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panus's courtiers. Among whora ed ia Judes, and raised soine disturWis Antipaie", father to lerodd tie bailces there; but he was defeated Great: who ut length pursuaded in all leis attempts by Gübiiius, the Hyacanus to fly to ud solicit troops Ruin.nl governur in Syria: why, from Aretas king of Arabia. Froia coming to Jerusalemn, confirmed Hyr him he was supplied with 50,000 canus in the bip priesthood, but men, with wliich be entered Judæa, transferred the civil adininistration and gained a compieat victory user froin tie Sanhedrin, and placed it Aristobulus. But while he was be- iu tive courts of Justice, of bis own sieging him in the temple, whitlerie crecting, according to the nuinber of hud fled, Aristobulus, with the pro. five provinces, into which lie divided mise of a large suin of money, en- the whole kind. Aller Aristobulus gaged Scaurus, a lieutenius of Pom. had been conined five years prisupey, the general of the Ruman arms,
ver at lume, he with his soa escapthen at Damascus, to oblige Aretas io el into Jude:', and excicavoured du withdraw his forces : Aristobulus raise fresh troubles; but Gubianus w23 hereby for the present deliverid soon touk tiiem prisoners again, and from his brother. But le ulicrwards they being reinanded io Ruine, tie prevaricated from time to time io su faller Wüs kept cluse confiandi but many instances with Poinpey and the the children were released. two brothers maintained thcir pre
It was about this time that the citensions so vigorously, that they vil war between Pumpcy and Catwere the cause of a inust teiribie sur broke out. And when Aristu. slaughter, and of great culmitics tu tulis was on tie point of setting oui, the nation. For Pompey in the cause
in ihe interest of Cæsar, and to take of Hyrcanus took the te.nple sword
on luinn the command of an army, in in hand, in which near 12,00) order to secure Judca from Pompey's Jews perishel ; und lie maile Arisilie altcinpts, lie wis poisoned by some bulus with his children, twu suns iad of Porr pey's party. two daughters, prisoners ; ita ufill- When Cæsar was returned from warus retrenhed tiie dignity wil the Alcäitui holl war, he was inuch power of the principality, desirejud suicited to depuse Hyrcanus, in fithe fortifications, undermined the.cvor of Antigu.ius, ile surviving son liberties, ordered an annual tribute to of Aristululus; but Cæsar, instead be paid to the Ronians, resiuied Hyse of com.pl; irig there willi, not only coiioanus to the pontificati, and iaude lia firmud Hyrcanus in the high-pricstprince of the country, bit would lovt bual and principality of Judca, and permit him wear the diadem.
decreed both lo descend after hiin Pompey having settled the govern- to lis funily ; but lie abolislied ment of Judea in this matter, .e. the form of government lately sit turned in his way to Rome with up by Gubinius, restored the nu. Aristobulus, his sons Alexander eld' tion to its anciert form, and appoini. Antigonus, and his te langiris in
his son Phasacl gorernor of the coun- state into horrid factions and contine try about Jerusalem ; and his son He- sion ; he bribed the high-priest's rod, the governor of Galilee. Herod butler to poison his friend Antipasoon after his appointment to the go. ter, to make way for himself to be vernment, being of a hasty and bois next in power under Hyrcanus.terous temper, adjudged and put to Herod, making Cassius his friend, death, of his own power, Hezekiah, and having obtained his leave and as. a ring leader of a gang of thieres, sistance to revenge his father's with some of bis men, whom he had death, took an opportunity to have taken. Whatever justice there was Malicus murdered by the Roman in this act, it was presently looked garrison at Tyre. The friends of upon as an infringement of the pre- Malicus, having engaged the highrogative and power of the Sanhe. priest and Felix the Roman general at drim, before whom Herod was sum. Jerusalem on, their side, resolved to moned to appear and to answer for revenge his death on the sons of An. his conduct. But lest the sentence, tipater. All Jerusalem was now in. which that court might pass upon terested and in a public confusion him, should take effect, he fled to and uproar. Herod was sick at Da. Sextus Cæsar, the Roman præfect of mascus: so that the whole power and Syria, then at Damascus ; and liar. fury of the assailants was discharged ing with a large sum of money ob. upon Phasael, who dcfended himself tained of him the government of with great bravery, and drove the tu. Calosyria, he raised an ariny; with multuous party out of the city. As which he marched into Judea, in or. soon as Hcrod was recovered, the der to revenge the wrong and indignity two brothers joining, presently Quel which he thought the Sanhedrim in led the faction. And Hyrcanus made their late transaction had done him ; his peace by giving Herod his grand. but his father and brother prevailed daughter Marianne in marriage, with him to retirc, and stifle his re- and thereby prevented the effects of sentment for the present.
his resentment. While Julius Cæsar lived, the This faction was not so totally Jews enjoyed great privileges; but extinguished, but that several prin. his untimely death, by the conspi- cipal persons of the Jewish nation, racy of Brutus, Cassius, and other upon the defeat of Brutus and Cassius noble senators, when he was pre. joined in a remonstrance, and accus. paring for an expedition against the cd Phasael and Herod, to the conParthians, to revenge the wrongs and queror Mark Antony, of having u. insults offered his country, delivered surped the government from Hyrca. them up to be made a prey to cvery
But the brothers liad so good hungry and rapacious general of an interest with the conquerer, that Rome. Cassius immediately seized he rejected the complaints of the de. upon Syria, but chicfly oppressed Ju. puties; and made Herod and his brodea, and exacted of it 700 talents. ther tetrarchs, and committed the The envy and villainy of Malicus.
management of all the affaire
oriler and determination in this af. king of Judea ; and the Pit fair, he retained fifteen of the depu. delivered up to him Hyrc:|1s ties for hostages of the people's fide. Phasael. Phasnel impatient of horni lity and obedience. The Jews how and the servile chains with which he ever, when Antony arrived at Tyre, was loaded, and of the ignominious renewed their complaints, and sent death which lic apprehended they 1000 deputies to back and enforce would inflict on him,dushed his brains their accusations. Antony looking out against the wall of the prison.l'pon them only as a daring and tu. Antigonus however spared Hyrca. multuous assembly, ordered his sol. nus's life, and only cut oil his cars to diers to fall upon them, so that some incapacitate hiin by being thus mainof them were killed, and many ed, for the high-priestinod, and rcwounder. But upon llerod's going turned liim again to the Parthians to Jerusalem, the citizens revenged who left him at Scleucia in thcir l'ethis affront in the saine mariner upon turn to the east. his retinue. The news hereof so,
Herodon this occasion availed liimenraged Antony, that he ordered the self so woli of the foriner frien:Iship fifteen hostages whom he had dc. which had long subitsted between bis tained to be immediately put to death; fither, limselfand Antony, and which and threatened severe revenge a. he enforced by the promise of a cound gainst the whole faction.
sum of money, that in seven days After Antony was returned to time he obtained a tiecree çf the so. Rome, the Parthians, at the solici. nate, constituting him king of Jndea, tation of Antigonus, the son of A. with troops to support liis claim, and ristobulus, who had promised them declaring Antigonus an enemy to the a reward yf a thousand talents, and Roman state. Hercupon he immc. eight hundred of the most beautiful diately left Rome, and proceeded to women in the country, if they would Ptolemais, and having got together a set him on the throne of Juclea, en- large body of mercenary and auxiliary tered that country; and being join. troops, he soon reduced best part of ed by the factious and discontented the country ; took Joppa : relieved Jews, took Jerusalem without resis. Massada, which was beseiged by An. tance, and therein Phasael and Hyr. tigonus; stormed the castle of Ressa, canus, whom they put in chains : & must at that time liave taken Jeru. , but Herod had escaped under cover
szlem also, had not Ventidius and Silo of the nignt; and having taken with the Roman generals, that were direc. him about 800 relations and friends, ted to assist him, been bribed by A:1and lodged them in the impregna- tigonus,and treacherously obstructed ble fortress Massada, near the lake his success. Herod perceiving the Asphaltites, under the care of his collusion, contented himself for the brother Joseph, he limself went di. present, with the reduction of Gali. rectly to Petra in Arabia, and from lce; and hearing afterwards of Anto.. thence to Rome to demand protection ny's beseiging Samosata, on the Euand succours.
phrates, he went in person to him 10
his son Phas try abous
command eremies, wlich lie employed for that rod, y
pr Joseph, furpose. For he began bis reign thie defen. with cutting off all the members of contrary to the gocat Sanhedrim, except Pollio is to reduce and Sameas, otherwise called Hillel
most of his and Shammai. After this he raised his defcat lost Ananel, of the pontifical family at
mora again. Babylon, to the office of high-priest : Antony Jaring nied Herod a)! but Antony at the intercession of J:e requested, he directed l:is marchi Cleopatra queen of Egypt, who was 10 Jerusalem ; but the army which solicited thereto by Alexandra, Ma. Antory hed spared him was ronghly riemne's mother, prevailed with handled, and he himself wounded, in him to annul this nomination, and to 11:e attempt he first made ; bat he prefer Aristobr:lus to the pontificate ; :fterwar:1s had the good fortune to
and to this he was also much solicit. Jill Parrus, Antigonu's general, a d ed by his beloved Mariamne, sister entirely defeated the troops urder to Aristobulus. Ett as Hyrcanuis Beim ; and in the next campaign, was yet alive, and the Jews, in the After a siege of screral months, neighbourhood of his exile, paid liim assisted by Sositis, t.e Roman ge. all the horours and reverence they reral, he took the city of Jerusa. thought dire to their king and highlera by storm. The soldiers expect. priest ; llerod under a pretence of ing the spoils of the city as their gratitude for liis former good servi. Cue; and exasperated by the fatigues ces and friendship, wrote to him to which the long resistance and oppo. solicit leave of Phrastes, king of sition of the citizens gave them, spar. l'arthia, for his return to Jerusalem, crlnelther age nor sex in their rav. irtending only thereby to get him aging the city, ord would have ut- wholly in his power, with a view to terly exterminated and destroyed ev- cut him off at a ft opportunity ; hthing they met with, had not He. which he did soon after the battle of and redeemed them with the promise Actium,on a pretence of holding trea. of a very large sum of moner. Anti- sonable correspondence with Mal. gonus surrendered himself to Sosius, chus king of Arabia. who carried nim in chains to Antony;
In the mean time Alexandra, too and he, in consideration of a food confident of the infuence and interest sum of money, and hearing that the size liad with Clecpatra, formed a de. Bation grew seditious, and that cit sign of obtaining the regal dignity ofteir hatred to Herod, they conti. also for her son Aristobulus, as she nued to express a kindness for 'Ane had now procured for him the ponti. tigonus, he resolved to behead him fcate. L'ut the intrigues used on at Antioch. And thus in him the t'is score, ended in the d. ath of AAsmonaan family, which had lasted ristobulus, and at length in her own 129 years, became extinct.
and Marianne's death ; though these By this event Herod found himself tragic acts were perpetrated at dif. once more in full power, and at liber- furent periods, and under sundry disberty to revenge himself upon bis grises. Aristobulus was drowned
at Jericho, as it were accidentally, barbaritics some think occasion while he bathed himself with Herod; that severe remark of the Emperor Mariamne was put to death in a fit of Octavianus, that it was better to jealousy; and Alexandra was order. be Hcrod's log, than his son.' cd to be executed, prejudiced by ca.
so devoted lumnies raised against her, and a pre. court to the vanity and ambition of sumption that she wished his death ; his protector Octavianus, that he and the same unhappy fate pursued complimented him with giving his his innocent children, Alexander and name to two new cities he built ; Aristobulus, prejudiced by calum. the one built on the spot, where nies and suspicions, and for cxpres. Samaria stood before Hyrcanus de. sing their abhorrence of their father's stroyed it, which he called Sebaste, cruelty to Mariamne, their mother. the Creek word for Augustus ; the
Herod fearing probably that lie other Cæsaria, once called the tower might fall a sacrifice to Octavianus's of Straton, on the sea coast of Pæresentment after the battle, and the nicia. After this he built a theatre utter defeat of Antony at Actium, and amphitheatre within the city of hastened to the conquerer at Rhodes Jerusalem, to celebrate games and to pay homoge to him, and congra. exhibit shews in honour of Augustulate hirm on his success, with a tus ! and set up a golden eagle, the tender of his services to support his Roman ensign, on the gate of the interest in those part3. lle was temple, to the great scandal of the thereupon well: received, and ob. whole nation ; and carried his fiatte. tained from Octavianus a confirma. ry to the pitch at last of idolatry and tion of his authority, and assu- superstition, and built a temple of rance of his amity. It was soon white marble, which he dedicated to after his return home from Octa. commemorate the favouis he had re. vianus tirat he put to death his wife ceived from Octavianus Augustus.Mariamre, and Alexandra, lis 190. Such bold advances to idolatry and ther-in-law, &c. The guilt how. proplanation of the city, were the ever of such unnatural acts of
foundation of a conspiracy of ten elty exercised on those of liis own men, who bound themselves with an Piesh and blood, made way at length oath to assassinate him in the very to his breist. and Alled his mind thertre ; but Herod having tiniely with the bitterest agories of reflec. information thereof, seized the con. tion and remorse, and brought him spirators, and put them to death with into a languishing condition. And the most exquisite torments. what hclped to increase his affliction Herod, willing to do some public was the conspiracy formed against act, that might recommend him to him by Antipater, his eldest son by and ingratiate himself with the Jews, Doris, born to him whilst lie wes formed the design of rebuilding the