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causes, were unwilling to sell, at least such as could hold their stock. The supplies were at first, of course, short of the usual arrivals: the merchants were anxious to purchase what came to market in a good state, and corn rose rapidly. The abundance of money in the market was another cause of its advance, for the holders of cash seeing cornrising progressively, and in all probability likely to advance still higher, became speculators in grain. The farmers, on the other hand, were enabled to retain their crops, by the facilities afforded on the part of the country bankers-a willingness arising from the proved stability of those who still survived the shock which the distress of late years had occasioned, and from the appearance of rising markets.
The prices fell for about a week after the opening of Parliament, owing, as it is supposed by some, to the prosperous state which the country is allowed to be at present enjoying. But the real cause of this sudden fall was the fact, and one that daily became more apparent, that the ports would open for the importation of oats. It was well known by the most experienced that, should this take place, the price of wheat must and would fall. The consumption of corn has been immensely increased by the late depression. All those who were accustomed, during the high price of the late war, to eat oat bread, have become, since the peace, large consumers of wheaten. The present price of oats being much greater in proportion than the present price of wheat, the natural effect has been that wheaten bread has been the cheapest food; but if the price of oats were to become much lowered, which it must necessarily be, by an importation of oats, those in the north and in the midland counties who now consume wheat would eat oaten bread, and the price of wheat would consequently fall. It is generally believed that if there should be no importation for oats, wheat will still keep up its price, since it is understood that the deficiency is so great in the western part of England, in Ireland, and Scotland, as to require constant and large supplies until next harvest from Norfolk, Essex, and Lincolnshire, the counties allowed to have by far the best crops. In confirmation of this opinion, it is an undoubted fact that on the 16th of this month, February, the wheat bought off Mark-lane was princi. pally for country orders, and such was the general belief that wheat immediately rose full or nearly half what it had fallen in the course of the previous week, and on the following market it again assumed a more favourable appearance.
The average importation during the last
four weeks has been:-
Barley, 338. 3d.; Oats, 23s. 4d.; Peas, 38s.; Flour is 60s. to 65s. per sack.
The Beef trade in Smithfield Market is very heavy, and fetched from 3s. 2d. to 4s. 4d. per stone. Mutton is brisker; for Downs and other light weights from 4s. to 4s. 8d. is obtained.
In the Hop trade there is but little business. It is found that the bines are much injured by the late blight. The Goldings are by far the most injured, as upon digging one-fifth have been discovered either dead or cancered, and those alive are very weak. A Mr. J. Walker, of Westington, has addressed a letter to the Hop Planters, calling upon them to memorialize the Lords of the Treasury for a repeal of he Hop Duty of 1822. He says, "he is bold enough to say that they will have relief.” The letter is dated January 8, but was not published until after our last report.
February 22, 1824. Though there have been no remarkable fluctuations or very important occurrences in the commercial world, it seems certain the positive assurances of the continuance that trade on the whole is improving, and of peace given in his Majesty's Speech, at the opening of the present Session of Parliament, give reason to expect that this improvement will proceed in that steady course which is, on the whole, the most be
neficial to the interests of the merchant; which will doubtless be farther promoted by the perseverance of the government, in gradually introducing a liberal freedom of trade, and abandoning a system of restrictions now no longer tenable. With regard it is worth while to dwell on the decree of to foreign nations, we hardly know whether the King of Spain, published at Madrid on the 9th of this month, and granting to all nations a free trade with Spanish America, to all nations without exception, on the to be seen what effect this may have on the plan of reciprocity of duties. It remains former subjects of Spain; it does not appear to us why they should receive as a boon from Spain a liberty, which they already possess without any of those restrictions with which it would undoubtedly be accompanied, (the decree speaks of the privileges and preferences to which the Spaniards are justly entitled) and of which Spain cannot deprive them. The hostilities commenced with Algiers will hardly have any effect on commerce, unless it be to raise for a time the rate of insurance to the Mediterranean, for which, however, the Admiralty will provide convoys.
Cotton. The market, which had been without interest after the third week in Ja
nuary, improved at the close of the month, and in the last week about 1250 bales were sold at fair prices, and more would have
been done had the holders been disposed to meet the demand freely. On the 6th, was the great sale of 11,600 bales at the Indiahouse, to which the exporters were looking forward to complete their orders for the continent. The buyers were not numerous, and the sale went off without briskness; the Bengal and Madras at the previous current prices, but Surats, d. told. lower: and the Bourbons, Id. to Id. lower than in the sale last August. 3556 Bengals belonging to the company, were bought in at 5d. also the whole of the privilege and 1350 Surats. The Surats were soon afterwards, disposed of at the sale prices, and in some instances at an advance of d. per lb. The demand for cotton has since been good, and within ten days after the sale an advance of d. per Ib. was fully established. At Liverpool, in four weeks, ending Feb. 14, the sales were 56,570 bags, the arrivals 31,260 bags.
Coffee. For nearly three weeks after our last publication, the market remained nearly in a state of stagnation. The public sales were inconsiderable, and though there was some demand after the first week of this month, it was at too low prices; for the limits from the continent being lower by every succeeding mail in even a greater degree than the market prices here had fallen. According to the annexed market report of the 17th instant, however, it appears, that a considerable improvement had taken place:
There were several considerable public sales of coffee brought forward last week: 2511 bags pale Cheribon, fair quality, 65s. to 65s. 6d; 360 bags St. Domingo, fair quality, 68s. to 69s. 6d. ; Havannah, 67s. to 69s. 6d. ; the Jamaica and Demarara coffee nearly supported the previous prices. There were three public sales of coffee brought forward, consisting of 219 casks 204 bags British plantation, 1076 bags Foreign; the former consisted of Jamaica and Demerara descriptions; the latter sold freely at fair prices; good ordinary Demarara, 728. fine ordinary, 84s. to 84s. 6d. low middling, 89s. to 938.; the few lots Jamaica were taken in, but full prices were offered; for good ordinary, 76s. The Foreign consisted chiefly of Brazil descriptions; good ordinary pale 65s. to 698. fine ordinary coloury, 70s. to 74s.; 108 bags
slightly damaged St. Domingo sold 673. to 688.
Sugar. The market, which had been rather heavy, received an impulse from the unfavourable news from Jamaica, which induced the holders to demand an advance of 1s. per cwt. which was not however immediately acceded to by the buyers. Though the great interest excited by the news from Jamaica subsided, the market has become more firm, and a general advance of 1s, was obtained; the sales were, it is true, rather limited. The refiners, too, were confident of higher prices, and were very firm, which caused the business done to be inconsiderable, as the buyers were unwilling to accede to their terms.
Rum, Brandy, and Hollands. - The Rum market has been very interesting this month. At the end of January it began to improve, and about 4000 puncheons were sold in the last week; the demand was increased towards the end of the week
by the declaration of a government contract of 100,000 gallons of ordinary strong, and 80,000 gallons of very strong quality, supposed to be for Captain Parry's northern expedition; the great cause of the advance was probably the rise in the price of Corn. Brandies also rose 1d. to 2d. per gallon. The contract being taken at 1s. 6d. for the ordinary, and 2s. 8d. and a fraction for the very strong, caused the market to be more heavy, but the prices have remained unchanged. Brandy, to arrive, about 3s. free on board. The West India Committee, in answer to their application to the Government, have been informed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer that no alteration will be made in the duty on sugar -a small part of that on Rum will be taken off, and the duty on deficiencies abandoned.
Spices. The Company's sale was on the 9th instant, since which the market has in general been heavy.
Indigo.-The result of the sale at the India House coincides with the statement in our last month of the commencement of it; an advance of 3d. to 4d. per lb. has since been obtained.
Tallow, Hemp, and Flax.-The tallow market has been very depressed, and the prices are about 348. 3d. In Hemp and Flax no alteration can be stated.
SKETCH OF FOREIGN LITERATURE.
The Drama.-The theatres, at one time so fertile in novelties, have lately brought forward not only nothing remarkable, but hardly any thing new; the Scandinavians, a tragedy, brought out at the second theatre, was not indeed damned at the first representation; but this forbearance of the public is ascribed to the regard of the public
for Victor, the actor, who performed the principal character, and was known to be the author of the piece. On the second representation, it appeared to have been much improved by judicious curtailments and corrections, and was much applauded.
Poetry. Numerous single poems on the late Campaign in Spain have been published; some of them are not destitute of
poetical merit. La Vendée, a poem, in ten cantos, by the Viscount Prevost d'Iray, deserves mention. The author has wisely refrained from attempting any thing in the usual style of lyric poetry, he has felt the force of the sentiment,
Ornari res ipsa negat, contenta doceri and has, by this self-denial, certainly given a better idea of those extraordinary events, the simple narrative of which imparts such an irresistible charm to the Memoirs of Madame de la Rochejaquelin. Viscount Arlincourt has published a third edition, corrected, of La Carolcide. The Countess of Redern, who published four years ago an allegorical novel, Zelie, Reine des Braves, and a collection of poems which were much admired, has been since engaged in a larger poem, from which she has detached two episodes, and published them separately. The first is on the death of the Duke de Berry; the second celebrates the heroic filial piety of a. Mademoiselle Chaussande, whose mother being condemned to death by one of the sanguinary tribunals that desolated France during the revolution, accompanied him to prison, and died with him on the scaffold.
Natural History and Geology-Experimental researches into the properties and functions of the nervous system in animals with Vertebræ, 8vo. by M. Flourens. A geological memoir, in the Lower Boulonnais, by M. F. Garnier, 4to. is a work of great merit. An Essay on the Geognostic construction of the Pyrenees, by J. de Charpentier, 8vo. The author, a - man of profound knowledge of the subject, passed four years in the Pyrenees as director of a mine, and therefore had an opportunity of observing accurately. This work has been crowned by the French Institute. Jurisprudence.-The History of the Roman Laws, by Gustavus Hugo, 2 vols. 8vo.
This learned work is a translation from the German, the author being Professor in the University of Gottingen. It is divided into four periods; 1, from the foundation of Rome to the promulgation of the law of the Twelve Tables; 2, to the time of Cicero,; 3, to Alexander Severus; and 4, to Justinian. A Collection of the Ancient French Laws, from the year 420 to the revolution in 1789, is the most extensive of the kind that has hitherto appeared in French. It promises a good history of French legislation, being entirely drawn up from the best authorities. Vol. V. and VI. now published, contain the monuments of the reigns of John, Charles V. and Charles VI. to the year 1400, inclusive. The great bookseller, Panckoucke, is publishing The English Bar, 3 vols. 8vo. The second volume now published is entirely taken up with the Speeches of Lord Erskine. A new translation of Black. stone's Commentaries has now been published, in six vols. 8vo. The French
Journals speak in very high terms of the following work: De l'Etat Civil, et des Ameliorations dont il est susceptible, par M. Hutteau d'Origny, Mayor of the 5th Arrondissement of Paris, one vol. 8vo. The intention of the French Government to render the Chamber of Deputies septennial has given rise to numerous pamphlets, both for and against the proposed change; among these are two giving an account of the debates on the septennial bill in both houses of parliament, in 1716.
History, Memoirs, and Biography.The Essai de Memoires de Ducis, by M. de Campenon, is read with great interest; the account of his intercourse with Buonaparte is remarkable: he seems to have had a kind of instinctive aversion to Buonaparte, from whom he never would accept any honorary distinctions.
Mr. Capefigue's account of the operation of the army in Spain, under the command of the Duke of Angoulême, is very apropos; at least, as the official account will be necessarily delayed for a long time; for it seems that the Government intends to publish a very particular account with maps, plans, and engravings, to be executed by the first artists.-An Essay on the maritime invasions of the Normans in the Gauls, followed by a view of the effect of those invasions, on the literature, manners, national institutions and political system of Europe, by M. B. Capefigue, which was honourably noticed by the Institute, is now published. The same author intends shortly to publish his Memoir (crowned by the Institute) on the political, civil, commercial, and literary situation of the Jews, in the middle ages. We mentioned on a former occasion, the edition of Froissart's Chronicles, prepared by M. Dacier; the first volume is now published. It will make 15 vols. 8vo. The editor M. Buchon will publish Monstrelet, in 15 vols., and other Chronicles, from the 13th to the 16th Century: the whole collection will form 60 vols. in four division of 15 vols. cach of which may be had separately. Dulaure's moral, and political history of Paris, 27 and 28 livraisons, contain part of the reign of Lewis XV.
Fine Arts.- Mr. Charles Nodier and Mr. Taylor will shortly complete their picturesque Tour in Normandy; they are now in that province, collecting the materials for the last numbers of their work. The second edition of the great work on Egypt, proceeds in its regular course. The numbers just published are 115 to 125 of the plates, in vol. 12 and 13 of the text. The Picturesque Tour in Spain by M. de la Borde has reached the 14th number. Vicount Senonnes had produced the 4th and 5th numbers of his Picturesque Views in Italy, which we have mentioned before. The 4th number is dedicated to Rome, the 5th to the Campagna Romana. The work
will extend to 30 numbers, each containing 6 plates.
Military Art.-An Essay on the general history of the Art of War, its origin, its progress, and its revolutions, from the first formation of European societies to our time, 2 large vols. 8vo., by Colonel Carrion Nisas. This work has appeared under auspices that give a favourable opinion of its merit. The minister of war, learning that the author was engaged on it, proposed to him to communicate the MS. to General Guilleminot. The author gladly took the opportunity of having the opinion of so good a judge. The report was so favour able that the minister himself wished to see the MS., and was so pleased with it, that he not only expressed his opinion in a letter to the author in the most flattering terms, but considering the work worthy of the protection of Government, His Excellency took measures to hasten the publication. From what we have been able to peruse of this work, it seems fully worthy of the high patronage it has obtained.
Divinity. Thesaurus Patrum, Floresque Doctorum, &c. A selection of thoughts and passages from the Fathers of the church, in alphabetical order. This collection is to form eight volumes, of which three are published.
Novels. Madame de Montoleiu has augmented by a new work the numerous collection of her novels. It is called Dudley and Claudy, or the Island of Teneriff. 6 vols. 12mo. This is the only novel of which we have any thing more than the title. It is well spoken of by the Moniteur. Among the works announced for immediate publication, is the third part of Mr. Charles Dupin's Tour in Great Britain. Under the title of Force Commerciale the author treats of the canals, aqueducts, roads, iron and stone bridges, hanging bridges, &c. On the subject of the hanging bridges we ought to mention a highly interesting work on the subject, by Mr. Navier, an engineer of great merit, who was sent to England by the French Government to collect information on this subject, and has published the result of his mission, under the form of a report, in one vol. 4to. with numerous plates.
A work of small compass, but of extreme importance to the whole Christian world, Biblische Kritische Reise, &c. i. e. a Critico-biblical Tour in France, Switzerland, Italy, Palestine, and the Archipelago, in the years 1818, 1819, 1820, 1821, accompanied by a history of the text of the New Testament, by Dr. I. M. A. Scholz, Professor of Divinity (Roman Catholic), in the University of Bonn. 1 vol. 8vo. pp. 209 (with a fac-simile of ten Manuscripts of the Royal Library). Dr.
Scholz is already advantageously known to the learned world by his biblical labours, and by the Journal of his Travels in the Levant, published in 1822, soon after his return. He promises a collection of plates, and observations on the Egyptian and Phenician antiquities which he had an opportunity to examine. He is at present busily engaged on a great critical and exegetical edition of the New Testament, an immense undertaking, which is the object, as it will be the result, of all his labours. This collection of researches and writings may be considered as an important event in the history of sacred criticism, and the work we are now speaking of must attract in a particular manner the attention of the friends of that branch of study. Though short, it embraces many things: it contains the elements of an entirely new theory; it tends to overturn, or at the least, greatly to modify ideas pretty generally received, and in a word, it is calculated to have a powerful influence on the criticism of the New Testament. It is therefore highly requisite that the learned should examine the assertions of the author to adopt his solution of the problem of families, if they judge these assertions well founded; and if they should consider them as inaccurate or too general, to gather at least the new facts, the useful principles, and the certain consequences, which they cannot fail to re.cognise in it.
We have dwelt more than usual on this small work on account of its paramount importance; and though it is wholly out of the plan of our articles to go into a critique on the works we mention, we will on this occasion add an extract from the opinion (which we have before us) of an eminent Protestant writer:-" If," says he," the principle of Scholz respecting versions were rejected (Scholz is not inclined to allow their authority), some essential modifications of the author's system would doubtless result from it; but the principal inference which he deduces from it would not be shaken. I mean the great pre-eminence of the Asiatic text over the African, and consequently the real merit of our received text. Scholz would still have the glory of having been the first to establish on a solid foundation this important fact, the results of which rise above criticism, and alinost occupy a place among the guarantees of religion.'
So strong a recommendation cannot fail to draw the attention of our learned readers to this work, and we shall be happy if it should induce some person competent to the task to undertake a translation of it, which we doubt not would be acceptable.
Among the later productions of the German Press we have not met with any thing worthy of particular notice.
THE FIGHTING GLADIATOR.
"HA! it hath reach'd him!"-on his rugged brow
He views in death his mighty rival bow.
And his heart sickens—would those plaudits loud
The following works are in the press 1---Poems, &c. by Thomas Wilkinson, of Yanwath, Westmoreland.
Scenery of the River Exe, consisting of Thirty Views of the most interesting Scenes, from its Source in the Exmoor to its Confluence with the Sea at Exmouth. Drawn and etched by F. C. Lewis, Engraver to his Royal Highness the Prince Leopold. Imperial 4to.
Topography, illustrative of the Actual State of Olympia, and the Ruins of the City of Elis. By John Spencer Stanhope, Esq. FRS. in imperial folio, containing numerous Plates, Engraved by G. Cooke, John Pye, E. Finden, &c. &c. from Drawings by Mr. Dewint
Flora Historica, or the Three Seasons of the British Parterre, Historically Treated, with Observations on Planting, to secure a regular succession of Flowers, from the Commencement of Spring to the End of Autumn. By Mr. Henry Phillips.
Biographia Poetica, or Lives of the British Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper, in 4 vols. 8vo. including every Poet in the Collection of Chalmers, Campbell, &c. and in those of the Early Bibliographers, whose writings, or whose names retain sufficient. interest to be comprised in an Historical Collection.
Narrative of an Excursion to the Mountains of Piedmont, in the Year 1823, and Researches among the Vaudois, with Illustrations of the very interesting History of these Protestant Inhabitants of the Cottian Alps, with an Appendix, containing inportant Documents from Ancient MSS. By the Rev. W. S. Gilly. In 4to.
The Principles of Medical Science and Practice, deduced from the Phenomena, observed in Health and in Disease. By Hardwicke Shute, MD.
A new Edition of Globes, three feet in diameter, being the largest which have ever appearedin England, will be shortly published by Messrs. Addison, of Regentstreet, Globe Makers to his Majesty.
Imryagina Conversations of Literary Men and Statesmen. By Walter Savage Landor, Esq. In 2 vols. 8vo.
The Old English Drama, a Selection of Plays from the Early English Dramatists, including the whole of Dodsley's Collection, and every Play of any excellence. In small 8vo. in Monthly Parts.
A Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Liver, and on some of the Affections usually denominated Bilious; comprising an impartial Estimate of the Merits of the Nitro-Muriatic Acid Bath. By George Darling, MD. Member of the Royal College of Physicians.
In a small Volume, Notes, Biographical, Critical, and Poetical, on the Portraits of the British Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper.
A Volume, in Prose and Verse, to be intitled, "The Climbing Boy's Album," containing Contributions from some of the most eminent writers of the day, illustrated with Engravings from Designs by Mr. Cruikshank. The object of this work will be to draw public attention more earnestly than heretofore to the Practicability and the Necessity of Discontinuing one of the most cruel, unjust, and flagitious usages in existence, the Practice employing Children to sweep Chimneys.
Mountain Rambles, and other Poems. By G. H. Storie, Esq. of Trinity Hall, Cambridge.
A second Part of George Cruikshank's Etchings, entitled "Points of Humour." containing several Scenes from Smollett, Pigault and Le Brun.
The Birds of Aristophanes, Translated