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ment has a tribunale de première instance (or quarter sessions' courts); and tlie departments are combined so as to make twenty-seven cours impériales (or assize courts), twenty-one military goverments, and eighty-one dioceses, fifteen of which are archbishoprics.
About 47,000 primary Schools are established in the communes, superior schools or colleges in the towns, normal schools and university faculties, in the chief cities. Chambers of commerce exist at the ports and manufacturing towns ; public libraries in most large places. There are 183 fortitied places of war, in four classes.
Some of the best Cathedrals are, Chartres, Bourges, Strasbourg, Rheims, Troyes, Amiens, Abbeville, Beauvais, Metz, Rouen, Bayeaux, Coutances. The Romanesque style of the earlier churches corresponds to the round-arched Norman in England; Flamboyant, to the florid Gothic (with wavy, flame-like tracery); and Renaissance, to the Tudor and later styles.
The Soil of France is very fruitful, and best cultivated on the borders of Belgium ; from thence to the south the system gets worse. Fields are unenclosed ; farmers live near the villages, away from their farms. Most of them are mortgaged, and grow smaller and smaller by the law of equal shares. Corn is not drilled in, so that a fine crop of weeds springs up. Women reap, and the produce is threshed in the open air. Manures are used, but no more cattle are kept than are actually wanted. The best pasture is in Normandy and the west, where good breeds of cattle and sheep are seen.
About three acres in seven are arable, and half as much waste. Of 136 millions of acres there are about 20 millions of forest, 25 of pasture and meadow, and 5 of vineyards.
Wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, are the chief crops, the return being one-third less than in England; beet-root is grown for sugar, the annual production of which is 46,000 tons; French beans and other vegetables are raised in profusion ; maize for food; flax, hemp, tobacco, and a few hops, with rape and cole seed. Tobacco and salt are government monopolies.
Cider, perry, and a little poor wine are made in the north, down to a line running east-northeast and west-south-west thrcugh Paris. Vineyards are common, south of this; and from a second line, through Rochelle and Dijon, the maize or Indian corn begins. From a third line, east and west through Lyons, the olive and mulberry flourish; and the orange, lemon, cactus, and other semi-tropical plants grow on parts of the Mediterranean coast.
The Vine which thrives to a greater or less degree in seventy-six departments, yields annually 924 million gallons of wine, of which one-sixth is used for brandy (eau-de-vie) from the Charente, &c., and one-tenth is exported. Champagne, Burgundy, Bordeaux (claret), Roussillon, Dauphiné, Lyonnais, &c., are the best sorts. Stony soils are the most suitable for its growth. Bercy is the central market for wine, and Béziers for brandy.
The Forests, though extensive, are not too great for the vast consumption of charcoal for fuel. Lorraine, Burgundy, Ile de France, Orléanais, Champagne, Berri, Vivarais, Alsace, Dauphiné, are the provinces most abundant in wood. About one-fifth belongs to the state. Elm is the most common timber. Other timhers are the oak, lime, maple, and various ornamental woods; pine, (in the Landes, Vosges, &c.), cork tree (Pyrenées); the chesnut, for food; walnut, for oil; mulberry, for the silk worm (in the Drôme, Ardèche, &c.)
Coal is found or traced, in thirty-three departments, but worked only round Valenciennes, St. Etienne, Angers, &c., so that two-thirds of the annual consumption (4,150,000 tons ?) ig imported. New mines have lately been opened round Albi, Decazeville, Alais, &c., for which railway communication is now provided. Iron is plentiful, and forged at 4,400 furnaces. Copper is worked near Lyons. Brick and porcelain clay, chalk, gypsum, limestone (in most of the mountains), marble, granite (in Brittany, &c.), manganese, antimony, lead and silver, rock, salt, and slate, are all abundant.
Of eight hundred mineral springs counted, there are 50 or 60 principal Spas, in charge of medical inspectors, at Aix, Ax, Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Bagnères-de-Luchon, Bourbonne-les-Bains, Bourbon-Lancy, Cauterets, Chaudes-Aigues, Clermont-Ferrand, Dax, Eaux-Bonnes, EauxChaudes, Enghien, Luxeuil, Luz, Mont-Dore-les-Bains, Néris-les-Bains, Niederbronn, Passy, Plombières, Pierrefonds, Rennes-les-Bains, St. Amand, St. Laurent-les-Bains, St. Sauveur, Ussat, Vezelay, Vic-sur-Cère, Vichy, &c. They are annually used by 50,000 persons, one-half being strangers.
Linen, lace, cotton (at Rouen, Mulhouse, &c.), broad cloths, woollens, carpets, &c., are made in the north; silk, in the south, round Lyons, &c. About 24 million lbs. of raw silk are imported. Beavers and flamingoes still brced in the Rhone: the bear, wolf, wild boar, chamois, otter, with the ortolan, becafico, gecko, salamander, are also found in the south of France, where the musquito bites. Sardines or pilchards are caught on the shores of Brittany; tunny and anchovy, in the Mediterranean.
Perhaps the most striking parts of France for scenery, are Normandy, the Seine, the Lower Loire, Brittany, the Upper Garonne and Pyrenees, Auvergne and its volcanoes, in the Upper Lcire, the Cevennes Mountains, the Rhône below Lyons, the Dauphiné Alps, the Vosges mountains.
We may add a few notices of its past History. In Cæsar's time it was styled Gallia or Gaul, including the Belgæ, to the north and north-east; Celts, in the west, middle, and south; the Aquitani, in the south-west; with some Greek colonies round Marseilles. Fine remains of Roman civilization still exist at Nismes, Orange, &c., in the south, and even as far north as Lillebonne. It was afterwards divided into four, and then seventeen, provinces, by the emperors. Later still, it was occupied by the roving nations from central Europe, as the Visigoths and Ostrogoths, in the south ; the Burgundians, on the Rhine; and the Franks (4th century), on the Lower Rhine, who were descended from Meroveus, and, under Clovis (481511) the Merovingian, obtained so much ascendancy as to give this country the name of France.
Upon the death of Clovis his four sons shared his power and dominions, which were again united under the survivor, Clotaire. After several kings, and many divisions, during which parts of it took the names of Austrasia, (east and north-east), including the "kingdoms” of Metz and Orleans; Neustria (north-west), including the “kingdoms " of Soissons and Paris, where many Armorican Britons, &c., driven out of England, had settled ; Aquitaine (south and west); and Bourgogne (east and south-east); it was re-united and extended under the vigorous sway of Charlemagne (768-814), son of Pepin, and head of the Carlovingian race, which expired with Eouis V.
His successor was Hugues Capet, 987, from whom the descent is tolerably regular, though the kingly power was weak for several reigns. A succession of fourteen kings of this house (including Philippe Auguste and Louis IX., or St. Louis), ended in the direct line with Charles IV., who was succeeded, 1328, by Philippe VI. of Valois. Six kings of this branch famong whom are Charles V., called le Sage, who, however, lost Crécy and Poitiers ; Charles VII. in whose time the English lost nearly all they had gained in France; and the crafty
Louis XI.) ended with Charles VIII. Louis XII. of Valois-Orléans comes next, 1498. After him, Francis l. (1515) of Valois- ingoulème and fuur princes of the same stock, including Cbarles IX., the author of the Bartholomew 11:?sacre. Henry IV., or Henri Quatre, of Valois-Bourbon, ascended the throne, 1583, and was succeeded by Louis XIII., and other Bourbons, down to the Revolution, and the execution of Louis XVI in 1793.
Napoleon became emperor, 1804, Louis XVIII. was restored, 1814 (the child of his murdered brother had the nominal title of Lou's XVII.), and, except the "Hundred Days,” reigned till 1825. His brother, Charles X., was driven from the throne, 1830, when Louis Philippe of Orléans succeeded, and reigned till 1818, when the Third Revolution and Second Republic was effected, which terminated with the Coup d'état of 2nd December, 1852, and the restoration of the Empire, under Napoleon III. (son of Napoleon's second brother, Louis). The direct survivor of Louis Philippe is his grandson, the Count de Paris ; and of the Bourbons, Charles X.'s grandson, the Count de Chambord, or Henry V., as his partisans style him.
Population of France, in 1856, 36,039,364 (Block's Statistique de la France, tome 1, p. 34), (f which 20} millions are agriculturists, and only 2 millions manufacturers ; 8 millions are artizans, and the employés exceed half-a-million The exports valued at 71 millions sterling, and the imports at 59 millions. Among the latter were 160 million lbs. of cotton, 72 million jbs. of wool, 40 million tons of coal, 33,700 tons of iron.
GUIDE TO PARIS, PARIS, the capital of France, ..nd perhaps the finest city in Europe, is ou the Seine, 143 miles from Havre, 236 from Calais, and about 360 from London, from which it may be reached in eleven or twelve hours It lies in an oval, 15 miles round, on both sides of the river, that part on the north side being the largest; whilst the oldest part is on the Iles de la Cité and St. Louis in the river, or in the neighbourhood of these islands. Within the Barrières it contains 1,825,274 souls, 50,000 houses, 1,350 streets, 183 covered avenues, 30 boulevards, 13 parishes or arrondissements, 40 churches, 27 theatres, 50 casernes or barracks, and 90 public establishments. Thirty-seven communes beyond the Barrières compose the Banlieue, or environs, including Neuilly, Belleville, Batignolles, and other well-known spots. Both banks of the Seine (a mere canal in comparison with the Thames) are lined with 33 broad Quays, and large buildings, and joined by 27 bridges. The houses are so numbered that you can tell how near you are to the river (which runs nearly east and west), whether you are going from or towards it; the streets parallel to the river being painted in black letters, with the numbers down the stream (or west), and the streets perpendicular to it in white letters, with the numbers from the stream: the odd numbers are on one side of the street, and the even on the other.
The principal objects are the Champs Elysées, Tuileries, Palais Royal, Madeleine, Hôtel de Ville, Portes St. Denis and St. Martin, July Column, and Père la Chaise, on the north side; the
Hôtel des Invalides, Luxembourg, Panthéon, and Jardin des Plantes, on the south side; the Pont Neuf and Nôtre Dame, in the centre. Among the most lively streets and thoroughfares are Rues de Rivoli, St. Honoré, Vivienne, Richelieu, Neuve-des-Petits-Champs, the Boulevards (which thread the outskirts or Faubourgs), the Quays, &c. The unrivalled Passages, or Arcades, are also very gay, viz., the Passages des Panorama, de l'Opera, du Saumon, Jouffroy, Vivienne, Colbert, Choiseul, Vero-Dodat, Delorme, &c. Here all the knick-knacks, or articles de Paris, are sold. A circle of fortresses, 26 miles round, commands every point near the city. It was completed in 1846, at a total cost of 54 millions, sterling; and has given origin to a good French pun, “Le mur murant Paris rent Paris mur murant.”
On passing the Barrière, the baggage is examined. Porters, called commissionnaires, ply at every station or coach-office, who will convey the traveller to any of the Hotels for franc, or 1 franc, with luggage.
British Embassy and Consulate.-39, Rue de Faubourg St. Honoré. Hours for passports, eleven to two.
Hotels. There are a great many Hotels in Paris, some magnificent in appearance, but dear and uncomfortable: others cbeap but questionable. The following are carefully selected as deserving our recommendation:
The Grand Ilotel and Hotel du Louvre, situate in the Boule-1 Hotel Navarin, 8, Rue do Navarin, very comfortable and vard des Capucines, and in the Place du Palais Royal. quiet. Table d'Hôte and Restaurant.
Hotel des Deux Mondes et d'Angleterre, 8, Rue d'Antin, Hotel de Londres, 8, Rue St Hyacinthe, St. Honoré, near first rate, cannot be too highly recommended for its comfort, the Palais Royal and the Tuileries. cleanliness, and charges.
Grand Hotel de l'Univers, 28, Rue de Chalons, opposite Splendide Hotel, Place de l'Opera, Rue de la Paix and the Railway Station of Lyons. Avenue Napoleon ; magnificent establishment, with all the Hotel du Congres et du Colysée, 28, Rue du Colysée, quiet, apartments in front.
comfortable, and clean. St. James's Hotel. 211, Rue Saint Honoré; excellent. The Hotel du Prince Regent, 10, Rue St. Hyacinthe, St. Hotel Bergere, Rue Bergere, belong to the same proprietor. Honoré; good accommodation, moderate prices.
Grand Hotel Mirabeau, 8, Rue de la Paix, an excellent | Maison de Famille.-Mansion, 26, Avenue de Friedland, house, in the finest part of Paris; good Table d'Hôte at 5 fr. kept by Mrs. Taylor.
Hotel Meurice, 223, Rue de Rivoli ; fine situation; con. Hotel Brucelles, 33, Rue du Mail, conveniently situated; ducted by H. Scheurich.
moderate charges. Hotel Bedford, 17 and 19, Rue de l'Arcade, near the Hotel de Belgique et de Hollande, close to the principal Madeleine, excellent in every respect.
Boulevards. Hotel de la Place du Palais Royal, 170, Rue de Rivoli; | Muller's Royal British and American Hotel, 39, Rue Pas. comfort, good situation, and moderate charges.
quier, close to the Havre and Dieppe Stations. Hotel des Etrangers, 3, Rue Vivienne, good situation and | English Fainily Boarding House, 3, Cité Retiro. Entrance, comfortable. N. Lepany, new Proprietor.
Rue Boissy d'Anglas, and 30, Faubourg St Honoré. Hotel Buckingham, 32, Rue Pasquier (ex Rue de la Made Grand Hotel Jules Cesar, Avenue Lacuée, and 20, Rue de leine). The proprietor speaks English.
Lyon. Kept by Mr. Callais, Moderate charges Grand Hotel du Parlement, Boulevard de la Madeleine, Hotel de Dunkerque et de Folkestone, 32, Rue Lafitte, overand 18. Place de la Madeleine: well situated, comfort, looking the Boulevard des Italiens.-Mrs. Dorff, proprietor. moderate charges.
Grand Hotel de la Louisiane, 39, Rue du Colisée, near the Hotel de Lille et d'Albion, 223, Rue St. Honoré, a well Colisée and the Boulevards, recommended. conduc'ed good house.
Hotel Stehr, 74, Boulevard Magenta; very good English Hotel de Rivoli, 202, Rue de Rivoli, kept by L. Provost; Establishment ; very moderate charges. very good, opposite the Tuileries ; charges moderate.
Hotel Meyerbcer, situated at the round point of the Grand Hotel de Normandie, 256, Rue St. Honoré, good Champs Elysées. Eutrance 2, Rue Montaigne. and moderate.
Grand Hotel de Rome, 1, Rue de Rome, close to the MadeHotel de Calais, 5, Rue Neuve des Capucines, a comfortable leine, the Cuamps Elysées, and the Boulevards. and reasonable house..
Hotel du Patais (Family Hotel), 28, Avenue cours la London and New York Hotel, conveniently situated, near Reine. the Madeleine and Champs Elysées.
Hotel de Paris and Albion, 41, Rue Caumartin. Kept by Hotel Folkestone, 9, Rue Castellane, very comfortable, and Mr. Bellé, new proprietor. charges moderate.
Hotel Liverpool, 11, Rule Castiglione. Well situated Hotel Vouillemont, 15, Rue Boissy d'Anglas, near the between the Tuileries Gardens and the Rue de la Paix. Madeleine, in a good situation; good and quiet.
Diner Europeen, formerly Palais Royal; now 14, BouleHotel de la Grand Bretagne, 14, Rue Caumartin, very vard des Italiens. Entrance, Rue Lepeletier, 2. quiet, recommended.
Hotel Scribe (Private Hotel), Rue Scribe, l. Hotel du Chemin de fer du Nord, Place du Chemin de fer Hotel de France et de Bath, an excellent hotel in a good du Nord ; very good hotel for families and gentlemen. eituation.
Hotel du Prince Albert, 5, Rue St. Hyacinthe, St. Honoré, Hotel Violet, Passage Violet, very quiet ; recommended. near the Tuileries; recommended.
Hotel Brighton, 218, Rue de Rivoli ; a good Hotel, clean Hotel St. Petersburg, 35, Rue Caumartin, near the Made- and quiet. Charges moderate. leine and the new Opera. Arrangements by the day, | Hotel de York. -An exceedingly clean House, in a fino everything included : 10 fr. and upwards.
situation. Hotel des Etats Unis, 16, Rue d'Antin.-F. Motte, Grand Hotel de Nalte, Rue de Richelieu ; very central, proprietor.
comfortable, and quiet. Terms pioderate. Grand Hotel de la Havane, 44, Rue de Trevise, kept by Hotel du Nouvel Opera, 48, Rue Chausée d'Antin, near Misses C. und L. Abry.
the New Opera, the Boulevard des Italiens and the Madeleine. Hotel Bergeron, ii, Rue du 29 Juiellet, opposite the Grand Hotel de la Bourse et des Ambassadeurs, 17, Rue Tuileries, near the Place Vendome. Moderate charges. Notre Daine des Victoires. Arrangements per week at Family Hotel, 6, Rue Castiglione, near the Tuileries Gardens. moderate terms.
The Educational Institution for Young Ladies of Madame Cherrier, 60, Faubourg St. Jaques, is recommended with great confidence.
To Visitors passing only One Day at Paris, the following general instructions may be of service. " Take up your abode at one of the Hotels near the Boulevards, or the Rue St. Honoré. Breakfast at 8 o'clock, walk along the Boulevards, from the Boulevard des Italiens, to the Madeleine, one of the most beautiful and modern churches in Paris. Here you may take a Remise (a superior kind of cab, something like an English Brougham), for which you will have to pay 2 francs 25 cents. an hour. The coachman expects about 5 sous the lour. If you give the driver to understand that your object is to see all you can of Paris, he will take you by the most public streets, and point out the principal public buildings in the line of route. You will find Remises in nearly every street, under some shed or building, and often, as the cabs, threading the streets or on the stands. They are always ready, and you will find the coachmen sometimes civil and obliging. They are known by a red figure.
"Drive then to Nôtre Dame (see below for description of the places mentioned), visit the Palais de Justice and the Sainte Chapelle, which is very nco: it. Then proceed to the Gardens and the Palace of the Luxembourg. You will only have time to view the exterior, and to take a momentary glance at the Picture Gallery, filled with the works of living artists, which it contains. Direct your course next to the Hôtel des Invalides, where your passport will gain you admission to see the church, and tomb of Napoleon, one of the richest sights in Paris, if on a Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday, or Sunday, after twelve o'clock. From the Invalides, drive to the Place de la Concorde, and here (discharging your Remise) walk through the Gardens of the Tuileries, to view the Palace, whose principal front faces them. Go out by one of the gates on the left, into the Rue de Rivoli, and cross over to the Palais Royal, which, with its shops, cafés, and restaurants, is always interesting. At the southern extremity, the end facing the Louvre, is the Palace now inhabited by Prince Jerome Bonaparte, uncle to the present Emperor, and by Prince Napoleon and the Princess Clothilde, his wife. Near the Palais Royal you will find a luncheon, from 1 franc 25 centimnes (1438.), upwards. After lunch, a few minutes' walk will take you to the Louvre and the Place du Carousel. In this place you will do well to pause a moment, to reconnoitre the extensive pile of buildings that surround you on every side, and the two palaces, the palaces of the Louvre and the Tuileries, on the right and left of you, as well as the triumphal Arch which rises before the entrance into the château. After this, you will be able to spare a little time to inspect some of the galleries Jf curiosities and paintings which the Louvre contains. The Louvre may be entered any day of the week except Monday, by a passport, which is never now demanded. On Sundays it is open to the public without restriction, and always closes at 4 in the afternoon.
ou When you leave the Louvre, you would do well to take another Remise by the hour, drive through the Place de la Concorde and the Champs Elysées, to the Barrière de l'Etoile. Outside this Barrière is the magnificent arch, the Arc de Triomphe, which it will well repay you to mount. Should you like it, you can prolong your drive to the Bois de Boulogne, remembering to visit the Chapel of St. Ferdinand, which is situated a hundred yards or so, in the avenue opposite the Port Maillot. The Bois de Boulogne, in which two lakes have been constructed, is a most fashionable resort between the hours of four and six; and here about the same time, when they are in town or at St. Cloud, the Emperor and Empress may often be seen. The charge for the Remise, for coming outside the Barrière, is three francs per hour.