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Leannec, the physician, General Cambronne, were halle. It has a goud hospital and government
From Napoléon-Vendée, to the west, you pass Palais, or Pallet, in this neighbourhood, on the road FONTENETTES, or Venansault (6 kil.), whieh has to Clisson (Route 41), was the native place (1079), of ruins of an abbey, with a good mineral spring in Abelard. The Chateaux of Haute Goulaine and Sail- the midst. LA MOTHE ACHARD (12 kil.) is the leraye, near Nantes, are worth seeing,
next place. Then comes Conveyances, by steamer-to Bordeaux, three times a SABLES D'OLONNE (15 kil.), a sous-prefécture in week, in 26 hours, 12 and 15 francs; to Angers (up the department Vendeé (pop., 5,900), bathing place Loire), daily, in-hours; and to Tours (36 hours from and port, on the sands (sables) of the Bay of Nantes). They run slow, especially in summer, when Biscay. Batteries defend the harbour, which: the water is low, but the views are pleasant, To Nort admits vessels of 200 tons. (up the Erdre), daily; above it, in a pretty part where Hotels. -De France; de Cheval Blanc(White Horse). the river is like a lake, is Gâcherio château, where Coach to La Rochelle, Nantes, &c. Marguerite de Navarre lived, when she wrote the Ile Dieu is about 12 leagues north-west.] “Heptameron,” a collection of licentious tales. To From Nantes, the next station down the north side Paimboeuf (down the river), twice a day, touching at of the Loire, is St. Nazaire, &c. To Brest (touching at Belle Isle and La Bourse, and then Lorient) weekly, in 20 hours; 18 and 25 francs. Coaches Chantenay (2) miles). to Clisson, les Sables, Napoléon-Vendée, St. Her- Basse-Indre (34 miles). Here small frigates moine, Rennes, Brest, in Route, 15; Vannes, Lorient, and steamers are built, the engines being made at the Quimper, Redon, La Roche-Bernard, in Route 42. government factory, on the island of Indret, opposite (From Nantes, on the road to Sables d'Olonne and it, which is covered with tall, smoky chimpeys. to La Rochelle, you come to
Coueront (3 miles) takes name from a village on
the south bank, formerly the outer port to Nantes. NAPOLÉON-VENDÉE.
Here Francis II. of Brittany died.
St. Etienne de Montluc (41 miles).
Savenay (6} miles), a small sous-prefécture in This small capital, of department Vendée, was department Loire-Inférieure, of 2,000 souls, where the
formerly called Roche-sur-Yon, from an ancient Vendéans were finally routed, December, 1793. Here castle on the precipitous rock over the Yon, the branch lines from Brest to Rennes, via Redon, which Oliver Clisson took from the English, 1373, will fall in. and which came to the Trémouilles and Bour- Donges (103 miles) and its salt marshes. Coach bons, and was razed by Louis XIII. On its site to Lorient, &c. (Route 42). is a large caserne, or barrack, near the statue of [Opposite this station (6 kil.) is Napoléon, put up 1844. Between it and the PAIMBEUF, near the river's mouth, a sous-proformal modern town is the old bourg and its fecture and port of 4,500 souls, with a strong steep streets. The Emperor made the town the mole, 217 feet long, where large ships lie. It is head of the department, 1805, altering the name not older than the last century. Coaches go from to Napoléon-Ville ; this was changed to Bourbon- this to Vendée, 1815, in return for the attachment PORNIC, 12 miles south-west, a healthy wateringshown by the Vendéans to that family. It is, place, with an old château, on Bourgneuf Bay, in for the present, called Napoléon-Vendée.
the Bay of Biscay, opposite Noirmoutiers Island, The Prefecture is an immense pile, round three
which had a Benedictine or black (noir) abbey.) sides of a square, and contains a library of 5,000 Montoir (47 miles). The last station is vols., &c.
In Place Royale are some public St. Nazaire (31 miles), a rocky port and packet buildings and hotels, with a bronze, by Maindron, station, with a pop. of 4,000 fishermen, &c., at the of General Travot, a native, and the "Pacifi- Loire's mouth, commanded by Fort Mindin, on the cateur de la Vendee, 1838,” when the Vendéans opposite bank. The dangers are numerous about here. again rose in behalf of the Bourbons. The Church A large floating basin is just completed at St. Nazaire, is in the Greek style, with a Doric portico, two which furnishes it with a useful harbour, not only domes, &c. Behind is the theatre, and a public for merchantmen, but for small men-of-war. It is a
rectangle of about 45 acres, with 14 to 25 feet water, and mules, the breed of which are of noted exhaving two jetties up and down the stream, at the cellence. Three old châteaux, Lezay, Marais, entrance, defended by a strong mole. Vessels enter and Boissec, are within a short distance.) and leave at high tide. As soon as the tide begins to St. Maixent (41 miles). Coach to Parthenay ebb, the gates are shut, and not opened till it flows (30 kil.), as in Route 41. @zain to the level of the water retained in the basin. (At 14 kil. north is CHAMPDENIERS, which has maSteam packets to Vigo, Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibraltar, and nufactures of hats and tiles; and stock fairs, Malaga, the 5th, 15th, and 25th of every month.
which the Spanish dealers attend to buy Two dolmens, or Druid stones, are found near St. mules, &c.] Nazaire ; and, at 12 miles to the north-west, are Batz, La Creche (6 miles). At 83 miles further is Guérande, &c., and their salt works. GUÉRANDE (pop., 8,000) is a good specimen of a genuine Breton
NIORT, 49 miles from Poitiers. town, with gable houses, old stres, a Gothic church, HOTELS.-De France ; &c.
Des Postes; West of this, on the coast, is the bathing-place of Du Raisin-de-Bourgogne (Burgundy Grape) ; CROISIC. It has a large stone spire church; and, 18 De l'Aigle d'Or (Golden Eagle); kil. off it, is Le Four rock and lighthouse, 98 feet Du Grand Cerf (Stag). "high. Belle Ile, &c., are in the distance.
Cafés.-Français (in Rue Royale); des Colonnes, &c.
This capital of the department Deux-Sèvres (for
merly of the Niortaise district, a part of Poitou), on a Poitiers to Niort, Rochelle, and Rochefort. hill-side over the Sèvre-Niortaise, has good prome
By rail, to Rochefort, 138 kil., or 84 miles. Three nades, and is, on the whole, well laid out. Notre trains daily, 4 to 51 hours.
Dame, one of its two churches, was built in the Gothic Poitiers, stat., as in Route 35. Then to style by the English, with a tower, 295 feet high. St. Benoit, where our branch line turns off to The Hôtel-de-Ville was the palace of Eleanor d'AquiCoulombiers (12 kil.) To the north of this is taine, and has an ancient horloge, or clock-tower.
CROUTELLE, a place noted for the cunning of its But the greatest curiosity is the Château, of which people, so that "finesse de Croutelle” is a proverbial the donjon is now the maison d'arret, or prison. Maexpression in vogue.
dame de Maintenon's father was in confinement here Lusignan (104 miles), on the Vanne, in a plea- when she was born. Other objects of notice aresant spot, in department Vienne, has a good view the college; musée and school of design ; a bibliofrom the site of its great Castle, which was taken and thèque of 20,000 vols. (many rare) besides valuable razed by the Duke of Montpensier, 1574, and which MSS. ; the theatre; public baths; large barracks; gave name to Guy of Lusignan., the Crusader, who hospital for 400; the Fontaine de Vivier, an artesian became King of Jerusalem and Cyprus. The family well, 108 feet deep, which supplies the town; and the tombs are at the capital of Cyprus, and his de Passage du Commerce, a covered way, in Rue Royale. scendant, the King of Sardinia, still claims those A pretty spot in the neighbourhood is the Cambon dominions through him. Good macaroons are made, brook; some Druid stones are also to be seen. and there is a trade in grain, seed, &c. Population,
Manufactures of chamois leather for gloves and 2,500.
breeches; flannel, &c., and angéliques (a sweetmeat); Rouille (3} miles).
and a trade in grain, wine, vegetables (which are Pamproux (41 miles).
plentiful). Its fairs for cattle, horses, and goods in La Villedieu-du-Perron (47 miles). general, were so famous, and at the same time so At 22 kil. south-west is
convenient for match-making, that the ages of marMELLE, a sous-préfecture of old houses, in depart- riageable girls were reckoned by the numiver they had
ment Deux-Sèvres (pop. 2,600), on a hill, in a attended—“Elle a tant de foires, plus seize ans"—(She fertile spot over the Béronne, which dries in l is so many fairs more than sixteen years old). Two summer. It has a college, a pepinière, remains large fairs are now held at Champdeniers above-menof old walls, a tower called Mallezeard, and the tioned. sulphur spring of Fontadau, which is found Conveyances to Napoleon-Vendée, Nantes, Fonte useful in cutaneous diseases. Woollens are ma- nay, &c. nufactured ; and it possesses a trade in grain, [FONTENAY-LE-COMTE (31 kil. north-west), a souswool, trefoil seed, cattle, and especially in asses préfecture in department Vendée, prettily placed on a hill over the river Vendée, in a plain where streets are regularly laid out; the houses are not four great roads meet. Population, 7,960. The more than two stories high. A large fountain stands college or high school is well-built. The fountain, in Place d'Armes, or Place Colbert, so named after which gives name to the town, is rather elegant. the founder of the town. There is an extensive Notre Dame Church, is a fine Gothic structure, suburb rising up beyond the line of fortifications. with a well proportioned spire of 269 feet, a good The church of St. Louis, near the college, was reportal, a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration, and built in 1839. There are also a Hotel de Ville, a one of Lefevre's best productions, over the altar. musuem in Rue de l'Arsenal, an observatory, an exTrade in grain, timber, and wine.
change, navigation and other schools, foundling Hotel.-Du Chapeau Rouge.]
hospital, cemetery, and the civil hospital, built by Frontenay-Rohan (3} miles).
the intendant Bigon, who greatly improved the town, Epanes (2miles).
1688-1710. The botanic gardens of the school of mediMauze (4 miles), a little village, noted for its cine are near the garden of the Maritime Préfect. breed of asses, and having a good trade in spirits, Asmall mercantile port lies outside Porte Martron. wine, and linseed oil. The high road to Rochefort But its most important feature is the Arsenal or turns off hero.
Military Port, the entrance to which (by order) is Surgeres (41 miles). Coach to St. Jean d'An- through Port du Soleil. It includes the large changely.
tiers de construction (building slips) and floating (ST. JEAN D'ANGELY (30 kil. south-east), a sous-pré- basin; ateliers des fonderies, for cannon and steam
fecture of 6, 200 souls, in a pleasant part of the engines; forges and sheet iron works; ateliers d' Boutenne, having an old Benedictine abbey ajustage, or fitting shops ; shops for capstans, ridders, (uow a school), and a large trade in cognac blocks; masthouses, workshops, saw mills, moved by brandy.]
Saubreuil's machinery; corderie, or rope house, 1,300 Aigrefeuilles (91 miles). Here is the junction feet long; salle d'armes or armoury, and gun wharf; with the branches to Rochefort, on the south (A.) magasin de vivre, or Victualling Office, an old building, and to La Rochelle, on the north (B.)
in which are 40 ovens, and machinery for making biscuits; store houses, 1,300 feet long; the Commandant or Préfect's hotel; three casernes, or barracks, for the sailors and marines; and a large new dock, now
making, in addition to two others. The Bagne, or ROUTE 37-A.
convict depôt, the inmates of which were sent off to To Rochefort.
Cayenne, 1852, is now turned into magazines. Outside
the town is the hôpital de la Marine, a large building The next station is
or mass of buildings, by Touffaire, with 1,200 beds in Cire ( miles). And at 9; miles from Aigre | it, a museum of natural history, a library of 5,000 feuilles, is
volumes, besides the public library of 10,000. An ROCHEFORT,
avenue called the Cours d'Ablois leads up to it. 2933 miles from Paris.
Rochefort stands in a pestilential marsh, which, how
ever, has been so well drained, at least, in and around The debarcadère is near Porte de Charer te.
the town, that deaths, which were 1 in 11, have fallen HOTELS.-Des Etrangers; Du Grand Bacha. to 1 in 26. Excellent vegetables and fish are to be had. Rev.
There are some iron and copper works in the town, M. Peraux is Protestant pastor here.
with an horlogerie or clock factory; and a trade in This is a sous-préfecture of 19,000 souls, seat of a wine, cognac brandy, grain, wood, fish, salt, &c. The maritime prefect, and a naval dock-yard, in a flat Charente, though deep, is not navigable for large part of the Charente, 16 kil. from the sea, at Rade ships, except at high water; while the largest have to des Basques, or Basque Roads. It was founded, 1666, wait for the equinoxes, to ascend or descend it. by Colbert, the minister of Louis XIV. The English A ride or walk over the flats brings you to Foutras, (who formerly held all this country, till the time of on the sea side, in view of the Basque Roads, and of Charies VII.) attempted to capture Rochefort, in Oléron, Aix, and de Ré beyond. It was here, near 1757, but without success; and it was here that Lord | Aix, that Napoleon, 15th July, 1815, gave himself up Cochrane, in 1809, burnt part of the French fleet. It to Captain Maitland, in the Bellerophon, stationed is fortified and protected by forts on the river, up off the coast to prevent his escape to America. CapThich large siips may come to the quays. The oldest tain Doré, now a senator, had formed a plan for
smuggling the fugitive away, but could not pass the SAINTES (30 kil.), a sous-préfecture of 10,500 souls, British squadron.
and a very old town, once the capital of the Santones, Between Aix and Oléron, in a spot guarded by two who gave their name to it, and to the province of forts, vessels take shelter from the high winds which Saintonge, which, as part of Guienne, came to Henry Llow from the Atlantic. It was here that Lord Coch- II. of England, through his wife Eleanor. The rane (now Dundonald) nearly destroyed the French Northmen took it, 850; and for a few years, latterly, fleet in April, 1809. They had received notice of his it was the chief town of the department. preparations, but contented themselves with drawing Though pleasantly seated under a hill on the Cables and booms across the harbour. He broke Charente, it consists mostly of small dirty streets through these, and darted in among the French with and poor houses, with a good walk on Quai Blair. his frigates and fire ships. A panic seized them; they Among its Roman remains are, a plain Triumphal cut their cables and ran aground, so that ext morn- Arch (lately restored, and removed to a more conveing only two were afloat. Cochrane signalled to Lord vient site), on the Roman way to Poitiers, built of large Gambier, the commander-in-chief, “Half of the fleet uncemented stones, and dedicated to Germanicus, can destroy the enemy. Eleven on shore.” Gambier Tiberius, &c., by C. J. Rufus, a priest; also parts of hesitated; and hence, only five ships were destroyed ; a small Amphitheatre, once about 70 feet long, in a but the French were thoroughly disheartened. Lord valley outside the town ; with traces of a circus near Gambier was afterwards tried by court-martial, and it. Fragments of baths have been found on the river, honourably acquitted.
which is crossed by a suspension bridge, at the Cours Conveyances by coach, to Tonnay-Charente, Maren- Royale, built 1811-2, in place of the old stone one. nes, Royan, Bordeaux, Saintes, &c.; by steamer, The Cathedral church, with its fine pinnacled steeple, daily, (up the Charente) to Saintes and Rochelle. was rebuilt, 1568 (on the site of Charlemagne's), (At 20 kil, to the south-west, is
except a good portal of the 14th cent., which has LIARENNES, a sous-préfecture of 4,600 souls, in a several niched figures, &c., in its roof. st. Eutrope's
marshy spot, noted for its oysters, beans, and church, near the amphitheatre, has an excellent spire, peas. It has a trade in salt, wine, brandy, &c., built by Louis XI., and an early Norman crypt. To and is near the mouth of the Seudre, opposite an old abbey here, Eleanor retired, after her separathe long and flat
tion from Louis le Jeune, her second husband. Ile d'Oléron, the Roman Uliaris, which supplies
The Hôtel de Ville was the bishop's palace. There good vegetables, brandy, and salt, (pop. 16,000). are also a college, with a museum and library of 25,000 Under the English rule, this island had a bishop, vols. attached ; a district pepiniere, or nursery; salle and the people were so enterprising, that it gave
de spectacle, &c. name to the Ley d'Oléron, or Laws of Oléron--a Bernard de Palissy, who, after many trials and code of maritime laws, at one time adopted by failures, made his discovery of enamelled pottery, all Europe, and ascribed without authority to was born here, about 1563. Richard I. At 10 kil. south-east of Marennes, is Trade in cognac brandy, wine, grain, cattle, stone, &c. the feudal Tour de Brou, as old as the 6th or 7th Hotels.-Des Messageries; du Bateau à Vapeur
cant. About 23 kil, south of Marennes, is (Steamboat). Iosis, a bathing place at the Gironde's mouth, with
Rev. J. Dolon is Protestant pastor here. the light tower of Cordouan outside, 207 feet
Conveyances to Angoulême (by Cognac, up the high. As a stronghold of the Huguenots Royan Charente), Bordeaux, &c. was taken by Louis XIII. A steamer runs hence
(At 10 kil, north-east, is St. VÉNÉRAND, which has to Lordeaux is the season,
a spring rising in a rocky gap, and running From Rochefort, on the Bordeaux road, you come to
through a narrow valley. Not far from it, at TONNAY-CHARENTE (8 kil.) on the north bank of Doubet, are a château and a small part of a the Charente (here crossed by a fine suspension bridge Roman fountain and aqueduct, which carried the from rock to rock, under which large merchantmen water here to the arena at Saintes. may easily pass), which has an old château, and a
At 20 kil. to the west, near Sablonceaux, are some great trade in wine and Cognac Brandy, which is
other Roman works-a stone tower, called the exported hence to England. Pop., 3,400.
Pile de Pirelongue, 103 feet high, and 19 feet English Consul, J. F. Close, Esq.
square at the base; with another tower or turret, Hotels.Du Faisan; du Point du Jour (Break called Turris Longini, 13 feet high, in the middle
of the Camp de César.-At Prieuré des Arenes
6 kil. south, near the Bordeaux road, are remains At the Hôtel de Ville, a building in the Renaissance of a Roman villa, baths, &c.-Vestiges of a temple style, they show Henry IV.'s chamber, and the chair have been found at St. Saloine.]
and portrait of the mayor, Guiton, who led the people PONS (22 kil.), in a pretty valley on the Seugne, has in the great siege. the tower of its old château left, 83 feet high, which Besides the cathedral (which is of no mark), and the Huguenots held against Louis XIII. It possessed three or four churches (St. Sauveur's Gothic tower, 216 three churches, &c., before the Revolution; and has feet high, is used for a shot factory), the bishop's tiree or four small bridges (ponts), which may have palace, priests' seminary, &c., there are, a bourse given it its name.
or exchange, St. Louis' hospital, a public library of MIRAMBEAU (23 kil.), has a church, built by the 20,000 volumes, botanic garden and museum, the Errglish, and a ruined château, which belonged to arsenal and salle d'armes (armoury), new abattoirs, Mirabeau's family, whence there is a fine prospect.
good bathing rooms (built 1827), and a Protestant
chapel. It was off here (as Admiral de la Gravière ROUTE 37_B.
relates in the Revue des deux Mondes, 1858) that three
French frigates, in 1799, came out to chase an English To La Rochelle.
frigate, which quietly waited their approach. The From Aigrefeuilles, as above, you come to
whole population of Rochelle crowded on the walls La Jarrie. And 11 miles from Aigrefeuilles, to see and enjoy the promised victory, when to their
bitter mortification, the French Admiral, doubting is LA ROCHELLE,
of success, signalled to retreat. The three Frenchmen
were thus obliged to come back without their prize, 295 miles from Paris.
who amused herself by chasing them in. HOTELS.-De France; De la Poste; De la Croix
Rochelle salt (a purgative) was discovered here by a'Or,
Seignette, the chemist. Reaumur, the philosopher Pop , 14,200.
(whose division of the thermometer is in general use in Capital of department Charente Inferieure, (part of France), Billaud-Varennes, the Conventionist, PresiToitou), seat of a bishop, and military division, &c., dent Dupatz, and Admiral Duperre, were natives. and a port of the third class, on a small inlet of the
Trade in wine, spirits, wood, salt, iron, cheese, oil, Bay of Biscay, opposite Iles de Ré and d'Oléron, fish, &e. Pottery, glass, refined sugar, &c., are made, enclosing the Roads, which are entered by the strait and a little ship-building is carried on. called Pertuis d'Antioche. It belonged to Henry II.
Rev. MM. Fau and Delmas are Protestant pastors of England, through his wife Eleanor; was taken
here. from the English by Duguesclin, 1372; and became
Conveyances. Pour trains daily, to and from Rochethe head-quarters of the Huguenots from 1557 till 1629, fort, in 14 hour. Coaches to Luçon, Les Sables d' when Richelieu (Louis XIII. being present) took it
Olonne, &c. after a memorable siege of thirteen months, which brought down the population from 27,000 to 5,000).
(Ile de Ré, 4 kil. from the nearest land, from which He effected its capture by running a great dyke across
it is divided, on the north, by the Pertuis Brethe harbour, which kept out the English fleet sent
ton, is 27 kil. long, and, in the middle, only two to their assistance, under Buckingham. This dyke is
broad, being sandy throughout, but yielding
good wine and salt. It is strengthened by forts, still seen at low water, between Point Coreille and Fort Louis, being nearly a mile long, with a passage
and a citadel at St. Martin, which Buckingham in the middle for shipping.
tried to take, 1628. At an old abbey here was Vessels of 500 tons may get into the Harbour,
found, in 1730, the tomb of Eudes, Duke of which consists of two docks surrounded by quays and
Aquitaine, and his wife, he having a copper crowns houses, whence the Maubec canal, crossed by three
on. The people (17,000) are fishermen, &c.] bridges, runs up the town. The fortifications were
From La Rochelle, the next place on the road, is planned by Vauban. Of the five old gates, one called MARANS (26 kil.), a port in a marshy spot, connected Port de l'Horloge, is a clock-tower of the 16th cent. The with the sea by canals and the river Sèvre. Pop. 1,404, streets are well built, and most of the houses have trading in corn, wine, and a farinaceous food, called covered porticoes. Above Place du Château, where minot. It stands in department Charente-Inférieure. the old castle of Vauclair stood, is a fine prospect of LUÇON (27 kil). a bishopric since the 14th cent., and the sea; there is another at the mole outside the small town (pop. 4,300), in a marshy spot, having a
Gothic cathedral, with a tower spire of 212 feet, Trade