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PARKE DAVIS & Co's. POSITION.
The above firm desire us to state for the benefit of their patrons throughout the Dominion that they have taken action to have set aside as illegal the Patent on Antitoxin recently granted to Professor Behring, by the United States patent office. While the case is in the courts, they wish it to be understood that they stand prepared to protect any and every Customer in handling their goods. They do not anticipate any interference with their business in the Dominion ; no patent is registered here, nor is it in the least probable that such can be secured under our laws.
THE BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL
and also that Nos. 10 and I are contradictory. The following is the Privy Council's summing up after reviewing the case from its inception :
“Their Lordships are not called upon to pronounce any opinion as to the question of privity, nor has it been argued at the bar. It may be as sumed on this occasion that a lien de droit has been established between the parties. The question is whether any right to damages by the complaining parties has been established by the findings of the jury. The sole reason assigned for ordering a new trial is that the findings of the jury Nos. 10 and are contradictory. Their Lordships cannot see the contradiction. What the jury find is that Dr. England suffered no damage by reason of the death of his wife, while his son suffered thereby to the amount of $1,000. Why should not those two findings stand together? They may be wrong or against evidence, but that is not the ground taken for the new trial. It is easily conceivable that the death of a woman may cause pecuniary loss to her child, and none to her husband; and that is what the jury have found.
Their Lordships cannot agree with the learned Judges that the jury have awarded $1,000 to the boy. They have awarded nothing. It is common enough to take the opinion of a jury as to the amount of damages suffered, leaving it for the Court to say whether on all the facts of the case the plaintiff can recover it from the defendant. That is the effect of the proceedins's at this trial. If the findings do not establish the requisite connection between the defendants and plaintiffs, as held by the Court of Review, no damage can be recovered. If they do, as the Court of Queen's Bench hold, there ought to be a judgment for such damages as the other findings justify, and for no more. As the jury have found that the death of Mrs. England was not accelerated by the poison to any appreciable extent, it follows as a legal consequence that the damage attributable to the defendant is inappreciable. It cannot be appreciable for the boy any more than for his father. As regards the father, he has suffered no pecuniary loss; the son has suffered loss estimated at $1,000, but the extent to which the defendants have caused it is inappreciable, or, in other words, is nothing at all which a Court of Justice can recognize. No damages being recoverable, it is right to dismiss the action as the Court of Review has done. A large part of the argument for the plaintiff was taken up with an attempt to displace findings Nos. 3 and 9 on the ground that they are against evidence, and their Lordships' attention was called in detail to the evidence on the point. They do not feel it necessary to comment on it in detail. They agree entirely with the position taken by the Court of Queen's Bench-that whatever might be the opinion they would form if they were the jury, the conclusion to which the jury have come was quite open to them on the evidence and cannot properly be disturbed. Their Lordships will humbly advise Her Majesty to discharge the order appealed from, with costs, and to restore that of the Court of Review. The respondents must pay the costs of this appeal.
For the second time in its history the B. P. Conference has met in Ireland, and judging from reports in our English contemporaries the meeting has been a most successful one. The meetings were held in Queen's College, Belfast. The address of the President, Dr. Chas. Symes, of Liverpool, was a scholarly paper on pharmacy, and its needs, aims, etc. He touched on the new pharmacopeia, metric weights and measures,
and synthetic remedies, At the end of his address he feelingly referred to the great loss which English pharmacy had sustained in the death of Michael Conroy, “a former Vice-President, an active member of the conference and an Irishman withal,” and also to the death of Dr. de Vry.
After the usual routine business, the following list of papers was taken up:
Kieselguhr,” by John Moss. “Note on Oil of Eucalyptus,” by E. J. Parry. “Gluten Flour and its analysis,
by Victor G. L. Fielden.
“Green Extracts of the Pharmacopoeia, by W. A. Naylor and J. J. Bryant.
“The Commercial Varieties of Dill and their Essential Oils,” by John Umney.
“A new constituent of Oil of Lemon," by John C. Umney and R. S. Swinton.
“A Quick Polarimetric method for the estimation of Strophanthin in the B. P. Tincture and Extract, by Ed. Douzard.
“ Notes on Commercial Oil of Lemon," by T. H. W. Idris.
“ Note on Extract of Ginger,” by the same.
“The salient features of the Irish Flora,” by G. C. Druce
“ The amount of Carbonic Anhydride available in the official granular effervescent Preparation," by C. S. Dyer.
" Albumen and some types of Proteid Digestion,"
by Gordon Sharp.
A short time ago the habit of using ether as an in“ Basicity of Quinine Sulphate," by D. and D.
toxicant was said to be growing in some Irish cities. Lloyd Howard.
Now a Berlin paper announces that intoxication by “The Characters and Methods of Estimation of
means of ether has become almost epidemic in the Official Hypophosphites, by H. A. D. Jowett.
Lithuania, owing to the fact that ether is cheaper “Pharmacists and the Pharmacopeia," P. Mac
than brandy and less of it is needed to get drunk on. Ewan.
Many families have been ruined by the habit, which “Galenical Pharmacy of the 1898 Pharmaco
has also found victims even among school children. paia," by F. C. J. Bird.
"The Galenicals of the Pharmacopeia from a Wholesaler's Point of View," by H. Wippell Gadd.
During the past month we had occasion to exam“The Nomenclature of certain drugs of the Phar
ine a sample of oil, sold by a wholesale paint and oil macopeia," by G. C. Druce.
firm and labelled “No. 1, Castor Oil.” The color “ The chemistry of the Pharmacopeia, by P.
was rather more yellow than that of any genuine Kelly.
castor oil we had seen ; the smell would indicate a "The Pharmacopoeia chemically considered," by
petroleum origin. On further examination we found A. L. Doran.
the specific gravity to be less than that of castor oil, A long list of papers, all of which evolved interest
while the solubility in absolute alcohol was nil. ing discussions.
This so-called No. I castor oil was nothing but a Plymouth was selected as the next meeting place.
petroleum distillate. Where is the adulteration act? The following officers were elected: President, J.
and what are the public analysts doing that such a C. C. Payne, Belfast ; Vice-Presidents, Walter Hills,
bare-faced, scandalous fraud can be perpetrated ? London ; Jno. Moss, London; R. J. Downes, Dublin ;
The feasibility of such a proceeding calls for well C. J. Park, Plymouth ; Treasurer, J. C. Umney,
merited punishment. London; Hon. General Secretaries, W. A. H. Naylor and H. R. Ranson, London; Hon. Local Pharmacists throughout the States are outSecretary, J. Davey Turney, Plymouth.
spoken with regard to the conduct of patent medi
cine men making them pay the increased cost of the ACID AND HEAT RESISTING CEMENT.
war revenue stamps, which in all justice should be Powdered asbestos is mixed with a boiling solution
borne by the manufacturers. When the former of sodium silicate. When cool the mixture is pow
stamp tax was repealed by the efforts of the retail dered and mixed with aluminium hydrate or calcium
druggists, the manufacturers did not lower their sulphate, dried and mixed with solution of alum. prices correspondingly, and now that a similar tax
has been reimposed the majority of the makers wish
to make the retailers pay it. It is only adding one “ APENTA” AND THE CUBAN WAR.
more to the score which retailers have against them,
and which they will have to settle when combined In view of the outbreak of Yellow Fever among
action on the part of the druggists is taken against the troops in Cuba we venture to suggest that the
them. following copy of a letter received from the Touro Infirmary, New Orleans, is of general interest. Touro Infirmary, New Orleans, Oct. 8, 1897.
Dr. J Bennett Morrison reports in the New York “United Agency Co., New York.
Medical Journal a case of poisoning by fluid exDEAR SIRS: I have the pleasure of informing tract of belladonna, in which 96 minims of the preyou that during the present Yellow Fever we have
paration had been taken by mistake. When the used with success in the wards of our Infirmary your
doctor arrived some hours after the medicine had Apenta Water. Would you kindly send us at once 150 small bot
been taken, he found the patient excited and detles with bill, making the price as low as you pos lirious, pupils dilated, the pulse was 180 and the sibly can. Very respectfully,
respirations about ten a minute and
shallow. (Signed) D. GOLDSTEIN, Clerk.
Apomorphine was adıninistered, followed by piloWe might add that Surgeon General Sternberg, of carpine hydrochloride % gr., strychnine 1-15 gr., the United States army, forwarded, through the caffeine 5 grs., and ammonia water 45 minims in Medical Supply Depot, large quantities of the three injections. Artificial respiration, whiskey, salt
Apenta” Aperient Water to the United States solution, were tried in turn, and after four hours of General Hospital near Santiago, Cuba.
hard and continuous effort the patient was declared
out of danger. In all there were administered during the four hours : Pilocarpine hydrochloride, 1 64-220 gr. ; physostigmine sulphate, 13-120 gr. ; strychnine sulphate, 40-120 ; caffeine sodiobenzoate, 20 gr.; ammonia water, 270. The remarkable point about the case is that it was only six and a half hours after ingestion that antidotes were applied and that the patient recovered after taking ninetysix minims of a preparation, the maximum dose of which is two minims.
Dr. Behring, of Berlin, after five unsuccessful attempts, has at last secured a patent on antitoxin and other serums.
Nothing more is wanted to show the absurdity of the present U.S. patent laws. Behring did not discover the properties of blood serum prepared by the processes now in use, nor was he the inventor of these processes. The labors of Kitasato, followed by those of Roux and others in the Pasteur Laboratory, Fraenkel, Emmerich, etc., made known to the medical world the fact that the blood serum of animals which had been inoculated with certain diseases was a remedy for these diseases. Now after four years Behring has secured a patent granting him the sole right to make or sell these preparations in the U.S., in spite of the fact that several American firms have been making serums for several years past.
In no other country in the world is such a thing possible.
The saddest feature of this case is the spectacle offered of such a man as Behring, whose fame as one of the great benefactors of the human race is world wide, coming down to the level of the patent medicine maker and willing to exchange his reputation and glory for the chance of making a few dollars out of a discovery which he only helped to make. Those who work as Behring has, do not allow their names to be connected with commercial enterprises ; their discoveries are for the good of mankind, not for one or two people. Pasteur's name was never connected with a patent ; unfortunately for Behring, whatever glory was his will now be taken from him for his attempt to appropriate, as his own, labors of at least a dozen other workers in the same fields, who preceded or were contemporaneous with him in serumtherapy.
T. R. MACY. The preparation of certain ointments, such as those of white precipitate, lead iodide and yellow oxide of mercury, with commercial chemicals, is surrounded by many difficulties.
In general , it will be found that these bodies are of such a gritty character that it is almost impossible to rub them fine enough to produce a perfectly smooth ointment. Many expedients have been proposed, but the results obtained have not been entirely satisfactory. Some months ago, an article by Schweissinger appeared in the Pharmaceutische Zeiiung, in which he recommended the employment of freshly made precipitates, and as this appeared to promise good results, we determined to try it. The results were quite up to our expectations, the resulting ointment being absolutely free from grit, perfectly smooth, and giving the greatest satisfaction wherever used.
The objections to the process are: first, the length of time required to thoroughly wash the precipitates, and second, the presence of a small quantity of water in the finished product. To the first it may be replied that the ointment may be made in sufficient quantity to last for three or four months, and that, while the washing is going on, other work can be attended to, as the only care required is to add a little water from time to time. The second objection, the presence of an indefinite quantity of water and consequent lack of absolute accuracy in the preparation, need not be considered of great moment. If we consider that ointments are never applied in exactly measured quantities, but rubbed into the parts in any convenient way, we will see that this objection is of little moment, when by this method we a smooth application, free from all grit, a point of such importance in the majority or cases.
We have found the following formulæ to work all right. For washing the precipitates all that is necessary is a piece of fine, well-washed cotton, placed in a funnel or made into a small filter bag. In pouring the precipitate into the bag or on the cotton, care should be taken not to scatter the precipitate all over the latter, the object being to have the precipitate all together so as to have as little loss as possible.
When thoroughly washed, allow to drain, and then press out as much of the water as possible. Sweissinger recommends the use of a filter pump ; but this is not obtainable in every pharmacy, nor is it necessary if the cotton be carefully pressed out.
WHITE PRECIPITATE OINTMENT.
Dissolve the mercuric chloride in 16 oz. of water,
Meetings. and filter the solution into the ammonia mixed with 16 oz of water, decant the liquid, pour the precipi
ONTARIO COLLEGE OF PHARMACY COUN. tate onto a cotton filter, taking care to wash it all onto the latter; when well washed, press out the li
CIL MEETING. quid. Hard Paraffin....
The semi-annual meeting of the Council was held White Petrolatum
in the college building on August 2 and three subseMelt well together by a gentle heat, allow to cool
quent days. President Henry Watters, of Ottawa, slightly and add the well washed precipitate of am
was in the chair and all the members were present; moniated mercury, and stir till solidified.
unanimity and harmony prevailed throughout the OINTMENT OF RED IODIDE OF MERCURY.
session. The board was not called upon to deal with Mercuric Chloride....
1. 2 gms.
any questions of a particularly grave nature. Apart Potassium lodide.
from routine work three subjects of importance reBenzoated Lard...
ceived attention. The two years college course, esDissolve the salts separately, mix the solutions, tablishing a department of Optics, and Divisional wash the precipitate, press out carefully and mix
Associations. Two of these were disposed of by dewith the benzoated lard.
ferring action, and the other, that of adding a depart
ment of Optics to the college curriculum, was deci-
Among the various communications of greater or Petrolatum to..
less importance was one from Messrs. Elliot & Co., Disolve the mercuric chloride in 100 ccs. of distilled wholesale druggists, of Toronto, calling attention to water, and add to the solution of soda, stir well toge existing uncertainty regarding the time when the rether, allow the precipitate to settle, wash well, press
vised B. P. comes into force and suggesting that acout and mix with the petrolatum.
tion be taken in the matter by the council, and also
when preparations of the 1885 edition are made or OINTMENT OF LEAD IODIDE,
supplied, the mark '85 be placed on the label. This Potassium Iodide.
7 gms. Lead Nitrate....
was disposed of by report No. of Educational com
7 Distilled Water.
mittee containing the following clause which was Paraffin Ointment.
adopted by Council. Prepare in the same manner as the foregoing.
“Regarding the commuication of Elliot & Co., in A slightly better product can be obtained by re
reference to the British Pharmacopeia of 1898 the placing 25 per cent. of the vehicle in all these oint committee reported as follows: "Your committee ments by the same quantity of wool fat.
beg to draw attention to clause 23 of the Pharmacy In the preparation of a zinc ointment by this me
Act, which is as follows : ‘All compounds named in thod, the zinc is precipitated as hydrate from solution
the British Pharmacopæia shall be prepared accordof zinc sulphate with sodå, the preciptate well washed
ing to the formula directed in the latest edition puband mixed with the vehicle. In this case the zinc is
lished by authority," unless the College of Physinot exactly in the form presented by the authorities,
cians and Surgeons of the province select another although it practically would have the same effect. standard, or unless the label distinctly shows the The much increased cost is also against this modifi
compound is prepared according to another formula.' cation. Yellow Oxide of Mercury Ointment is pro
In view of the above clause your committee underbably the one which is most in demand and which
stand that the 1898 edition of the British Pharmacoby the official process is most difficult to prepare
pæia is now practically in force, and would recomproperly, but made by precipitation as here directed,
mend that all preparations prepared under the 1885 the product is perfect.
editions be so designated on the label. Your committee further recommend that the 1898 edition be
the text book for use in the college in the approachSome five or six years ago a druggist in Detroit ing term.” placed half a dozen goldfish in a pond near that city. The report of the board of examiners, containing These fish have multiplied rapidly until now it is be the names of the successful candidates, was appended, lieved there are many thousand of them. Detroit and it was recommended that diplomas be granted to newsboys have been bringing them to the city and those whose names appeared as having passed. The selling them at 25 cents each. There is in this a committee deemed it inadvisable that the suggested hint to druggists of a profitable side line.
change in awarding medals should be adopted at Pharm. Era. present.
$11,359 91 REPORT JNO. ROBERTS SCHOLARSHIP FUND. Statement Feb. ist, 1898
$3283 33 Interest
These reports show the affairs of the College to be in a satisfactory condition, and free virtually of debt. In paying off the mortgage on the building in May last it was necessary to overdraw the bank account to the extent of $1835.23. This indebtedness is already provided for and will be liquidated this month, placing the College in the very desirable position of Mowing no man anything,” besides having a small amount to its credit.
During the six month the following medical men has been registered : W. E. Olmsted, Caledonia ; C. A. D. Fairfield, Beamsville ; W. W. Hay, Wallaceburg ; J. H. Hoover, Vienna ; J. L. Bradley, Creamore; P. A. McDonald, Penetang ; H. M. Jones, Marmora ; Jas. J. P. Armstrong, Courtright ; E. S. Hicks, Deseronto; W. J. Burns, French River ; and W. L. Harper, Madoc.
The number of applicants for apprenticeship has been 75, a few of which await the council's action.
The number of renewals are as follows : 1892, 1; 1893, 1 ; 1894, 3 ; 1895, 6; 1896, 14; 1897, 77 ; 1898, 949.
The following is an abstract of the financial statement :
$ 31 93
1953 14 Cash Bank Saving
4144 75 $6129 82 Renewal Fecs...
2115 00 Matriculation Fees.
87 00 Apprentice Reg. Fees .
74 00 Medical Men Reg. Fees Sale Poison Books, etc..
20 73 Laboratory Apparatus Teaching Dept...
454 05 Diplomas Examinations
341 39 Bank Overdraft..
Salary Account Library Fund.. Sundry Accounts. Bank Overdraft Balance.
62 69 389 07 1,835 22
$51,545 61 The question of the two years course of instruction was dealt with in report No. 2 of the Educational committee which follows. This report includes the recommendation of the faculty, who had been requested by the Council to prepare the details of a curriculum of a two years coạrșe. According to the faculty such a course is impossible under existing circumstances, a new building of enlarged capacity being required for the purpose. In this respect the committee did not see "eye to eye” with the faculty; amidst conflicting opinions it was decided to defer action for further information. This report also touched on the reciprocity in diplomas" question. Below is the report.
REPORT NO. 2 OF THE EDUCATION
To the Council,
Gentlemen,-Your committee beg to report upon the question of two years course, as follows :
The faculty were asked to prepare the details of curriculum and its arrangement, to be presented at the session. The same is presented and attached to the report, and contains besides the curriculum many building requirements, as follows :
(1) One chemical laboratory, somewhat larger than the one used at present, for junior class.
(2) One pharmaceutical laboratory, larger than one now in use for junior class.
(3) One laboratory, to be used during the junior
335 51 214 96