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tainment he invited them to at the Phraates, the king of Parthia, eastle of Dochus. This Ptolemy having suffered much by this inva. did with a design to usurp the go. sion of Antiochus, endeavoured to vernment of Judea to himself; and oblige him to withdraw his forces, with that view he also sent a party by causing a diversion to be made to Gazara to seize John Hyrcanus, in his own country, in favour of DeSimon's other son. But John was metrius Nicator, who had been his informed of what had happened prisoner, and whom he sent into Sy and so prepared to receive thein, ria, to attempt the recovery of his that he dispatched the intended ovn kingdom. In the mean time murderers, and hastening to Jeru- this general massacre took place ; so salem, secured both the city and the that when the news of Antiochus's temple ; where he was declared death reached Syria, Demetrius was by the people his father's successor without delay or opposition reinstain the pontificate, and principali. ted on the throne. But the tyranny ty of the Jews.

afterwards of his conduct and proAntiochus thinking to avail him. ceedings, soon raised up a powerful self of these distractions, and being and victorious competitor to dispute oflended against Simon, and John the crown with him ; Alexander his son, marched with a large army Zebina, the pretended son of Alexinto Judlea, and beseiged Jerusalem; ander Balas ; who, assisted by Ptoand obliged John to accept of a peace lemy Physcon, king of Egypt, de. upon hard terms; such as disarming feated and routed Demetrius in the the peopkd and dismantling Jerusa- field, and taking him prisoner afterlem ; paying also a tribute for Joppa, wards in Tyre, whither he went for and other places held by the Jews òut refuge, there he died after sustering of Judea, and 500 talents to buy off many indignities from his enemies. the rebuilding of Acra. John after But Zebina being thus raised to the this, accompanied Antiochus to the throne of Syria by the king of Egypt, Parthian war, in which he signalized refusing afterwards to do homage, and himself with great renown; and re. acknowledge bis dependence on that turned home at the end of the year. crown, Ptolemy married his daughter But Antiochus, who chose to winter Tryphæna to Antioclius Gryphus, the in the east, was with bis whofe army son of Nicator, whom he had advance destroyed in one night by an insurrec. ed to the throne of Syria, and making tion of the natives ; who taking the war with Zebina, got him at length advantage of their being dispersed in into his hands, and put him to death. separate quarters thro'out the coun- Join took the advantage of the try, rose upon them, and cut their distractions and revolutions of those throats in cold blood : so that Anti: times, to throw off the Syrian yoke. ochus himself was slain ? and out of Ho harun the famoue nalace called

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ated upon a steep rock, fifty cubits Eleazar, a Pharisee, who declar-
high from the side of the valley, ing that John's mother was a cap-
which looked towards Jerusalem, tive and taken in the wars; he was
but was upon a tevel with the tem- therefore incapable of liolding the
ple. Herod made a citadel or it, high-priesthood
which he called Antonia, in honour It was under this John Hyrcanus
of his friend and protector Mark the two so fairous sects of the Pha-
Antony. He took several cities on risees and Sadducees arose in the
the borders of Judæa, amongst which synagouges, the latter of which he
was Shechem, the chief seat of the highly favoured at length ; for lar-
Samaritans, and destroyed the tem. ing been cducated a Pharisee, and
ple on mount Gerizzim. lle extend. incensed at their conduct on this oc-
ed his conquests over the Idumxans, sion, Jonathan, an intimate friend of
who were prevailed on to embrace his, and a Sadducee, made this a fit
the Jewish religion ; so that som opportunity to influence and draw
this time they exchanged the name him over to his party and sect ; so
of Idumeans or Edomites for that of that John renounced the sect of the
Jews. He renewed the alliance with Pharisees forever, and not only re-
the Romans, and obtained greater pealed their ordinances and tradi-
privileges for his nation than they tionary laws, but made it penal for
ever had enjoyed before ; and con- any one to observe them. This ar.
cluded his military operations with bitrary proceeding however lost him
the siege, and utter destruction of and his sons the affections of the
Samaria, under the conduct of his people for some time ; but having
sons Aristobulus and Antigonus put a period to this sedition, he live
After these great and memorable ac. ed in great peace.

He was an extions, he enjoyed full quiet from all cellent governor, and dying in the foreign wars ; and had nothing to thirtieth year of his administration, trouble him at home, but some short left five sons ; but the high-priestdisturbances which arose from the hood and sovereignty he left to Jufalse suggestions and insinuations of das Aristobulus, his eldest son.

1

CH A P. XXIV:

vernment.

Aristobulus assumes the title of King of the Fews. His character. Alexank!

Fannæus's Reign, Cruelty, It ars, and Death. Civil Wars in Fudea about the Succession. Pompey, the Roman General, seizes on the country and GoThe Sanhedrini removed, and restored. Antipater, the Father of

The Hard the Great, made Governor of Fudea. Antipater puisored. Tumults that attended this treason. Herod's marriage with Marianne, and Proinotion. The Parthians take Jerusalem, which is retaken by Herod : His Cruelty and impiety. ARISTOBULUS was the first, But when Alexander was settled on

since the captivity, that taking the throne, he put one of them to measures to change the form of the death, for having presumed to disgovernment into a monarchy, put on pute the right of the crown with the diadem, and assumed the title of him ; and took Absalom the younking: though by the law of God, ger, who was of a more philosophic these ofices were inconsistent, and and peaceful temper, into his favour, were not to be appropriated by any Having put his government on the but the Messiah. And as the regal- Lest footing he could, he undertook ity of these Asmonæans was very an expedition against Ptolemais ; but tottering, so there were great irre. being vanquished after by Ptolemy gularities in all their priesthoods.- Lathyrus, who came to the assistance The suspicious and cruel disposition of Zoilus and the Gazæans, he lost of Aristobulus“; his having cast his fine army; and was reduced to sue own mother into prison, and starved to Cleopatra for protection ; who her to death ; and imprisoned all his had seized upon Egypt, and having brethren, except Antigonus, whom thrust her son Lathyrus out of the being misrepresented to him after. government, obliged him to with. wards, in a fit of jealousy, he order- draw to the island of Cyprus, of eal to be murdered ; made his admis which he was then in possession.--nistration odious, and in short as his Cleopatra was at first inclined to take father ha! predicted ; and he gave advantage of Alexander's misfortunes np the ghost in great ansiety of mind, and seize upon his dominions and perafter a reign of one year only: in son ; but Ananias, one of her gene. which time however Antigonus had rals, by birth a Jew, and related to reduced the Ituræans to his obedis Alexander, disauaded her from tak. ence, and forced them to conform to ing so unjust a step, and obtained for the religion of the Jews.

him the protection he sought for.

is country being clear of foreign also, having fallen into an ambusi, forces, he attacks an takes Cadara which Obedas, king of the Arabians, and Amathus in Syria. But being had laid for bim near Gadara. This pursued by Theodorus, prince of

raised fresh discontents among his Philadelphia, who had laid up a subjects, and new troubles at home; considerable treasure at Amathus which was attended with the most he lost again the plunder he had unheard-of barbarities. For besides taken, with 10,000 of his men, and

the above mentioned slaughter of all his baggage. This however did his own nation, he continued hostili- not discourage him from attempting

ties against them during the space of the reduction of Gaza; which he six years, in wh-ch time upwar.is of could not have taken, had it not 50,000 Jews lost their lives.. All en. been treacherously surrendere i to deavours used and proposed by hin, him by Lytiina hus, the governor's to bring about a reconciliation, and brother. Here Alexander gave a to live peaceably, served only to indiscretionary power to his soldiers crease the hatred of the people ato plunder the city, and destroy the gainst him ; and upon his asking what inhabitants ; and was the author of would free them from ibeir troubles a most horrid and cruel srene of they unanimously demanded his barbarity committed there ; and re. death. At length having calleel in duced that ancient and famous city the assistance of Demetrius Eu. to ruin and desolation. After his cherus, king of Damascus they enreturn from the havock-and carnage tirely routed him. he had committed at Gaza, which After this defeat, Alexander re. excited the horror and indignation tired to the mountains, where he was of the people, be was grossly insult- joined with a reinforcement of 6000 ed by the populace at Jerusalem, Jews, who were much concerned at while he was offering the usual sa- his ill success ; upon which Deme. critices on the feast of tabernacles.- treus, anprehensive of his own fafe: But he made the people pay dear for ty, withulrew, and left the rest of it; for he fell upon them with his the rebels to fight their own cause, soldiers, and slew 6000- And from Shortly after the Jews themselves this time he took into his pay a large proclaimed war against Alexander ; body of mercenaries from Pisidia but in several engagements he gained and Cicilia, who always attended advantages, and at last having oblighis person, and be raised an inclosure ed the best of their men to shut of wood round the temple and al- themselves up in the city Bethome, tar, to keep off the people while he he laid seige to it, and took it: officiated.

and having got the men in his pow. This sedition being quieted, A- er, to the number of 800, he car. lexander marches against the Moab- ried them to Jerusalem ; and there ites and Ammonites, and made them gave a remarkable instance of his tributaries. In his return he demo. barbarity ; for while he sat at an Jished Amathus, which Theodorus entertainment among his had evacuated ; but he lost the bines , in a place from which he greatest part of his army, and with could see all that was done, he com. it had like so have lost his own life manded these persons to be cru

concu.

re

soon

cified ; and before they were half came lavish in their encomiums on dead, ordered their wives and chil. the deceased king, whom they hodren to be slain in their sights.- noured with more than ordinary On account of this and his other pomp and solemnity at his funeral. extraordinary cruelties, the Jews The Pharisees having got now the called him Thracian ;. because the management of the administration, people of that nation were and of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus marksbly cruel and bloody. Alex- the sons of Alexander, had all the ander after this resolving to revenge laws against Pharisoism abolished; himself on the king of Damascus, and recalled all the exiles, set priso. he made war on him for three years ners at liberty, and demanded jus. successively, and took several places; tice against those that had advised after which returning home, he was

the crucifixion of the 800 persons received with marks of great re- taken at Bethome. spect by his subjects.

The queen made her eldest son His desire for martial atchieve. Hyrcanus high-priest on account of ments not abating, though he was his years, and the native indolence almost quite worn out with sick of his temper. But Aristobulus was nesss, he undertook an expedtion a man of great ambition, and artful against the castle of Ragaba, in the and insinuating in his manner ; and country of the Gerasens, though, therefore, as as his mother through immoderate drinking, he seemed to decline, being ill of a had on him at the same time a dangerous disease, he meditated to quartan ague, which had continued bring about a revolution, and usurp three years, and now proved his the sovereignty from his brother death. His queen Alexandra, by at her decease. In order to this, his advice, concealed his death, till he had taken such etrectual mea. the castle was taken ; when re

secure the strong holds, turning triumphantly to Jerusalem, and engage the garrisons therein to she assembled the chiefs of the Pha. espouse his interest, that upon the risees, and having shewn them bis death of his mother, he found him. body, and made 'them large con

self strong enough to cope with, and cessions, told them they were at li. dispute the crown with Hyrcanus, berty to dispose of it, as they should though Alexandra had declared him think proper ; and that though her her successor. The armies of these husband had appointed her regent

two brothers, who were now com. during the minority of her children, petitors, met in the plains of Jcshe would put every thing in their richo ; but Hyrcauus being deserted bands, and would do nothing in the by most of his forces, resigned au administration, without their advice pretensions to the crown and ponand concurrence. This artful and tificate to Aristobulus, and was corinsinuating address to the Pharisees, tented to live peaceably upon his who were very powerful, est ablish.. own private fortune at Aristobulus's ed them so faithfully in her interests,

house. that they not only placed her with

This resignation was a subject the titres and honours of queen at

of great discontent as it had been of the head the government, but be disappointment to some of Hyr.

sures to

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