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was a chest or press wherein the congregation; he was also called the Jaw was kept wrapped in embroidered Sheliach Zibbor or angel of the church cloth. The seats for the men and wo- or congregation. The next degree was men were separate. The women sal in the Chazanim, overseers or deacons, . a gallery in closed with lattices. The who had the charge and oversight of door-posts without and walls within, the synagogue, and all the things were inscribed with some significant in it. Under them were the interpretexts of scripture.

ters, who, upon reading the law in HeBesides the law, they used to read brew, inmediately rendered it in Chalthe Shema or certain portions of dee which became the most common scripture out of Deuteronomy and and intelligible language after the capNumbers; and the prophets also, from tivity. the time that Antiochus Epiphanes The times for assembling in the synaprohibited the reading of the law. Af

gogue, were morning, noon and even ter the reading and expounding were ing, on all fasts and feasts ; and thrice finished, any person of learning a week besides at the same times of knowledge in the scriptures might ad- the day; which practice greatly condress hinself to the people on moral tributed to preserve the Jews after the or divine subjects.

captivity, from that proneness to idol. The fixed and principal officers of the atry, which their forefathers had alsynagogue were called rulers; the min. ways shewn, by their so perpetually ister was to pray in the name of the falling into this sin.

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CHAP. XXIII.

The affairs of the Jews from the conclusion of the History of the Old Testament to the Coming of Christ. The Samaritan Temple on Mount Gerissim.

The form of Government amongst the Jews charged The Conquest of Jerusalem by Alexander the Great. Be grants the Jews miny Privileges, and destroys Samaria

The Jewus conquered by Pulemy Soter; and ill-Ir eated by Piilspaler. God revenges Their cause. Hyrcanus's Profuseness and Perfidy The Hgh-Priesthood set 19 sale.

Tre Temple is polluted, and the Inhabitants of Jerusalem siain. The War and Zcal of the Macabees. The Origin of the Great Sandheitrim.

A

S. S you have finisheł the histori- You must remember, that upon

cal books of the Old Testa- the expulsion of those whom Nehement with the death of Nehemiali,

miah had banished ; because they how shall I know the affairs of the would not part with their strange Jews from that time, till the coming wives ; many of thein seliled in Saof Christ with which the New Testa

maria. Among these

exiles there ment begins?

was the son of Jehoiada the high-priest, whose

Manasseh, He T. I will give you a brief account having marricd the daughter of Sante and connection of such occurrences ballat, put himself under the proteconly, as may serve to give you a tion of his father in-law; who after jirst idea of the state of the Jews the death of Nehemiah, revolted during this period,

from Darius, and

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obtain a grant from Alexander to himself of the higlı-priest's office, in build a temple on mount Gerizzim, virtue of the govemor's commission ; near Sainaria, and to constitute Ma- yet it was attended with this bad nasseh high-priest thereof; and this consequence, that Bagoses incensed at was the rise of the schismatical con- the news of this murder, came venticle of the Samaritans; and of Jerusalern, and imposed a heavy fine. the inveterate hatred between the upon the nation, which continued Samaritans and the Jews; for from seven years, or during all the rest of the building of this temple, Samaria his government, becaine the refuge of all refractory Jews. And though hereby the old

Artaxerxes Mnemon died of grief, superstition and indolatrous worship

at the brutality of his son Ochus, who

had terrified his eldest brother of the land was reformed to the worship of the God of Israel; they

Ariaspes, that he poisoned hinself, of Jerusalem would never consider

and had his younger brother Arsames the Samaritan Jews otherwise than

assassinat d. So that Ochus succeeded schis:natics and apostates.

On the to the dignity and empire of his father. other hand, the Samaritans maintain

In the third year of (chus, about 356 ed that mount Gerizziin was the only

before Christ, Alexander the Great

was born at Pella, in Macedonia. proper place for the worship of God ;

Ochus having reigned twenty-one years, they rejected all traditions, and adhered only to the writen word contained

was poisoned by lois favourite, Bagoas,

who, in hopes of getting the power only in the five books of Moses.

of the government into his own hands, Ncheinia h's death was fo lowed with put the crown upon the head of a change of government at Jerusalem. Arses, his youngest son; whom also Judea had no longer a governor of he poison:d soon aftur; and raised its own It was united to the pre

Codornanous, a distant relation of the 'fecture of Syria ; the rulers of which late king, to the throne. This new committed the adininisration of both king took the name of Darius, and civil and ecclesiastical affairs to the when Bayoas had also prepared a high-priest for the time being. By this poisonous draught for him, he oblimeans the high-priesthood became an ged hiin to drink it himself; by office under the appointinent of the

which means he saved his own life, heathen power; and trwards the latter and punished the traitor. end of Artaxerxes Mnemon's reign, who succeeded his father Darius No

Alexander the Great, about this

tiine succeeded thus, was conferred and disposed of

to the kingdom of by the governor of Syria and Phe- Macedon, on the death of his father, nicia. For , Bagoses, the governor,

Philip, (who was

slain by au52 took upon him to displace Johanan, nias, as he was celebrating the marthe high-priest, in favour of the said riage of his daughter, with Alexander priest's brother, Joshua. But this king of Epirus) before he set out nomination and appointment did not

upon the Grecian expedition against take place, for Juhanan slew Joshua

Persia, which he was chosen capin the inner cuurt of the temple, as

tain-general of the united forces of he endeavoured by force to possess

Greece, He also succeeded to that

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During the siege of Tyre, he de. Alexander was well · sarisfied with manded the submission of the neigh- his reception at Jerusalem; and, at bouring provinces of Galilee, Sama- his departure, granted the Jews the ria and Judea. The two foriner sub- free exercise of their religion, and mitted to hiin : but Judea adhered an extinption from tribute every sevin their allegiance to Darius, so long

The Jews were so well as he lived.

This brought upon pleased with this behaviour, that upthem the wrath of the conqueror; on his signifying that he would receive who, after he had taken Tyre by as many of them as would enlist into stratagem, by carrying a bank from his service, great numbers entered the continent to the island on which themselves, and followed him in his the city stood; and burnt the city other expeditions. The Samaritans

the ground, and destroyed the also went to meet him with great inhabitants in a barbarous manner; he pomp and parade, after he left Jee marched to Jerusalem, with vengeance rusalem, and invited him to their in his heart. Upon his approach this city. But Alexander deferred their ther, the high-priest Jadua and all invitation, and giving answer to their she city, were under dreadful appre petition for certain privileges they hensions. And having no other re- sued for, until his return froin Egypt; source but God's providential inter- and left his favourite Andromachus position in Ay to, they fasted and governor of Syria and Palestine. prayed; and God was pleased in a vision, to direct the bigh-priest, clad

Andromachus coming afterwards to in his pontifical robes, and attended

Samaria, to transact some business, with the priests in their proper habits,

was burnt to death in his house,

which was purposely set on fire, it together with the people, in white

was thought by the Samaritans, in arinents, to go and meet Alexander an eminence beyond the city.

revenge of the slight which they \Vhen Alexander Saw

imigined Alexander had shewn them.

But as soon as Alexander heard thereson moving towards him, and the

of, he caused all to be put to death, righ-priest in the front, he was over.

whom he apprehended had any hand i wcd, drew near, bowed down and aluted hiin in a religious inanner;

in the murder, banished the rest of

the inhabitants from Samaria, and leging that he did so in regard to ? 11t God whose priest he was : add

transplanted thither, a colony of Ma

cedonians, and the residue of the jo, moreover, that a person habited ke tbe high-priest, had appeared

country he gave to the Jews. to him in a dream, at Dio in Mace- Upon the ruins of the Persian, conia, encouraged him to invade Per- Alexander bad erected the Grecian si.t, and assured lion of success. Jad- Macedonian monarchy. But

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coming to Babylon, after having con- Alexander was

sooner dcada quered the greatest part of the then than Ptolemy Soter known world, he gave himself up Egypt. He had for some tine en

drunkenness and gluttony which deavourod to gain Syria, Phænicia soon put an end to his life.

and Judæa, out of the hands of La. ontdon, whoin

Alexander liad apWith regard to the character of pointed governor in the room of Alexander, it may be proper to ob- Audromachus, who was burnt; but

of a

having invaded thein by sea and land, bold and enterprising spirit ; but

together, he took Laomedon prisonfull of fire than di cretion.

er, and made himself master of all His actions, though successful, were those provinces, except Julca ; which executed with a furious and ext av

upon account of allegiance to the agant temerity. His virtues, few in

surviving governor, refusing to yield, themseives, were obscured with many felt afterwards the severity of the and much greater vices. Vain-glory conqueror. For he, understanding was his predominant passion; and

that the Jews would rather suffer the tables of the ancient Greek he.

death than take up arms

to defend roes were the only charts by which

themselves on their Sabbath, storinhe steered his conduct. His drag. ed Jerusalem, look it without resist. ging Betis round Gaza; his expedi- ance on that day, and carried above tion into India; his drunken

pro- 100,000 of thein

captives into cession through Carampania, and la- Egypt. king to himseif the name of the son of Jupiter, are 80 many vouch

From this time we may date the ers of this assertion, And were all Jews subjection to the kings of Egypt. his actions duly considered and esti

In the fifth year of this Prolemy's mated, he would be properly cha- reign, Onias the Jewish high-priest racterized the great cut-throat of the died; and was succeeded by his son age in which

he lived ;

all

Sinon the Ju:t, who was high-priest those are such, who delight in nine years, and completed the canon blood-shed, and who will sacrifice of the Old Testament; adding to it ALL to obtain mmiversal monarchy.

the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Whereas, they only are dhe Malachi, and the two books of Chronheroes, who most benefit the world icies; he was assisted herein by the by promoting the peace and welfare great synagogue.

His son Onias being of mankind. In a righteous cause,

a minor, Eleaza: his brother succeed. or a just defence of a man's coun- ed to the hig?-priesthood. try, all actions of valour are worthy of praise; but in all other cases, vic

Prolemy Soier was succeded by his tory and conquest are no more thau

sona Piwemy l'hiladelphus, who finished murder and robbery. Therefore Alex.

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mel, and the fainous library at Alexand vot to be follower, and deserves atdı:a, begun by his fa'her, and which abhorrence and ignominy, issuad of contained 700,000 volunes; amongst

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lation of the book of the law : this inake submission and pacify the ting. Ľ anslation was finish.d by the orders This expedient was accepted by the *}Eleazar 'the high-priest, and is high priest, and approved by the called the Septuagint, on account of people. the joint labour of LXXII transla

Jusuph all this time had entertained tors employed therein.

Athenion in a most elegant manner Ptolemy Philadelphus died in the at his own house; and at his de 39th year of his reign, and in the parture, made hun such valuable 630 year of his age.

He was

presents, that when he arrived learned prince, and a great patron of Alexandria, he found the king prelearning So that men of learning pared much in his favour lo receive Hocked to his court fiom all parts, him. He made hiinself also further and partnok of his favour and boun- acceptable to the king by informing ty. Amongst these were the poets hin concerning the and inTheocritus, Callimachus, Lycophron come of the revenues of Cælo-yria and Aratus, and Manetho, the Egyp- and Phænicia, whose value he had tian historian. But though Zoilus made himself master of by converse would have insinuated bimself into ing with the farmers, with whom his graces, his snarling wit, bitter he had travelled for some days on and ill-natured criticisins, drew upon his way to court; and on his out him a general odium, the aversion bidding these more than Jouble, he of all men, and king Prolemy's in- was admitted the king's receiver gedignation.

neral of Cælosyria, Phænicia, Judea and

Samaria. He immediately satisfied Prolemy Euergetes succeeded his

the king for the arrears duc from laher, Ptolemy in Egypt. At the

his uncle, with five hundred talents, saone time, O.sias the Just succeded

which he borrowed at Alexandria the son of Simon the Just in the

on the credit of his new office. pontificate at Jerusalem ; who grew

This office he enjoyed 22 years ; very old, weak, incor:siderate and

though he met with great opposicovetous. And Euergetes understand

tion at his first collecting, till he ing that the high priest had for ma

had brought some of the ring -leadny years withheld the tribute (wliich

ers to exemplary punishment. was annually to have been paid) sent Athanion, an officer of his court, to Je- All things were again composed risaleın to make a demand of it, being a at Jerusalem ; and Philopater hav. very large sum. This demanı, backed ing succeeded his father Prolemy with threatening to drive them out Euergetes in Egypt, and defeated the of their country in case they refused, army of Antiochus the Great, in threw the whole nation into great the fifth year of his reign he visitpouifusion. And boseph, nephew to ed Jerusalcın, among

the other the brigh-priest, having sharply rebu; cities, which by his conquest he ked his uncle for this act of injus. had recained. But this had like

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