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whereupon the Duello and the Combat in divers forms doth ensue; and many other inconveniencies for lack only. of true knowledge of honour, and the right understanding of words, which here is set down. The contents of the several chapters are as follow: I. What the reason is that the party unto whom the lye is given ought to become challenger, and of the nature of lies. II. Of the manner and diversity of lies. III. Of the lye certain, or direct." IV. Of conditional lies, or the lye circumstantial, V. Of the lye in general. VI. Of the lye in particular, VII. Of foolish lies. VIII. A conclusion touching the wresting or returning back of the lye, or the countercheck quarrelsome. In the chapter of conditional lies, speaking of the particle if, he says, "-Conditional lyes be such as are given conditionally, thus-if thou hast said so or so, then thou lyest. Of these kind of lyes, given in this manner, often arise much contention, whereof no şure conclusion can arise." By which he means, they cannot proceed to cut one another's throat, while there is an if between. Which is the reason of Shakspere making the clown say, I knew when seven justices could not make up a quarrel; but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an if, as if you said so, then I said so, and they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your if is the only peace-maker; much virtue in if. Caranza was another of these authentick authors upon the Duello. Fletcher, in his last act of Love's Pilgrimage, ridicules him with much humour. WARBURTON.

319. -books for good manners:] One of these books I have seen. It is entitled The Boke of Nurture, or


Schole of good Manners, for Men, Servants, and Children, with flans puer ad mensam; black letter, without date. STEEVENS.

Another is "Galateo of Maister John Casa, archbishop of Benevento. Or rather, a treatise of the manners and behaviours, it behoveth a man to use and eschewe in his familiar conversation. A work very necessary and profitable for all gentlemen or other, translated from the Italian by Robert Peterson of Lincoln's-Inn, 4to, 1576." REED. 334. Like a stalking horse,] See catch-word Alph. 335. Enter Hymen,] Rosalind is imagined by the rest of the company to be brought by enchantment, and is therefore introduced by a supposed aerial being in the character of Hymen. JOHNSON.


342. her with his, whose heartWhose, according to our author's usual licentious manner, refers not to the last antecedent his, but to her, i. e. Rosalind. The old copy, by a manifest misprint, reads his hand. Corrected by Mr. Rowe.


346. If there be truth in sight,] The answer of Phebe makes it probable that Orlando says, if there be truth in shape: that is, if a form may be trusted; if one cannot usurp the form of another. JOHNSON. 358. If truth holds true contents.] That is, if there be truth in truth, unless truth fails of veracity.

JOHNSON. 369. Wedding is, &c.] Catullus addressing himself to Hymen, has this stanza;


Qua tuis careat sacris,
Non queat dare præsides
Terra finibus: at queat

Te volente. Quis huic Deo.
Compararier ausit.


382. Duke Frederick, &c.] In Lodge's Novel, the usurping duke is not diverted from his purpose by the pious counsels of a hermit, but is subdued and kill'd ̧ by the twelve peers of France, who were brought by the third brother of Rosader (the Orlando of this play) to assist him in the recovery of his right. STEEVENS. 424. To see no pastime, I:—what you would have,


I'll stay to know at your abandon'd cave.] Amidst this general festivity, the reader may be sorry to take his leave of Jaques, who appears to have no、 share in it, and remains behind unreconciled to society. He has, however, filled with a gloomy sensibility the space allotted to him in the play, and at the last preserves that respect which is due to him as a consistent character, and an amiable though solitary moralist.

It may be observed, with scarce less concern, that Shakspere has on this occasion forgot old Adam, the servant of Orlando, whose fidelity should have entitled him to notice at the end of the piece, as well as to that happiness which he would naturally have found, in the return of fortune to his master. STEEVENS.

It is the more remarkable, that old Adam is forgotten; since, at the end of the novel, Lodge makes him captaine of the king's guard,


430. -no bush,] It appears formerly to have been the custom to hang a tuft of ivy at the door of a vintner. I suppose ivy was rather chosen than any other plant,

'as it has relation to Bacchus.


434-What a case am I in then, &c.] Here seems to be a chasm, or some other depravation, which destroys the sentiment here intended. The reasoning probably stood thus, Good wine needs no bush, good plays need no epilogue, but bad winę requires a good bush, and a bad play a good epilogue. What case am I in then? To restore the words is impossible; all that can be done without copies is, to note the fault.

JOHNSON. 436. -furnish'd like a beggar,] That is dressed: so before, he was furnished like a huntsman.

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348. I charge you, O women, for the love you bear to men, to like as much of this play as pleases you and I charge you, O men, for the love you bear to women-that between you and the women, &c.] This passage should be read thus, I charge you, O women, for the love you bear to men, to like as much of this play as pleases them; and I charge you, O men, for the love you bear to women, -to like as much as pleases them, that between you and the women, &c. Without the alteration of You into Them the invocation is nonsense; and without the addition of the words, to like as much as pleases them, the inference of, that between you and the women the play may pass, would be unsupported by any precedent


premises. The words seem to have been struck out by some senseless player, as a vicious redundancy. WARBURTON.

The words you and jm written as was the custom in that time, were in manuscript scarcely distinguishable. The emendation is very judicious and probable..



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