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quantities consumed, but the sources of supply are also increasing in number. About twenty five years ago the borax of commerce was mainly derived from lagoons in a volcanic region in Tuscany, which were leased to English, firms, and from tincal or crude borax, which was collected on the shores of lakes in Thibet and l'ersia.

The English firms controlled the price by means of cheap labour in collecting, cheap means of transportation and distribution, and they still hold this leverage to a very large extent. It is a curious fact that widely distributed as are the principal sources of crude borax in China, Peru, Persia, Thibet and California, they are regions difficult of access, involving excessive freights, and thus the English refiners have been in a position to reduce prices so low as to make business unprofitable, until competitors would consent to pool their products, and sell at a uniform price, dividing the protits according to an arranged scale.

For the past two or three years prices of borax have gone steadily down, until they were so low as to yield a loss on the bulk of what was sold. Now, however, it is said an agreement has been reached by which an advance of al out thirty per cent. is asked, this to be followed by a further advance of thirty three and one-third per cent.,, so soon as the bulk of existing stocks is consumed. This would bring prices up to the level of about four years ago, though still much lower than five years ago.

As an instance of the severe competition to which the Calitornia producers have been subjected, it may be stated that thousands of tons of concentrated unrefined borax, consigned round Cape Horn to London, have been bought there by American refiners, as being a cheaper source of supply than getting it directly by all rail from California.

Iodine is another article which is “controlled," and which has been until quite recently in a somewhat uncertain condition as to its immediate mercantile future. Formerly it was produced from the ashes of sea weeds, principally on the west coasts of Scotland, and it is still produced in limited quantities there, to give the makers a foothold in the iodine pool. The great production, however, takes place in the nitrate of soda beds in Chili, froin a source so extensive and by a process so cheap that it is asserted it could be sold for onesixth of the present price with a good margin of profit, and in practically unlimited quantity.

But every effort to break the combination has so far failed. Once in a while an outside lot will be offered on the London market, but it is bought up by the pool, and the source of supply stopped. Some French operators formed a syndicate to operate in connection with the fishermen on the

In his address at the St. Louis meeting of the N. W. D, A., Pres. Weller had the following to say of the rebate plan :

"First, we take it for granted that the rebate plan has come to stay.

It is, we believe, the best plan that has ever been devised for the protection of the manufacturer, jobber, and retailer.

Once this plan is made effective in preventing price-cutting among jobbers, and in preventing department stores and price-cutters from obtaining supplies, the future of the plan is not problematical."

The only objection to the rebate plan is that it tends to restrict business, a fact every one admits, but that is exactly what the retail druggist wants ; the sale of patent medicines should be restricted to retail druggists only. The manufacturers and jobbers who denounce the rebate plan and refuse to abide by it are simply playing into the hands of the department stores and cutters, by letting down the barriers which now render it difficult for them to secure goods. To a great extent the manufacturers are responsible for the evil because they will sell direct to cutters, or to anyone who is able to buy the necessary quantities, thus giving them a certain advantage over others who cannot do so.

Of course it may be a hardship on wealthy retailers if they cannot buy 5 gross lots and thus secure all the discounts, but if it be necessary for the success of the plan that only regularly recognized jobbers shall be able to buy direct, then let the rule be carried

The plan was made for the benefit of the small retailers, the majority ; and the greatest good to the greatest number demands that the majority must be protected. In the fight now being made by the Abbey Salt Co., the interests of the majority are being sustained by the company, but here and there we find a retailer who is not in favor of the plan ; fortunately their number is few. If we examine their objections and opposition to the Abbey Co., we will find that it is because they cannot buy goods direct, and get the quantity discount. try to show that by the Abbey plan it is nearly impossible for cutters to secure their goods and that the retailer is thus protected, they will reply that they don't care about that or what the average retailer does ; all they know or care about is that they do


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not make as inuch as they would if they could buy as usual.

The fact that the cutter cannot get the goods, and that thus the price is protected, cuts no, figure whatever with the objectors.

It is selfishness, pure, simple and unadulterated, which dictates the action of the few retailers who oppose the effort to sustain prices. Not only that, but we think it a very shortsighted policy. Where is the profit in buying goods at a discount of 5 per cent., if they have to be sold at 20 to 30 per cent. less than the regular price ? We cannot see it, but still there are some who believe such a condition of things would be beneficial, but they will hardly succeed in convincing the majority that this view is the correct one.

much was expected of it in an unreasonably short space of time.

It is interesting to note that the plan suggested by the Ontario Society for attaining the object desired is identical with that which received the endorsation of the American association.

First : a thorough and cordial agreement between retailer and jobber, with a distinct understanding that through the latter and him alone shall the former secure his supplies.

Second : the abolition of price scaling to fortunate buyers, a schedule of uniform prices to be maintained to the retailer irrespective of quantities purchased.

The important consideration then is, will the proprietors join in bringing about this much desired condition ? The nature of the answer to this question depends entirely upon the action of the retailer. If he is wiser and more loyal to his own interests to the south of the international line than those north of it proved themselves to be, then the answer will be in the affirmative, if otherwise then negative.



GRESS OF 1900.

This circular has been in the hands of Ontario druggists for over a month and suill there are those among them who have neglected to respond to it, when all that is required is a simple yes" or "no," and a signature. Final action in all probability will be taken at the February meeting of the council on matters being dealt with by this committee, and what that action will be is for the druggists themselves to say. In order that the subject may be understood Mr. Hargreaves has supplemented the circular by a letter which will be found elsewhere in the JOURNAL. Turn to that letter and read it carefully. Nothing need be added by us further than another admonition to return the post Card which accompanied the circular with your answer and signature attached as a guide to the committee in arriving at a decision.

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French pharmacists have appointed the officers and drawn up the programme of the Congress which it is intended will be held in Paris during the Exposition. The following are the officers : President, M. Planchon; Vice-presidents, M. Petit, of Paris, and Prof. Ed. Dupuy, of Toulouse ; general secretary, M. Bourquelor; assistant secretaries, Mm. Viand and Desvignes ; treasurer, M. Labelonye; assistant treasurer, M. Leroy.

The committee of organization will be composed of the professors of the Paris School of Pharmacy, delgates named by the provincial schools, delegates of the naval and military pharmacists, the chief dispensers of the hospitals of Paris, and of the department of the Seine, the pharmacist members of the Codex Commission, the officers of the Société de Pharmacie, the officers of the Association Générale of the Societé de Prévoyance.

The Congress will be divided into the following sections : ist, Professional interests ; 2nd, galenical pharmacy; 3rd, chemical pharmacy; 4th, Materia Medica (pharmacognosy.)

Complete detailed reports which come to us of the St. Louis meeting of American retail druggists are of the most encouraging nature. It is but natural that those of us who were actively engaged in our own Ontario Society of Retail Druggists should watch with interest the development of a similar movement in the neighboring country. Some conditions of the American organization are indicative of a measure of success which our organization never attained. The essential feature of the N. A. R. D. is that it was an association of delegates, and not a mass meeting such as that to which the 0. S. R. D. owed its existence. This condition secured a deliberate and business-like procedure. The assembly took time and gave thought to the difficulties likely to be met with and the best means for overcoming the same. Undue haste was characteristic of of the launching of our society and altogether too


After perusing this company's advertisement on page 247 and securing the information contained in it, turn to the outside cover of the Journal for their Christmas and New Year greeting to their many friends and patrons.


Editorial Aotes.

Reed & Carnrick, manufacturers of maltine and other well known preparations, are putting up an immense laboratory building in Jersey City, which will be one of the largest and best equipped in the United States.

The “Quickcure Chemical Co." has been incorporated in New Jersey with a capital of $1,000,000, to manufacture and sell “Quickcure” and other compounds. The incorporators are Henry levers of Quebec, P. Q., F. N. Whitney of Elizabeth, N. J. ; Louis E. Carr, Jr., E. B. Burpee, and L. C. Ilfeld, of New York.

We observe one common note running through the varied reports of the St Louis meeting, contained in the different drug journals. That note was the desire, yea, anxiety expressed by the manufacturers to placate the retailer. The “Three branches in harmony,” “Similarity of Interests,” “Injury to one, injury to all” gush was worked over time. There is a peculiarly familiar sound to these glib phrases, which reminds us not of departed friends, but shattered hopes and unrealized anticipations. We have no desire to rank as pessimists, but most sincerely trust that these expressions will mean more to our American confrères than similar gush did to ourselves when we were endeavoring to enlist the aid of these same manufacturers. We also sincerely hope that the future course of events may not be such as to create in the minds of all honest men a higher admiration for the five prominent proprietors who absented themselves from the love-feast and handshaking rather than attend and indulge in fair promises which in their hearts they had no intention of keeping. Our desire is not to damp the ardor of the newly formed association, nor to discourage its enthusiastic workers, but to sound a warning note against being deceived and misled by honeyed words and alluring promises of aid that is liable never to be rendered. There is nothing so productive of skepticism as an experience of unfulfilled fair promises. We say then plainly that the experience of the Ontario Society of Retail Druggists teaches with an emphasis this one lesson, and we offer to our sister organization the fruit of our experience without money and without price. Expect nothing from the proprietor except what you can wring from him by a force which he is clearly unable to withstand. The only line of reasoning to which he is amenable is that conducted by the instrumentality of a club.

A new chemical club is to be organized in New York, and chemists throughout Canada and the United States have been asked to guarantee the necessary expenses or to become members, resident or non-resident. So far forty two of the necessary number of guarantors have been secured. The secretary is Marston Bogert, Columbia University, New York.

The November issue of the American Journal of Pharmacy contains an article by Prof. Remington entitled “Fluid Acetracts,” which is devoted to a consideration of the use of acetic acid as a solvent in pharmacal operations, with which he has been experimenting for several years. It is already shown that acetic acid possesses many advantages over alcohol. First and perhaps most important is the vast difference in price, and the difference is about twice as great in Canada as in the United States, seeing that the retailer here has to pay about $5 a gallon for his alcohol while his American confrère gets it for about $2.50 per wine gallon. The solvent power of acetic acid on plant constituents is about equal to that of alcohol, so that acetic extracts in almost all cases can be made as strong as those prepared with an alcoholic menstruum.

Dr. Squibb has used acetic acid in the preparation of fluid extracts of spices with satisfaction, and the writer has also successfully used it in similar cases. No good reason exists why the acid should not be used in cases where the odor or taste would not be objectionable, as with most fluid extracts; for tinctures which are administered in large doses the taste might be objected to, although a menstruum of acetic acid, glycerine and water has been in constant use in the London Temperance Hospital founded by the late Dr. B. W. Richardson.


Mr. W. E. Atkinson, member of the 0. S. A. and fellow C. R. A., has lately arrived home from Europe, where he has spent the last two years cultivating his art in England, Holland and France. Mr. Atkinson is among the best known of Canadian artists. his pictures having been the recipients of most flattering notices by art critics and been accorded prominence in the Society's exhibition. He is at present arranging an exhibit of his works at the establishment of Messrs Matthews Bros. on Yonge St., where they will remain during December. A visit to the rooms will repay admirers of first class paintings.

Mr. Atkinson is a son of Mr. W. T. Atkinson; of Oshawa, one of the fathers of Canadian pharmacy, and is himself a graduate of the 0. C. P. His studio is in the Equity Chambers on corner of Adelaide and Victoria Sts., where he will be pleased to see any old friends.

A bill has been passed by the Legislative Council of Victoria making the B. P., 1898, the official standard for that colony.

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