« AnteriorContinuar »
please. This convenient arrangement is very common in France. If you want to examine any town, &c., in a hurry, the best thing is to hire a laquais de place, at 5 or 6 francs a day (finding himself), to act as a guide and servant.
When travelling, “ a pair of leather sheets may be p'aced beneath the seat cushions, as a precaution against damp beds, which, however, are seldorn inet with in France or Italy. Essence of ginger is a useful stimulant; and a tea-spoonful in a cup of tea, on arriving after a day's journey, is very refreshing. Those who are in werk health, and travellers in general, should eat very sparingly of animal food on a journey, as it tends to produce heat and flushing. Black tea is one of the most useful articles travellers can be provided with, as it is seldo.il good in small towns or at inns on the road.” (Eivia Lee, Companion to the Continenta most useful Hand Book for the invalid).
As to personal demeanour, it is scarcely neccessary to add, that civility and kindness will procure a welcome anywhere. “One touch of nature makes the whole world kin,” says the poet. When the authorities (gendarmes, &c.) ask for explanation, be ready to give ir, with temper and openness. The most insignificant offical, abroad, participates in the cares of government, and assumes, in consequence, a very dignified air when dealing with a stranger; but do not mind this, touch your hat (this goes a great way, indeed, with every native you speak to) and answer him as politely as if he were the Préfect de Pulice. Above all things do not trouble your head about French politics.
Railways.-A full list of Railways is given in Bradshaw's Continental Guide, and they are so clearly indicated in this Hand Book, by printing the Stations uniformly in thic!: type, throughout the work, that it is useless to say much about them here. The map shows that all the important localities in France are now brought into daily communication with Paris and with each other. The only blank which remains to be filled up is the hilly district round Aurillac, between the Chemins de Fer du Centre and du Midi, for which, however, a scheme is projected, and portions of lines are in actual operation.
The great Railway Companies of France are six, corresponding to the number of sections in this Hard Book, and are as follows:
1. Du Nord, or Northern-Paris to Calais, Boulogne, Dunkirk, Brussels, Cologne, &c. Main line to Calais, 235 miles. Total, about 650 miles.
2. De l'Ouest, or West and North West-Paris to Rouen, Havre, Dieppe, Cherbourg, Rennes (towards Brest). Main line to Rennes, 232 miles. Total, about 740 miles.
3. De l'Orleans, or South West and Centre-Paris to Bordeaux, Nantes, Rochefort, Perigueux, Clermont-Ferrand, &c. Main line to Bordeaux, 363 miles. Total, about 860 miles.
4. Du Midi, or South-Bordeaux to Bayonne, Cette, &c. Main line to Cette, 297 miles. Total, about 600 miles.
5. De Lyons et à la Mediterranée, or South E:1st–Paris to Lyons, Marseilles, Cetto, Geneva, Grenoble, Salins, &c. Main line to Marseilles, 534 miles. Total, 1,210 miles.
6. De l'Est, or East-Paris to S:rasbourg, Mulhouse, &c. Main line to Strasbourg, 312 miles. Tutal, about 890 miles.
The total length of lines in actual working is about 4,750 miles. Bradshaw's Continentai Railway Guide registers all the new openings from month to month.
The traffic is carefully parcelled out to cach system of railways, and each line of the system, so that vehicles to places off a line, run from certain stations, and from those only.
in France, before a line is opened, not only the rail, but the carriages, engines, stations, and all other details are looked into by the authorities, with a paternal eye to the safety of the public, who on this side of the water are left to take care of themselves. French railways are cheaper and more comfortable than English ; the first and second class seats are stuffed, they are heated, in winter, with metal cases of hot water, covered with sheep skins; and first class fare is 1}d. per mile, on the average, while in England it is 3d. Children, however, pay full fare above six or eight years; in England, not till ten or eleven years. Trains do not run so often or so fast, but still they run much faster than in Belgium or Gerinany.
Full lists of coaches (omnibuses and diligerces) running from the stations on the railways, and the towns along the roads, are given in this work; as well as of the steam boats (bateauxà-vapeur) from the ports. Nearly all the Malles-Postes (mail coaches) have been superseded by railways. They still run, however, from Rennes to Brest, from Toulouse to Bayonne, viâ Pau, from Clermont-Ferrand to Montpellier, and on some other roads. Diligences (stage coaches) run six to ten miles an hour, at an average rate of 14d. per mile.
Weights and Measures are reckoned according to the metrical system, so called from the mètre, the fundamental unit for long, square, and cubic measures. Other units, all derived from the mètre, are—the litre (or cubic decimètre) for liquids and dry goods, the stère (or cubic mètre) for wood and solids, the are (or square of 100 square mètres) for land, and the gramme for weights; which last is the weight of a cubic decimètre of water at the temperature of 4o centig. All these follow the common numeration system; but to express tens, hundreds, &c., the French use the Greek prefixes of increase, deca, hecto, kilo, myria, i.e., tenfold, hundredfold, &c.; while for tenths, hundredths, thousandths, they use the Latin prefixea of decrcase (all ending in i), deci, centi, milli, i.e., tenth part, hundredth part, thousandth part. A Myriamètre = 10,000 mètres.
A Mètre, the base) _ (Ten millionth part of a quarKilomètre = 1,000 mètres.
of all the resis t er of the terrestrial meridian. llectomètre = 100 mètres.
Décimètre = 1 = y luètre.
Centimetre = '01 = ido mètre.
Millimètre = .001 = 1doo nèire. Thus they answer to decimals, altering their name and value according to the place of the decimal point.
ENGLISH FEET. | one or two of which need be used in pommon On this plan, a Mètre being ............ 3.281 reckoning a décimètre is
For example, it is customary to express all mcaand a centimètre is............ •03281
sures of Length in Mètres and parts, thus,
=1009-315 mètres, i.e. 1609 mètres
201•164 mètres, or 201 mètres In the same way, a Litre being ............ 61:028
164 millimètres. a décilitre is ............... 6·1028
914 mètres, or 914 millibut a décalitre is............... 610-28
mètres. CRAINS (TROY.) | 1 foot
•304 mètres, or 304 miili Again, a Gramme ................. 15432
mètres. a dócigramine is ......... 1.5432
but a décagramme is ......... 154.52 Measures of Capacity, in Litres and parts, thus, This system is simple and convenient, in spite of 1 gallon (inperial) = 4:54 litres, or 4 lit 54 centil the finc names with which it is encumbcrcd, only ' i quart
1.13 litres, or 1 lit 15 cen.it
E.-To compare Thermometers, remember that at the Continent. To convert degrecs arcanmur Inta
FAIR. CENTIGRADE REACH. Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 4, and to the Boiling point, 2120 = 1060 = 80°
quotient, add 32° (or if below freezing roint, subFreezing poi: 820 = 0o = 00
tract from 3:2°). Thus, 20° Reaumur will be found to there'uje 180° = 1000 = 800 correspond with 77° Fahrenheit. or
9° = 6° = 40 F.-For the Barometer, it will be sufficient to That is, 1° Reaumur = 21° Fahrenheit. remember that the two extremes, 704 and 779 milli
and 1° Centigrade = 11o Falirenlicit. | mètres Fr., correspond to the two extremes, 27:7 and Iteaumur's thermometer is generaily used on the '30:7 inchies English.
Forwarding Luggage.-Passengers are recommended to apply to Mr. George CATCHPOOL, Custom House and Forwarding Agent, 63, Great Tower Street, London, to have Luggage, Furniture, and Effects carefully, expclitiously, and cheaply forwarded to its destination.
SKETCH OF FRANCE.
France lies between latitude 42° 20' and 51° 6' north, and longitude 8° 15' east, and 40 40° west. The greatest length, north and south, of Dunkirk to Perpignan, is 787 kil. ; the greatest width, east and west, or Strasbourg to Brest, 802 kil. ; the least width being 735 kič. (Rochelle to Pont de Beauvoisin). Area, ircluding Corsica, about 54,452,600 hectares, or 136,131,500 acres, or 212,700 square miles (the British Islands are 120,560 square miles). The back-bone of the country, or line of “water shed,” is along the Jura and Vosges mountains, then to the west by Monts. Faucilles, then south by the plateau de Langres, the Côte d'Or, · and the Cevennes, whence it strikes west, to the Pyrenees. Its greatest off-shoot, the Dauphiné Alps, rise 14,108 feet at Mont Pelvoux, the highest peak in France; Mont Perdu, in the Pyrenees, is 10,994 feet; Mont Dore, in Auvergne, about 6,198 feet; Reculet, in the Juras, 5,683 feet. St. Véran, in dept. of Basses Alpes, Dauphiné, is the highest village in France, viz. 6,698 feet above sea level.
Six principal Rivers water the surface:—The Rhine, Meuse, Seine, Loire, Garonne, and Rhône. The smaller ones are the Escaut, Aa, Canche, Authie, Somme, Touques, Orne, Vire, Selune, Rance, Aulne, Blavet, Vilaine, Lay, Sèvre-Niortaise, Charente, Leyre, Adour. Tet, Agly, Aude, Orb, Hérault, and Var. Besides these, and ninety-four streams of the second class, there are 3,664 kil. of canals, making a total of 2,900 leagucs of Inland Navigation. The principal Canals are the following:-Du Midi, along the Garonne; du Centre, joining the Loire and Saône; de Bourgogne, from the Yonne to the Saône; de Monsieur. from the Saône to the Rhine ; de Briare, uniting the Yonne and Loire with those of Loire and d'Orleans ; de Si.Quentin, from the Oise to the Escaut; de Bretagne, from Nantes to Brest.
The Roads are in three classes ; 1st,-routes impériales (or “king's highway'), kept up by the state; 2nd,-routes départementales, kept up by the departments; and 3rd, -routes viciricikca ar cross roads, which are left to the communes. Some of the best are thirteen to twenty mètres broad, paved, and lined with trees; but the cross roads are dreadful. In the 36,855 communes of France, there are alcut 2,240,000 kil. of public ways, exclusive of rail. kays, which amount to abriut 7,640 kil.
Its eighty-six Departments, made 1789, by the division of the tsirty-three provinces which existed before, take names from their local position with respect to some river, mountain, &c., and with their chief towns, are as fo lows :
Each Department is placed under a préfect, appointed by the state, and is divided into three t, six arrondissements or Sous-Préfectures; these are parted (seven on the average) into cantons (2,834 in all) under juges de paix, and these again (six to fifteen each) into Communes, each having a maire, a parish priest or cure, and his subordinate or vicair. There are 40,430 priests in the 36,835 communes, besides 565 monasteries, for monks, and 3,400 nunneries. Before the revolution of 1848, each arrondissement had an electoral college comprising all persons paying 200 francs direct taxes, which returned deputies to the Chambre; under the present system, the Legislative corps are elected by direct universal suffrage. Fach arrondisse