Imagens das páginas

sion for such a profuse genealogy, &c. &c. Whether we are to ascribe these lengthy dissertations and interpolations to the principle of pedantry or book-making we know not; perhaps both had a share: but to what principle can we assign this extraordinary passage? speaking of the part of Cicero's oration against Verres, which relates to the temple where a picture of Hercules strangling the snakes was deposited, we are told: "To obtain this specimen of art, Verres attacked the temple in the night, and gave occasion to the humorous description of the circumstance by the orator, who adds, that the Sicilians remarked in punning irony, that the Gods, in driving off the plundering Prætor, made as great an addition to his labours, as in the conquest of the Erymanthean War! This luminous effusion, flowing apparently from the mouth of Captain Smyth, but with which it is no great stretch of critical charity to credit the printer is not inaptly followed up by the description of a Mud Volcano:

MACCALUBA.-Three or four miles to the northward of Girgenti, and on the road towards Arrogona, is the mud volcano, called Maccaluba, probably a corruption of the Arabic wordmakloube," or upside down.

It consists of numerous little hillocks with

craters, on a kind of large truncated cone of
argillaceous barren soil, with wide cracks in
all directions, elevated nearly two hundred
feet above the surrounding arid plain, and

about half a mile in circuit. These craters
are continually in action, with a hollow
rumbling noise, and by the exertion of a
subterraneous force, they throw up a fine
cold mud mixed with water, a little petro-
leum and salt, and occasionally bubbles of
air, with a sulphureous taint. The eruptions
are more violent in hot than in rainy wea
ther, owing, perhaps, to the outer crust ac-
quiring a greater consistence. Sometimes re-
ports, like the discharge of artillery, are heard,
and slight local earthquakes are felt; until,
at length, the whole is eased by an ebullition
of mud and stones, sometimes ejected to the
height of from thirty to sixty feet, though the
usual spouts reach only from a few inches to
two or three feet, increasing in violence at
(P. 213, 214.)
Another very singular phenomenon
occurs frequently near Mazzara on
the same coast:

The "Marobia" is an extraordinary phenomenon, most probably deriving its name from Mare Ubbriaco, or Drunken Sea, as its movement is apparently very

inconsistent; it occurs principally on the southern coast of Sicily, and is generally found to happen in calm weather, but is The Marobia is felt with the greatest violence considered as the certain precursor of a gale. at Mazzara, perhaps from the contour of the coast. Its approach is announced by a stillness in the atmosphere, and a lurid sky; when suddenly the water rises nearly two feet above its usual level, and rushes into the creeks with amazing rapidity; but in a few minutes recedes again with equal velocity, disturbing the mud, tearing up the sea-weed, and occasioning a noisome float quite helpless on the turbid surface, effluvia: during its continuance the fish and are easily taken. These rapid changes (as capricious in their nature as those of the Euripus) generally continue from thirty minutes to upwards of two hours; and are succeeded by a breeze from the southward, which quickly increases to heavy gusts.

This phenomenon may be occasioned by a westerly wind blowing, at some distance in the offing, towards the north coast of Sicily, and a south-east wind, at the same time, in the channel of Malta, the meeting and Cape San Marco. of which would take place between Trapani (P. 224, 225.)

The last chapter of these Memoirs is devoted to the Islands of Sicily, of which our Author remarks that they all "exhibit the corrosive effects of gases and spray; but the western coast, rising abruptly in precipitous masses, and shelving down gradually to the eastward, is an interesting geological feature, in which it agrees with the greatest part of the West India Islands and many others." It is remarkable that besides the western coasts of all the Lipari Islands being steep and craggy, they each with scarcely an exception have a high isolated rock off their northern shores, a singularity extending even to Ustica.

We quote with pleasure and praise tion of the great Volcano of the Captain Smyth's impressive descripLipari Isles; it has been seldomer visited by travellers than the remaining members of this fiery triad, and perhaps never under equal advantages with those enjoyed by a naval officer of knowledge and education such as Captain Smyth:

The journey to the summit of Vesuvius, or even to that of Etna, I found a trifling exertion, compared with the violent exercise of climbing up Stromboli; and my efforts were the more fatiguing from being hurried, as my companions, who were


Captain Smyth's Memoir of Sicily and its Islands.

young men of the island, well inured to
the mountain, by their agility and strength,
were always a-head of me.
turned round a summit of the ridge, and,
At length we
all at once, obtained a partial sight of the
object of our wishes. The point we had

arrived at was above the crater; we then
continued to descend, and to advance, un-
til it suddenly burst into a fuller view, with
a most imposing and appalling effect.
Here we took up our station to await the
approach of night; and in this awful spot
enjoyed one of the most magnificent spec-
tacles that nature can display.

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The crater is about one-third of the way down the side of the mountain, and is continually burning, with frequent explosions, and a constant ejection of fiery matter: it is of a circular form, and about a hundred and seventy yards in diameter, with a yellow efflorescence adhering to its sides, as to those of Etna. When the smoke cleared away, we perceived an undulating ignited substance which, at short intervals, rose and fell in great agitation; and, when swollen to the utmost height, burst with a violent explosion, and a discharge of redhot stones, in a semi-fluid state, accompanied with showers of ashes and sand, and a strong sulphureous smell. The masses are usually thrown up to the height of from sixty or seventy to three hundred feet; but some, the descent of which I computed to occupy from nine to twelve seconds, must have ascended above a thousand. In the moderate ejections, the stones in their ascent gradually diverged, like a grand pyrotechnical exhibition, and fell into the abyss again; except on the side next the sea, where they rolled down in quick succession, after bounding from the declivity to a considerable distance in the water. A few fell near us, into which, while in their fluid state, we thrust small pieces of money, as memorials for friends.

I enjoyed this superb sight, until nearly ten o'clock; and, as it was uncommonly dark, our situation was the more dreadful and grand, for every explosion showed the abrupt precipice beneath, and the foam of the furious waves breaking against the rocks, so far below us as to be unheard; while the detonations of the volcano shook the very ground we sat on. At length, the night getting excessively cold, I determined to descend, and accordingly was conducted down the other side of the ridge, (a comparatively easy journey,) by which we rapidly reached the vineyards, our feet sinking ancle deep at each step; and in about an hour we entered the cottage of one of my guides, the hospitable Saverio.

(P. 255, 256.) Panaria and its Islets are supposed to have once formed but a single island; the group is called Dattoli,


from its resemblance to a cluster, in which form dates grow. These islets phery of a great crater; and some are imagined to have formed the periphilosophers assert that the longlost Evonymus of Plato is to be found amongst them. Our author is induced to place it in Panaria itself; and is also inclined rather to attribute the disappearance of volcanic islands to the action of the atmosphere and waves, than to suppose them swalbeen eaten by the fire within. In lowed up in the abyss which had of Sabrina in the summer of 1811. support of his theory, he adduces It rose to the height of two or three "the gradual formation of the island Michael's in the Azores, and in a hundred feet, half a league from St. spot where the sea had been nearly forty fathoms deep. This island acquired the circumference of a mile, ing the most magnificent volcanic and continued for some time exhibitphenomena; in the autumn it had again disappeared, but left a dangerfrom the sea near the spot for many ous shoal, and smoke was seen rising months after." Upon this we have but one remark to make, viz. that if the inproves only that the winds and waves stance adduced proves any thing, it may have assisted in destroying (which we believe no one will be found to contest), that which was raised by the action of internal heat.

In the island from which the whole rocky assemblage on this shore takes its name, there exist many vestiges of the ancient prosperity which blessed their inhabitants. One which had been dignified with the romantic ends after all (mulier formosa in pisname of the Æolian Organ, but which cem)-in a warm-bath, is worth an idle reader's attention. (P. 262.)

There is nothing very remarkable in the remaining part of these Mesisting of one whole quarto page and moirs. In a separate chapter conthe sad word " Conclusion" in omina half one, emblazoned at top with our author's exit from the eyes of his ous capitals of tombstone size, as if readers was equally important and heart-breaking with his departure from the eye of the world altogether, he thus apologizes for the demerits of his book:

Having now concluded the description of the coast of Sicily, and the whole of its dependencies, I beg to remind those who may be disappointed at not meeting the usual relation of a tourist, in detailed accounts of his diurnal entertainment, and anecdotes of hosts and servants, that my object has been to write a memoir only, which must necessarily be somewhat monotonous to the reader, as well as fatiguing to the writer. I might, indeed, by recounting personal occurrences, and other matter, have easily filled a much larger vos lume; but I have principally kept in view, what, I considered, might be useful or interesting to officers on that station, as an

accompaniment to the charts and plans. I
trust that, in judging of this work, due
allowance will be made for those constantly
recurring interruptions I have endured,
which are unavoidable in carrying on the
duties of a man-of-war.
(P. 290.)

interest" of this quarto volume on
How legitimately the "use and
in excuse of its length, expensiveness,
duodecimo matter, may be alleged
and shamefully, inaccurate typogra-
phy, we have some doubt; as a cer-
tain great Logothete, however, is ac-
customed to say,-we are willing to
allow our author " the benefit of it."

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By an error of the press our last Number was marked VI. It should have been IV.

+ Thomas Delafield, the son of humble parents living at Little Hasely, in Oxfordshire, was born December 21, 1690. He received his education partly at the free school of his native place, and partly by the kindness of a neighbouring clergyman, to whose benefice he afterwards succeeded. At the age of seventeen he was candidate for the mastership of the school in which he had himself been a scholar; but, although supported by the petition of all the respectable persons in the parish, was not appointed by the trustees. By the desire of the neighbourhood, and particularly by the advice and patronage of Mr Carter, a gentleman of property and influence living at Great Hasely, he then opened a private school which met with great success, and shortly after, upon Mr. Carter's recommendation. he was ordained by Bishop Reynolds, and presented by his friend and patron to the vicarage of Great Milton. He subsequently became master of the free-school at Stoken-church, and had the curacy of Fingerst, in Buckinghamshire, when he resigned Great Milton; and, strange to say, outlived his two immediate successors, became a second time vicar, and again resigned it. He continued the school at Stoken-church, and resided there till his death, which took place probably before 1760. Mr. Delafield was a very voluminous author. His manuscript collections, which are mostly topographical (and all written in his own hand), came into the possession of Mr. Gough, by whom they were bequeathed to the Bodleian Library. They may be thus described.

1. Loose Memoranda relative to the County of Berks.

2. An Essay towards an Account of the Parish of Fingerst in Buckinghamshire. 3. An Account of the Parish of Chilton, in the same county. This has been printed

kings, and provided entertainment for the court; who was allowed the powerful prerogative of freedom of speech, and was permitted, without check or control, to reprove the vices, and satirize the follies, of his superiors. This was, indeed, to be effected by a witty allusion, or a smart repartee; for a grave sentence or a formal rebuke would doubtless have provoked displeasure, and probably have drawn down destruction on the moralist. It has been well remarked, that the license granted to the jester, or mimic fool, was very similar to that allowed to real idiots and madmen; namely, that they might do what they listed, and say what they pleased, without danger of being called to account. Dementiam simulat, cujus venia non dicturus modò prohibita, sed et facturus erat, says Justin; and thus Augustus, amongst his amusements at his public suppers, had his Aretalogi, his merry jesters, to season the enter

tainment, and amuse the minds of his guests, whilst his costly viands cheered and refreshed their bodies.†

The general licence of speaking without restraint, which was assumed by persons of the description we are now considering, appears to have been derived from the Fescennine sports of the Romans, where the most powerful could not escape from censure, and the mightiest were upbraided with their faults. An institution this, which was in some measure copied in the universities of this country to a period almost within the memory of man; when at a public act, one of the wittiest and boldest members of the University started up a Terræ-filius, and, after a joking and ludicrous manner, exposed in raillery and banter the follies and foibles of his betters.

Nor was it otherwise than a sagacious appointment that set up persons of this sort in the courts of princes. A plain, honest, and simple

in the Appendix to Dr. Bandinel's edition of Bishop Kennett's "Parochial Antiquities," Oxford, 1818. 4to.

4. Additions to "Magna Britannia" in Buckinghamshire.

5. History of the Parish of Stoken-church.

6. An Attempt towards an Account of the Parish of Great Milton. Printed for private presents only, with additions, by the Rev. Mr. Ellis, vicar of Great Milton; Oxford,

1819. 8vo.

7. Collections towards a History of the Parish of Hasely.

8. Additions and Corrections to Godwin's Catalogue of English Bishops.

9. An Attempt towards a Collection of those that have been Poets Laureate, Jesters, or Historians to our Kings or the Court of England.

The above is believed to be a complete list of Mr. Delafield's works in the University library, and it is not improbable that this notice may be the means of discovering others in the hands of private collectors: if so, it may tend to their better preservation, if we remark, that they are highly curious, and contain much valuable information.

* Justini Historia. Lib. ii. cap. 7.

+ Suetonius, Aug. Cap. 74, p. 104. ed. Bipont.

The sallies of these Terræ-filii however were oftentimes so indecorous that it was found necessary, at length, to prohibit the exercise altogether. Nor were the actors always permitted to attack their superiors with impunity, as the following original document sufficiently proves :

"Submission of Robert Field, M. A. of Trinity College, Oxford, and Terræ Filius of 1661, which he pronounced on his knees in the apodyterium of the house of convocation in the presence of the Vice-Chancellor, heads of houses, and the senior proctor. Aug. 6, 1661.

"I Robert Field doe here before this venerable company freely and apertly declare, that being the last act in the place of Terræ Filius, I did then in a speech there by me made, unadvisedly and injuriously asperse severall persons of eminency in this university, beyond the bounds of common modesty, without due respect unto the common rules of charity, and the knowne statutes and peace of the said university. Well therefore pondering with myselfe, and upon recourse had to second and more prudent thoughts, I professe my selfe swaid by the moment of my proper conscience to acknowledge my detested error, and my just sorrow for this my offence and misdemeaner: humbly beseeching, that this my unfeigned submission may be accepted, and confiding that this petulancy of mine shall never be drawne into example to the disturbance of the common peace, and the prejudice of academicall disciplíne.”

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meaning was not always the language of a court-obsequium amicos, veritas odium parit; and it was therefore the more necessary, in those days of rude authority and unlimited power, to tolerate some public person, who might be licensed to show men their errors, without being exposed to the lash of privilege and prerogative. They were, moreover, of no small advantage to great persons, since they acted as antidotes to the poison of flatterers, and sometimes induced their patrons to reform in earnest a fault that seemed to be mentioned but in jest. History records an instance of a jester being the only person in a whole court who dared communicate some disastrous intelligence to his sovereign;* and the quaint and entertaining Fullert says of Tarlton (a person of no mean note, who will form the subject of our next number) that he told Queen Elizabeth more of her faults than most of her chaplains, and cured her melancholy better than all her physicians.

It was

That (continues Mr. Delafield) which was called a jest, or wise saying, with our forefathers never let flye at vertue, nor trespassed on good manners. It was not by indulging a very little wit and a great deal of ill-nature, without reason, to expose men's characters or reputations. not to substitute frothy, light fancies, for good sense; nor wild incoherences of thought and language, for humour or wit. These are the growth and refinement of our modern times: which, through the licentiousness used by such as abused their liberty, turning the vrpañía facetia of

the Apostle into the word aforegoing, Mopohoyla stultiloquium, hath prevailed on the present age, with a great deal of good reason, to lay the office aside.+

The first Joculator Regis of whom we have any account, is Rahere, who was not only a royal buffoon, but the founder of St. Bartholomew's Hospital and Priory, and, be it known to the lovers of noise and revelry, we are indebted to his influence with his master, King Henry the First, for all the pleasures of Bartlemy fair. Dugdale gives an excellent account of the circumstances that led to this merry gentleman's conversion, and induced him, after playing the fool for many years to please the court, to play it once more for the benefit of religion and humanity, and finally to become Prior of the house he had himself founded. Rahere having spent his youth at court or in the houses of the nobility, to whom his wit and sprightliness rendered him peculiarly attractive, began to repent him of the follies and vanities of the course he had hitherto pursued; and, to expiate his crimes, and obtain a full remission, resolved to adopt the fashionable and only efficacious mode of getting absolution-namely, to take a journey to Rome. He did so, and fancied all was going on well, when lest he should die in his Holiness's unfortunately be fell sick, and fearing domain, vowed a vow to build a hospital for the poor, if he might but recover, and once again reach England. Rahere got better, and made good haste to get home; but, whilst

* It is related of Philip King of France, that when his navy was destroyed at Sluys, and thirty thousand of his best men slain or drowned (for numbers cast themselves into the sea rather than be taken prisoners), no person dared to disclose so terrible a disaster, and the task was at length entrusted to his Jester, who did it by continually repeating, "Cowardly Englishmen! Faint-hearted Englishmen !" &c. which induced the king to inquire why he so named them? Because, said his fool, they durst not leap out of their ships into the sea as our brave Frenchmen did." From which the king understood what had happened. Walsingham, Historia brevis, 1574. p. 134.

+ Worthies of England. Vol. ii. p. 311.

In former ages the courts of France and England were not thought completely embellished without a favourite idiot, who bore the title of the King's Jester, and who was as remarkably distinguished by a cap and bells, as his royal master was distinguished by his diadem and robes. This animal frequently assumed the face and behaviour of folly, to answer his own particular views and advantages. His bluntness and simplicity recommended him in those places, where truths, if spoke by a man of sense, were disagreeable and dangerous. Their expressions were often so full of humour and sarcasm, that, to this day, they are recorded as pieces of wit. Such was the famous reply of Archy to King James the First, when his Majesty amidst all his wisdom was sufficiently inspired with folly to send his only son into Spain. But fools at present are no longer admired in courts, or, if they are, they appear there without their cap and bells. Lord Orrery's Life of Swift, p. 280.

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