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faithful discharge of their duty; for instance, a certain sum of money should be raised to defray all expenses of police; from this sum should be drawn the fixed salaries of all the servants connected therewith, and all other expenses whatsoever relating thereto, with a proportion, if not the whole loss sustained by any individual robbed, when the thief is not taken, nor the property restored, and the surplus should be divided amongst the servants in proportion to their fixed salaries. This is the substance and sum total of the plan proposed, and now I shall examine it, and I hope to the satisfaction of the reader.

The first thing to be considered is the sum to defray the expense, which should be, in the first instance, fixed to a certainty, decreasing in proportion to the enormity of crime committed.

Secondly, the fixed salaries to be drawn therefrom will point out the exact interest each servant has in the surplus, forming the average salary.

Thirdly, all rewards given by act of parliament, &c.; this will suppress that horrid idea encompassed in the term blood money," as every body connected with the police will strictly watch the conduct of him who shall receive a reward, as it will proportionably lessen the incomes of every one connected with the police.'

Fourthly, all expenses of witnesses, &c. at the sessions, &c.; this will prevent the committing for trial without strong probable cause of suspicion, and perhaps the ignominy of a public trial attaching to an innocent individual.

Fifthly, a proportion, or the whole, of the loss sustained by any person, when the thief is not taken, nor the property restored; this will act as a stimulus, on the principle that the fear of losing something in possession, is at least as stimulative as the hope of gaining something that never was in possession; for the moment the sum certain is fixed; all persons connected with the police have a vested interest in the whole, subject to future contingencies. Thus every body attached to the police will be on the alert to prevent crime, as it will be evidently the interest not to let a criminal go unpunished in the first instance, lest by increasing the number of criminals it may tend to diminish the annual income to no more than the fixed salary; so, by rendering conviction certain, crime .. will be prevented.

The amount of the sum should be annually determined by parliament, so that it may correspond with the probable expenditure, which will, it is hoped, annually decrease.

This is the plan proposed, which can be applied immediately (with but little alteration of existing laws) to stem the evils which are increasing, perhaps to the downfall of the country.

INDUCING TOWARDS THE DISCOVERY

PERPETUAL MOTION,

PERHAPS THE ACTUAL DISCOVERY THEREOF.

London, March, 1822. What is meant by the term “ Perpetual Motion ?"-is it supposed that there is an undiscovered substance in the world, that will of itself perpetually move, with as little apparent cause as that which actuates the needle in becoming motionless in one particular position? Or, is it to be found in the combined re-action of mechanical powers?

The first idea is stamped with a degree of probability, by the mystery of the needle; yet I imagine the latter is relied on with the greater confidence of mankind, and is the pith of the following few words.

It is well known that the weight of a pendulum will almost regain the level from which it descended, losing a little space at every vibration, until it becomes motionless ; if of itself it could exceed or even regain the level, doubtless it would become a Perpetual Motion. .

To find a power that will aid the motion of the pendulum, and in conjunction renew its strength, is what is wanted to create Perpetual Motion.

What I shall endeavor to explain will at least induce towards the discovery of this power. · The principal parts of the machinery about to be shown, are in number three.

A Vibrating Pendulum,

A Revolving Pendulum, and - A Tubular Lever. : A vibrating pendulum in motion describes a segment of a circle, and returns on the same segment, and at every vibrationfits described segment decreases.

A revolving pendulum is composed of two or more pendulums, united at their lighter extremities, there revolving on an axis, the heavier extremities being placed at equal distances in the outer

circle ; this I believe is what is termed a fly wheel when affixed to hand mills, &c.

The tubular lever, is the chief instigator of the whole, and must contain a weight apportioned to the weights of the two pendulums.

Fix the lever on a cross axis, thus, on an axis within a circle, the circle on an axis at opposite angles, thereby is given to each extremity of the lever a revolving power of motion ; attach one extremity of the lever to the outer circle of a revolving pendulum, the other extremity confine within the bar of the vibrating pendulum, thus combined, the effect to be produced when put in motion will be this

The two pendulums will guide the motion of the lever, which then partakes of the power of a pendulum, giving fresh impulse at every vibration of the pendulum, and every half revolution of the revolving pendulum ; for as each extremity of the lever rises, the weight within falls to the opposite extremity, and gives fresh impulse to the whole: thus (if my idea is correct) will be produced motion perpetual, that is to say perpetual so long as the materials of which it is made will hold together.

I have given this short description merely by way of example, as I believe there are several ways of combining these three powers, so as to produce perpetual motion, if my idea on the subject is correct.

The lever may contain mercury or a solid orb of heavy substance, and if the tube be exhausted of air the weight will pass more freely, and certainly increase the power of the lever.

THE SPEECH

OF THE

RIGHT HONORABLE GEORGE CANNING,

IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS,

25th APRIL, 1822,

ON

LORD JOHN RUSSEL L's MOTION

FOR

A REFORM OF PARLIAMENT.

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