a specimen had heen presented by Mrs. Chivers.

A communication was read from Mr. Morton Allport on the capture of a grilse in the river Derwent, in Tasmania, showing that the salmon had really been successfully introduced into the colony.

Communications were read from Dr. J. E. Gray, " On the very young of the Jaguar (Felis (Leopardus) onca);" "On the short-tailed Armadillo (Muletia septemcincta);" "On the young of the Bosch Vark (Patomochccrus africanus) from Madagascar;" and "On the skulls of the Leopard in the British Museum."

A communication was read from Dr. 0. Finsch, containing the description of a new 6pecies of penguin, from New Zealand, which he proposed to call Eudyptula albosignata. ,

Mr. Edwin Ward exhibited the skull and horns of a fine specimen of the Fersian stag (Cervus Maral) from the Crimea.

A communication was read from Capt. W. H. Unwin, containing an account of the breeding of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Northwestern India.

Mr. J. E. Harting read a paper on a new species of Tringa, from St. Paul's Island, Alaska, which he proposed to name Tringa gracilis.

A communication was read from Lieut. R. Wardlaw Ramsay, giving the description of an apparently new species of woodpecker, which he had obtained in a teak-forest, about six miles to the north of Tanghoo, in British Bunnah. Mr. Bamsay proposed to name it Gecinus erythropygius.

Messrs. W. T. Blandford and H. E. Dresser read a monograph of the genus Saxicola, Bechstein, being an attempt to reduce into some order the excessively confused nomenclature of the species composing this genus.

May 5, 1874.—Dr. E. Hamilton, Vice-President, in the chair.

The Secretary read a report on the additions that had been made to the Society's Menagerie during the month of April, 1874, amongst which were a Vigne's sheep (Ovis Vignii), presented by Captain Archibald; a whitecheeked flying squirrel (Pteromys leucogenys), presented by Mr. A. Gower; a new kangaroo (Halmalurus luctuosus), deposited by Sig. L. M. d'Albertis; and four bladder-nosed seals, presented by Captain D. Gray and Captain Alexander Gray.

Mr. Sclater made some remarks on the cassowary, living in the Society's Gardens, hitherto called " Kaup's cassowary," which, it appeared, ought to bear the name Cassuarius papuensis.

Mr. Sclater announced that Her Majesty's Government had consented to send a naturalist to Kerguelen's Laud to accompany the Astronomical Expedition shortly proceeding there, and that the Rev. A. E. Eaton had been selected by the Boyal Society for the post.

Mr. Blandford exhibited and made remarks on a series of heads of the ibex of Persia, which he considered to be referable to Capra aegagrus.

Mr. A. H. Garrod read a paper on the anatomy of the Columbse, in which a new arrangement of that group of birds was proposed, based upon certain points not hitherto sufficiently investigated.

A communication was read from Dr. Julius Haast, containing the description of a new species of Euphysetes (Euphysetes Pottsi), a remarkably small Catodont whale, which had occurred on the coast of New Zealand.

A communication was read from Mr. Frederick Moore, containing a list of Diurnal Lepidoptera collected in Cashmere by Captain R. B. Reed, 12th Regiment, with descriptions of new species.

A communication was read from Mr. A. G. Butler, containing a complete list of the known Diurnal Lepidoptera of the South Sea Islands.

Mr. Howard Saunders read a paper on the gray-capped gulls, in which several species hitherto confounded were distinguished.

A paper was read by Dr. A. Giinther, entitled "A Contribution to the Fauna of Savage Island," in which several new lizards peculiar to this remote Pacific Island were described, and other animals found in it were mentioned.

A communication was read from Dr. J. S. Bowerbank, containing the sixth part of his " Contributions to a General History of the Spongiadae."

Mr. R. B. Sharpe read a paper on a small collection of birds made in Bulama, one of the Bissagos Islands, West Africa, by Lieut. Bulger.

Entomological Sooiety Of London. May 4, 1874.—Sir Sidney Smith Saunders, C.M.G., President, in the chair.

Additions to tlie Library.

The following donations were announced, and thanks voted to the donors:—' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' no. 151; presented by the Society. 'Verhandlungen der k. k. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien,1 xiii. band; by the Society. 'Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London,' Meetings 19th March and 2nd April; by the Society. 'Tijdschrift voor Entomologie,' *2nd ser. viii.; by the Entomological Society of the Netherlands. 'Sepp's Nederlandsche Insecten,' 2nd ser. iii. nos. 13—24; 'Schetsen ten gebruike bij de Studie der Hymenoptera,' i.—iv.; by the Author, Dr. S. C. Snellen von Vollenhoven. 'L'Abeille,' tome ix. livr. 9; by the Editor. 'The Canadian Entomologist,' vol. vi. no. 3; by the Editor. 'The Zoologist' and 'Newman's Entomologist' for May; by the Editor. 'The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine' for May; by the Editors.

By purchase.—' Catalogus Coleopterorum hucusque descriptorum synonymicus et systematicus,' autoribus Dr. Gemminger et B. de Harold, torn. x.

The Entomological Society of the Netherlands presented a well-executed medal, struck in honour of Dr. S. C. Snellen von Vollenhoven, on his retirement from the office of President, which he had held for twenty years.

Election of Members. G. T. Porritt, Esq., of Huddersfield (hitherto a Subscriber), and Herbert Goss, Esq., of Brighton, were balloted for and elected Members of the Society.

Exhibitions, dc.

Mr. Butler exhibited an example of arrested development in a peacock butterfly, bred from the chrysalis, caused by the tail of the pupa having become detached during the process of emerging; the right wings were completely developed, whilst the left wings had not developed at all, the pupa-case remaining attached to the left side of the body of the butterfly.

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited specimens of Solenobia inconspicuella, taken in St. Leonard's Forest, and amongst them a specimen, taken at the same time, of a remarkably pale colour, which might possibly be an albino variety, but had a very different appearance from the ordinary form.

Mr. Boyd also exhibited some leaves of the common comfrey (Symphytum officinale), gathered at Cheshunt, the under sides of which were found to be completely covered with specimens of Brachyccntrus subnubilus. There appeared to be some hundreds of specimens closely packed together, and they were all dead, or in a moribund state, when found. All were said to be males, but on close examination a single female specimen was discovered amongst them. No explanation could be given as to the object of their congregating together. Mr. Stainton remarked that there were many such instances of a habit of congregating amongst insects, which were equally unaccountable, and as an instance he mentioned a fact known to all breeders of Micro-Lepidoptera respecting the pupation of the greater number of the Nepticulse, the larvae of which live solitary as leaf-miners; but if a number of leaves, containing larvae, are collected and placed together in a box, it is found that the cocoons are constructed gregariously between certain leaves, without any apparent reason for the preference.

Mr. Charles 0. Waterhouse read the following note by Dr. Lamprey, Surgeon-Major of the 67th Regiment, on the habits of tr boring-beetle found in British Burmah. A specimen of the insect was exhibited, and also two portions of stem which had been operated upon. The insect was one of the BostrichidsB belonging to the genus Sinoxylon.

"On examining the plants in my garden one afternoon, I was struck with what appeared to be an injury done to one of the trees, the name of which I do not know,—this being the winter season, no blossom apparent, and nearly all the plants new to me. The branches of this particular tree are straight, grow upright, and are about half-au-inch to an inch in their

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