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Editorial Thotes.

will allow. Such carelessness approaches criminality and they will be fortunate to get off with a

monetary consideration. The PHARMACEUTICAL JOURNAL publishes a summarized table of deaths from poisoning, either

The Buffalo, N.Y., Board of Health recently accidental or suicidal. The figures are taken from

passed an ordinance forbidding the sale or use of reports of the Registrar-General and out of a total of

long-necked feeders. This is grandmotherly legis2296, carbolic acid is responsible for 455, or 20 per

lation with a vengeance, but if people will not learn cent. of the total. Based on these figures a strong

by reasoning it is only right that they should be plea is presented for placing carbolic acid on the list

forced to do so by law. One drugg st, who contested of scheduled poisons, as recommended by the phar

the legality of the bylaw, has lost his case in the maceutical council.

court and has been fined. The law may be a bad

thing for druggists with stocks of old fashioned Another object lesson on the necessity of organ bottles but it will be a good thing for the babies. ization has been afforded this month in the defeat of the “ Poisonous Substances Bill" in the British Parliament. The bill emanated from the House of The report of the Committee on Adulteration of Lords, but was killed in ihe Commons. The prin the New York Pharm. Ass'n. shows great variation cipal factor in bringing about the death of this ob in the quality of tincture of opium sold in the state, noxious measure was the solid phalanx of pharma the percentage of morphine varying from •'I 6 per cists who stood behind the Pharmaceutical Associa cent. to 0.56 per cent. in the 10 samples examined. tion in their opposition to it.

This is probably due to the fact that many druggists do not wish to take the risk involved in selling the

official tincture to persons accustomed to the oldAmerican customs officers have been notified from fashioned laudanum, and therefore carry two grades Washington that in future phenacetine must not be in stock, one for prescription use and another for accepted for entry into the country except that counter sale. Another item examined was creosote, brought in by the authorized selling agents. This is

and it was found that fully 50 per cent. of the a move of some importance to Canadian dealers, as samples sold as such was crude carbolic acid. This heretofore considerable quantities have been shipped is extraordinary, as there is such a quantity of creofrom here. The only result will be a great increase sote used now in tuberculosis, etc., that one would of smuggling, as the temptation to do so on account naturally expect that every pharmacist would be able of the difference in price is very great.

to distinguish between these two bodies, and to find that 50 per cent. of the stuff sold as creosote is car

bolic acid does not speak well of the integrity or the Americans are a clever and ingenuous people,

ability of the sellers. not apt to tolerate imposition when they realize that such is being practised upon them, and yet their patience under self-imposed burdens is a marvel and

The committee on the status of pharmacists in the well illustrated by the history of The Frederick

army and navy of the A. Ph. A. has achieved a Bayar products in the thousands that are being

great success in at last securing the rank of warrant filched from the pockets of the people and placed to

officers for twenty-five of the navy pharmacists. It the credit of that corporation through the instru

is only in the British and American armies and mentality of the American patent laws.

navies that pharmacists hold such a low rank as they do ; in all the continental armies and even in the

Japanese army and navy pharmacists are i ommisAn Indiana firm of retail druggists is being sued sioned officers, ranging from lieutenants to lieutenfor $5000 damages by their "soda water boy." ant-colonels, according to seniority and merit, and The lad claims to have no knowledge of drugs and it is nearly time that the same principles should hold their compounding, yet his employers used him in the army and navics of English speaking counfor such purpose, and on July 3rd gave him ma tries. The educational requirements of the hospital terial to prepare a solution of mercury in nitric service should certainly entitle the holders to a highacid. Being ignorant of the nature of these chem er rank than that held by the ordinary run of priicals, he closed the vessel employed and caused an vates and coal pushers and men before the mast, and explosion which burned his face, causing a dis we hope to see the English associations take up the figuring scar and permanent injury to one eye. IC question and demand official recognition of the this boy's contention is correct, this firm richly de scientific standing of pharmacy in the army and serves to be mulcted in the heaviest fine the law


Selected papers.


The French Association of Pharmacists, formed with the object of raising the selling price of patent medicines, has met with a fate similar to that which overtook our own and all other organizations of a similar nature. The causes in France were the same as those which wrecked our O.S.R.D., lack of unity and organization on the part of pharmacists.



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Chicago is a great town for pharmacists' associations, the youngest of them being the Veteran Druggists' Association, the organizer of which is T. H. Jamieson, who has a local reputation as a druggist and a national reputation as a Republican politician. The association is composed of all the old timers and the objects are the encouragement of good fellowship amongst the members while living, and to see that in case of death the deceased member's funeral is to be attended by the association, and if necessary the expenses to be paid out of the funds. The only requirement for admission is twenty-five years' practice of pharmacy in the city of Chicago. The officers are : E. 0. Gale, president; W. Jauncey, vice-president ; T. N. Jamieson, treasurer; T. H. Patterson, secretary ; Albert E. Ebert, historian.

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By an Order in Council, dated May 19, 1898, the following new table o: metric equivalents is substituted for the table in Part I of the Third Schedule to the Weights and Measures Act, 1878.

METRIC TO IMPERIAL. LINEAR MEASURE : i Millimetre (Mm.) (1/1000th M.)

0.03937 Inch. i Centimetre (1/1000th M. 0.3937 i Decimetre (1/1000th M. 3.837 Inches.

39.370113 i Metre (M.)

3 380843 feet.

1.0936143 yards. i Decametre (10 M.)

10.936 yards. i Hectometre (100 M.) = 109 36 yards. i Kilometre (1000 M.)

0 62137 mile. SQUARE MEASURE : i Square Centimetre

0.15500 sq. in. i Square Decimetre (100 Square Centimetres)

15.500 sq. in. i Square Metre (100 Square 10.7639 sq. feet. Decimetres)

1.1960 sq. yards. I Are (100 Sq. Metres)

119.60 sq. yards. i Hectare ( 100 Ares or 10,000 Sq. Metres)

2.4711 acres. CUBIC MEASURE: i Cubic Centimetre

0.0610 cubic inch. i Cubic Centimetre (C.d.) ? (1000 Cubic Centimetres

61.024 Cubic in. i Cubic Metre (1000 Cubic $ 35.3148

feet. Decimetres)


In an article on this important subject by Wyatt Wingrave, M.R.C.S., England, (Assistant Surgeon to the Central London Throat and Ear Hospital), in the London Lancet, May 7th, 1898, we are informed of a personal necessity that arose in the writer's experience for a reliable starch digestant. A crucial comparative examination was therefore made of many malt extracts and of Taka-Diastase, the tests being conducted both chemically and clinically.

He summarizes briefly : 1. That Taka-Diastase is the most powerful of the starch or diastatic ferments and the most reliable since it is more rapid in its action, i.e., “it will convert a larger amount (of starch) in a given time than will any other amylolytic ferment.” 2. That Taka-Diastase seems to be less retarded in its digestive action by the presence of the organic acids (butyric, lactic, acetic), and also by tea, coffee and alcohol, than are saliva and the malt extracts. This is an important point in pyrosis. 3. That all mineral acids, hydrochloric, etc., quickly stop and permanently destroy all diastatic action if allowed sufficient time and if present in sufficient quantities. 4. That Taka-Diastase and malt diastase have. like ptyalin, no action upon cellulose (uncooked starch). All starch food should therefore be cooked to permit of the starch ferment assisting nature in this function.

1.307954 cu. yds. MEASURE OE CAPACITY: i Centilitre (1/1ooth Litre) i Decilitre (/ioth Litre)

0,176 Pint. i Litre ..

1.75980 Pints. i Dekalitre (10 Litres)

2.200 Gallons. i Hecolitre (100 Litres)

2.75 Bushels. WEIGHT:

Avoirdupois. 1 Milligram (1/10ooth Grm)

0.015 Grain. i Centigram (1/100th Grm) 0.154 1 Decigram (1/10 Grm)

1.543 Grains. i Gramme (i Grm)

15.432 i Dekagram (10 Grm)

5.644 Drams. i Hectogram (100 Grm)

3.527 Oz. i Kilogram (1000 Grm)

5 2.2046223 lbs. or

15432 3594 grains. i Myriagram (10 Kilog. )

22.046 Lbs. i Quintal (100 Kilog )

1.968 Cwt. i Tonne (1000 Kilog.)

0.0842 Ton.

Troy. i Gramme (i Grm.)

0.03215 Oz. Troy. 15.432 Grains. Apothecaries.

0.03215 Drachm. i Gramme (i Grm.)

0.7716 Scruple. 15 432 Grains.

0.070 Gill.







25.400 Milli

metres. 1 Foot (12 Inches)

o 30480 Metre. 1 Yard (3 Feet)

0.914399 Metre. Fathom (6 Feet)

1.8288 Metres. i Pole 15 2 Yards)

5.0292 i Chain (22 Yards)

20. 1168 i Furlong (220 Yards)

Mr. Barbour, who was at one time with Messrs. Faulding & Co., has for a long while past been devoting his attention to the practical application of the Röntgen Rays, and many are the patients who have been successfully treated by the surgeons, after the true conditions of things was revealed through Mr. Barbour's aid. Recently, a remarkable case successfully dealt with at Port Adelaide, Dr. Bollen being the operating surgeon.

A child four years old had been suffering from a mysterious pain in the abdomen and had been five months under treatment for it, without the cause of pain and passing of blood being determined. About two months ago a lump was discovered. The lump was hard, and gradually increased in size, and at length Barbour's aid was sought. The X rays being applied revealed the presence of a packing needle 3% inches in length in the region of the bladder. By a method Mr. Balfour has adopted he was able to determine that the point of the needle was only one quarter of an inch below the surface of the skin. An operation was subsequently performed, and it was found that the needle had transfixed the upper portion of the bladder. Part of the offending article was exposed, but it could not be withdrawn without tearing the bladder. The opening was enlarged, and then crystals were discovered adhering to the needle, which had prevented its withdrawal. Each end that protruded beyond the bladder was encysted in a sheath of hardened tissue. The operation was successfully concluded, the bladder and skin being sewn up, and the child, whose temperature never rose above normal, made a rapid recovery. With regard to the determination of the position of a foreign body, Mr. Barbour has a system of working by scale which enables him to tell to the thirtieth part of an inch where it is. -Aust'In. Jour. of Pharmacy.


On September 18, 1870, mail communication from Paris was interrupted by the German investment of the city. Balloons were at once resorted to and on Sept. 23, 25,000 letters were carried out by the "Neptune." Later 12,000 went out on the “ Washington."

While letters could be carried out they could not be brous ht in by balloon. Carrier pigeons were therefore sent out with the balloons and permitted to bring back dispatches. These had to be light enough in weight for the pigeons to carry. Photo-micrography was therefore resorted to. Messages were copied on a single sheet of paper and then reduced to the most minute proportions. On their arrival in Paris the characters were enlarged by the microscope. Each message was then copied on

= 201.168 i Mile (8 Furlongs)

1.6093 kilometres SQUARE MEASỤRE : i Square Inch

6 4516 Sq. C. i Square Foot (144 Square Inches

9.2903 Sq. D. i Square Yard (9 Sq. feet.) 0.836126 Sq. M. 1 Perch (302 Sq. Yards)

25 293 Sq. M. 1 Rood (40 Perches)

10.117 Acres. 1 Acre (4840 Square Yards) = 0.40468 Hectare. i Square Mile (640 Acres) = 259.00 Hectares.


16.387 Cubic Cen. i Cubic Foot (1728 Cu. In) 0.028317 Cu M i Cubic Yard (27 Gu. Ft.) 0.764553 Cu. M


1.42 Decilitres. i Pint (4 Gills)

o 568 Litre. I Quart (2 Pints)

1.136 Litres. i Gallon (4 Quarts)

4 5459631 Litres. i Peck (2 Gallons)

9.092 Litres i Bushel (8 Gallons)

3.637 Dekalitres. 1 Quarter (8 Bushels)

2.909 Hectolitres. APOTHECARIES MEASURE: Minim

0.059 Millilitre. i Fluid Scruple

1.184 Millilitres. i Fluid Drachm (60 Minims) 3.552 i Fluid Ounce (8 Drachms) 2.84123 Centilit. i Pint

0.568 Litre.

1 Gallon (8 Pints or 160}= { 4.5458631 Litres.



0.0648 Gramme. i Dram

1.772 Grammes. i Ounce (16 Drams) i Pound (16 Ozs. or 7000

0.45359243 KiloGrains)

gram. i Stone (14 Lbs.)

6.350 Kllograms. i Quarter (28 Lbs.)

12.70 i Hundredweight (Cwt.)

50.80 (112 Lbs.)

0.508o Quintal.

1.0160 Tonnes or i Ton (20 Cwt.)

1016 Kilograms. TROY WEIGHT: i Grain

0.0648 Gramme. i Pennyweight (24 Grains) 1.5552 Grammes. i Troy Oucce (20 Penny'wts) 31,1035


0.0648 Gramme. 1 Scruple i20 Grains)

1.296 Grammes. i Drachm (3 Scruples) i Ounce (8 Dracms)

31.1035 NOTE.--Approximately 1 Litre equals 1000 Cu'ic Centimetres, and i Millilitre equals 1.00016 Cubic Centimetres.

- Pharmaceutical Journal.


a card and forwarded to the person addressed. Each word cost ten cents and each message was limited to twenty words. Later the messages

were printed from type and reduced still farther. They were put on pieces of paper 14 by 12 inches. The collodion films were rolled and enclosed in small quills which were sewed to the tail feathers of the pigeons. The collodion films were ten times thinner and lighter than paper.

On arrival, in Paris, the quills were split open and the films rapidly unrolled in water containing a few drops of ammonia. The films were then dried and enclosed within two plates of glass. They were then ready to be deciphered by the microscope.

This mode of reading was lately supplanted by a projecting lantern and electric light. When thrown upon a large screen four transcribers could work at once on each sheet contained 1,600 messages. At a later time, the films were photographed back to the scale of the original printed matter so that each section was enlarged from the most minute dimensions to a form that could be read with perfect

Then the telegrams were separated by scissors and each persons received a dispatch in fac-simile to the original printed matter. Many of these dispatches are to-day exhibited as specimens of photomicrography.--Microscopical Journal.



The war revenue tax has caused Hood's Sarsaparilla to be advanced from $8 per dozen to $8.75. Thirt cents of this advance goes to the government and forty-five cents to Hood. It is a singular fact that Hood and his pals, by means of their oil room at Washington, succeeded in beating down the stamp rate from 4 cents to 22 cents on dollar preparations. They represented that 48 cents per dozen was excessive for the government to exact. We would like to see every retail druggist in the country assessed $1 for each bottle of this nostrum he sells, the proceeds to go toward establishing a home for those financial and physical wrecks in the retail drug business, caused by the heartless policy of Hood et al. in confining the sale of their goods to department stores.

“ Pink Pills" are advanced in price to make the sucker that buys them pay the tax. If the price could be advanced still more, perhaps the retailer would be more interested in the composition of this rank humbug. An application of the Marsh test is profitable exercise, and might serve to remind the pharmacist that his pale patrons who are misled by lying advertisements may soon become wrecks from arsenical poisoning. Society provides us with police protection against burglary and highway robbery, and in the absence of such protection justifies and authorizes us to protect ourselves when attacked in

any way possible, to the extent, even, of killing the assailant. Yet slow poisoning by means of patent medicines at cut rates, job lots or gift schemes may be perpetrated upon the innocent and gullible public with impunity, and the state looks tamely on. The sale of arsenic is regulated by law in Colorado, and no dealer should be allowed to sell it, whether in the free state or in the form of a “patent,” without complying with the law.-- Rocky Mountain Druggist.






To credit or not to credit is often a vexatious question. And if to credit, to what extent? Where or what is the limit to which credit can safely be given ?

CREDITS. The percentage of credit that has to be given by the pharmacist is relatively small. While he has some customers who call on him with regularity for certain family supplies, his custom is often with those who patronize him because forced to do so by ill health. They often expect, and always hope, that cach purchase of medicine will be the last, and they usually pay cash--provided they have it.

A credit business with responsible persons is desirable. It is so because such people make purchases without quibbling as to prices and are usually liberal buyers, not having to limit themselves to the amount of cash on hand and often purchasing more than their actual needs call for. Again, their entire patronage is more certainly retained, because having an account in one place they are not likely to open another in the same line at all other place. But even with “gilt-edged ” customers the amount of capital at command must guide the limit of credit. A business man who has to borrow money with which to carry on his business cannot afford to give lengthy or large credits to anyone.

The item of interest follows him while he sleeps. The limit should certainly be such as not to endanger his own safety.

Circumstances often force the pharmacist to give credit in cases where he knows the collection of the account will be doubtful. The rank and file of mankind live in the “hand to mouth" style. They are not prepared for sickness, and when it comes, especially if it be to the wage-earner, their little savings are soon exhausted. Then it is that they must either have credit or suffer. Always before they have been cash customers, but now they cannot pay and are in distress. Who can refuse accommodation

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in such cases ? No one of charitable spirit-al date on the bill and be sure to call in accordance though records show that a large percentage of these therewith. All these failing, resort must be had accounts go to “profit and loss.” The only course either to diplomacy or law. The latter is expensive, is to temper discretion with charity and develop a uncertain, unsatisfactory, and for all the small accareful sense of discrimination.

counts of the ordinary pharmacist, impracticable. The professional “dead beat” is everywhere, If your debtor is in business of any kind, has any His skill in securing a living without work is often merchandise to sell, trade out the account at once. marvelous. And the “nerve” which he possesses is You may lose by it, but better lase part than aļl. prodigious. We all know his tactics! How he Your debtor, having his account adjusted, will be flatters one's methods of business! brings in some ready to do business with you again, but it is well to one to make a purchase! with much ado buys some see that future transactions are met with cash. thing himself! At first he pays cash ; then secures It

may be that by giving more time to your credit., a little credit and pays up promptly; finally starts a or he would give his note; but this is no better to regular account, giving excuses and promises galore ! collect by law than an account. Still, if placed in a His purchases then increase--and so does his ac bank for collection, it often has a very stimulating count.

When you begin to smell the rodent he effect. A person will often pay an account to a bank scampers away to another store and works the same that he would not to private individuals. This is game. Every store doing a credit business has such because a refusal at the bank clouds their credit customers to contend with. Once a retail merchant abroad as well as at home. learns to distinguish and to handle them, he has, in

COLLECTION AGENCIES. my opinion, solved the greatest problem of credit

These often succeed where private enterprise fails. giving. So bear this in mind—learn these rodents

There are various kinds of agencies, each having and limit their credit to zero !

some good points. To my mind there is one that is COLLECTIONS.

exceeded by none and equaled by few. This is the A good collector is a valuable man. There is plan : something about the presentation of a bill, although

First, a notice is sent the debtor that this agency correct and fully due, that produces an unpleasant

has received notice that he owes B— a certain sum effect on the debtor-as if his liberty, as an Amer

and that it is best for him to "settle" on or before a ican citizen, was in some measure interfered with.

certain date. This notice is not sent by the agency, Especially true is this if it comes at a time when the but by the creditor himself. It is written on a blank bank account is low, and still more so if the debtor legal form supplied by the agency, and then enclosed has himself recently been on an unsatisfactory col in a plain envelope. If there is no response to this a lecting tour.

second and inure forcible notice is sent, and if necesa The collector must be all things to all men. He

This last is couched in language as must keep his temper, even if the debtor shows and forcible as the most spirited attorney can dictate. expresses impatience. A little tact, a pleasant Now all these notices purport to come from the repartee, will often put the most impatient in good agency, but the location of this agency is carefully humor, and if not able to pay then, they will perhaps

omitted. If the notices have any effect whatever, set an early date when the obligations can probably

the debtor is led to visit his creditor to find out be met.

whence these pithy nuisances come. Herein lies the Accounts should be settled often—" short credits advantage. You can now compromise if you

think make long friends." The majority of debtors it wise to do so, and if you do, it can usually be done should either be called upon, or sent statements,

in such a manner as to still retain the debtor as a each month. Small bills are easier paid than large customer. ones; and then, too, the undesirable customer is This agency requires no entry fee ; nor asks a perdiscovered before his account is large. Exceptions centage on no collections made. You have only to there are where longer credits can be given with buy the blank legal forms upon which the notices are good results, but in these cases one must know his

You have the advantage of making your own man thoroughly.

collections, and of feeling that, in case no collection A credit business cannot be done without accumu has been made, the expense has been slight. Within lating some bad accounts--and some worse. Give my experience the plan has often succeeded where these all prompt attention. If the debtor says he is attorneys have failed. unable to pay at the time, have him set a day when

FINALLY, THE LAW. he will do so. If he will not set a day, you need If, however, all plans fail, there is no resort except not look for trouble, for you already have it. It the law. Before chancing this last hope the probable will then be policy for the collector to name a date cost should be well considered, since the costs often when he will call again, and for him to note this absorb the collections. And it is still more dis

sary a third.


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