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Denominational and private institutions not having degree-conferring powers,

1903.

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The following table, giving statistics of illiteracy in Canada in 1891 and 1901, shows the effects of the ever-increasing provision for public education.!

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The smallest number in a group of 100 is in Ontario, 18.12 illiterates. Of these 10.27 consist of persons under five years old.

In 1891 21.18 in every 100 were illiterates; of these 11.34 were under five years of age, leaving a net of 7.85 persons five years and over in 1901 and 10.14 in 1891.

The Province of Quebec shows a great decrease in the number of illiterates. In 1891 the province had 10.08 persons in every group of 100 who could not read; in 1901 there were 29.37 persons in each 100 group). In 1891 those under five years formed 11.71 and in 1901 14.41 of the number of illiterates. This leaves a net of 20,27 in 1891 and of 15.16 in 1901 of illiterates over five years of age in each group of 100.

a From Statistical Year Book of Canada, 1903.

Taking into account the somewhat decreased proportion of children under five in 1901 as compared with 1891, the statement stands: In 1891 Canada had of all illiterates 29.99 in erery group of 100. Of these 12.48 were under fire years of age, leaving a net of 17.51 illiterates over five years. In 1901 Canada had 24.62 illiterates in every group of 100 of the population. Of these 11.96 were under five years, leaving 12.66 illiterates; so that there has been an actual decrease in the ten years of 4.85 illiterates orer five years in every group of 100.

AUSTRALIA

(For previous articles in the Reports of the Commissioner of Education sce: Secondary

Education in New Zealand, by Sir Robert Stout, K. C. M. G., Report for 1890–91, Vol. 1., pp. 45–94.- Education in New Zealand, Report for 1892-93, Vol. 1, pp. 258_261.--Systems of Public Education in Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania, Report for 1897-98, Vol. 1, pp. 189–214.--Education in Australasia, Report for 1898–99, Vol. 1, pp. 68–87.]

TOPICAL OUTLINE.

Brief account of the Australian federation. Current statistics of public schools and of

private schools and universities. Brief outline of the systems of public education. Salient particulars from current reports. New South Wales: Report of the special educational commission appointed to investigate foreign systems and advise reforms for New South Wales. Queensland: Work of the itinerant teacher; the gram

schools ;" technical education; educational expenditure. South Australia: Scholarship funds; agricultural education. Victoria: Manual training; technical education; total educational expenditure. West Australia: Special difficulties of sparse population; teachers' training and salaries; promotions; manual training; total educational expenditure.

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The Commonwealth of Australia, consisting of the six colonies (not denominated Original States) of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Soutli Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania, wils proclaimed at Sydney, Janary 1, 1901.

Legislative power is rester in a Federal Parliament, consisting of the King, a Senate, and a House of Representatives, the King being represented by a Governor-General. The Senate consists of Senators (six for each of the original States) chosen for six years by the electors, voting in each State, except Queensland, as one electorate, In general, the Senate will be renewed to the extent of one-half erery three years, but, in case of prolonged disagreement with the House of Representatives, it may be dissolved and an entirely new Senate elected. The Ilouse of Representatives consists, as nearly as may be, of twice as many members as there are Senators, 'the numbers chosen in the several States being in proportion to the respective numbers of their people, as shown by the latest statistics of the Commonwealtlı, but not less than five shall be chosen in any original State For the first llouse of Representatives the number is To, distributed as follows: New South Wales, 20 ; Victoria, 23 ; Queensland, 9; South Australia, 7; Western Australia, 5; Tasmania, 5. Every House of Representatives will continue for three years from the date of its first meeting, unless sooner dissolved. Electoral qualifications are those of the several States; the qualifications of persons eligible for either House are prescribed by the Constitution. Every Senator or Member of the House of Representatives must be a natural-born subject of the King, or have been for five years a naturalized subject under a law of the United Kingdom or of a State of the Commonwealth. He must be of full age, must possess electoral qualification in bis State, and must have resided three years within the Commonwealth.

The legislative powers of the Federal Parliament are extensive, and embrace, among other matters, commerce, railways, shipping, light-houses, etc.; finance; defense; postal, telegraph, and like services; census and statistics; marriage and divorce; emigration and immigration : currency, banking, weights and measures; conciliation and arbitration in industrial disputes. The several

State Parliaments retain legislative authority in all maters which are not transferred to the Federal Parliament. With respect to money bills the House of Representatives has special powers, and provision is made for cases of disagreement between the two Houses.

The Executive power, vested in the King, is exercisable by the GovernorGeneral, who is assisted by an executive council of seven ministers of state. These ministers are, or must become within three months, members of the Federal Parliament; they are paid salaries not exceeding in all £12,000 ($60,000) a year.

The Constitution provides for a Feileral judicature, for an interstate commission on trade and commerce, for the transfer of State officials, State property, and State debts to the Commonwealth, for the collection and expenditure of duties during the transition period, and for alteration of the Constitution. Difficulties have already arisen in connection with the interpretation of the Constitution, and a measure has been passed providing, among other things, for the establishment of a high court with extensive appellate and Federal jurisdiction.

The site for the permanent capital of the Commonwealth, which must be situated in New South Wales and at a distance of at least 100 miles from Sydney. has not yet been selected; in the meantime the Federal Government has its seat at Melbourne. [From Statesman's Yearbook, 1904.)

The area and population of the six States comprised in the federation are as follows:

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The leading industries of the colonies-agriculture, grazing, and miningimply for a large proportion of the population all the conditions that pertain to rural life. The increase of the urban population is, however, noticeable. In New South Wales more than one-third the people (41 per cent) are in towns of above 9,000 inhabitants; Sydney, the capital, has 181,830. Of the population of Victoria 51 per cent are in towns having each more than 20,000 inhabitants; the capital, Melbourne, has 496,079.

The populations of the capital cities of the several States were as follows at the last census :

Capital.

Population,

1901.

Melbourne (Victoria)
Sydney New South Wales)
Adelaide (South Australia).
Brisbane (Queensland).
Perth (West Australia)
Hobart (Tasmania)

496, 079 481,80 105,123 119, 428 27, 553 24,655

Under the conditions of population here indicate the difference between urban and rural schools is very marked. The standards expressed in the law are only attainable in the large centers, and this is so clearly recognized that special adjustments are authorized by law in all the States for isolated communities and pioneer settlements.

The principal facts in the current record of the public school systems are here presented. To complete the summary the statistics of private schools and universities are also given.

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Statistics of prirate schools, unirersities, and colleges, 1932.

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Control of the systems. The control of education in each of the States is vested in a minister appointed for this particular interest or combining it with some closely allied interest; thus in New South Wales the minister of education has charge also of industry: in South Australia education and agriculture are combined. To the chief officer is consigned not only the general administration of the system but also its local direction. Ile decides as to the establishment of school districts and schools and controls the school funds and properties. In Victoria and New South Wales appointments of teachers and inspectors emanate from a civil-service board; in the other States they are made by the minister.

Local boards of advice are constituted by election (in Queensland appointed by the Governor), and their representatives carry great weight in respect to the school affairs of their several districts, but the authority remains in every case with the minister.

Sources of support.---In all the States the schools are supported by appropriations from the public treasury; instruction is gratuitous excepting in New South Wales, where a weekly fee is required of 3d. per child, but not to exceed is. in all for the children of one family. Power is given, however, to the minister or the local board to remit the fees in cases where the parents are unable to bear the charge.

Completeness of school prorision.—The classes of schools recognized in the sereral laws give evidence of the widely different conditions under which the schools of different districts are maintained and also the efforts to adjust the school provision to these varying conditions.

The typical school is called simply the public or State school. It must maintain a certain average enrollment and must be kept in session the full time. There are also provisional schools; that is, schools which may be kept open for the full time ammually, but whose average enrollment is below the standard, and half-time schools in districts where the number of children is too small to justify the expense of a full-time school. In such cases a teacher is appointed for two or more districts and holds the school in each on alternate days or for a half session each day, according to the distance to be traveled. Ilouse-tohouse schools have also been recognized as a temporary expedient. The plan of conveying children at public expense from isolated districts to a central school has been recently adopted and is gradually superseding that of special and half-time schools. In Victoria this plan is extensively employed and has virtually eliminated the half-time schools. Night schools, and in some of the colonies infant schools, complete the public provision for popular education.

('ompulsory attendance.--Attendance upon school is compulsory for all children of legal school age (this varies in the several colonies, as shown in the detailed statements) unless they are educated privately or exempt by law.

Secular character of the schools.-In Victoria and Queensland the public schools are strictly secular; in South Australia umsectarian religious instruction is allowed; in New South Wales and West Australia provision is made for religious instruction in the schools at an hour when children may be withdrawn if their parents object to their presence.

In addition to the very complete provision for elementary education maintained by the sereral gorernments every State in the Australian federation makes appropriations for secondary edueation either by a system of State scholarships open to competition or by grants to the individual institutions.

Technical education is also fostered in all the States and technical schools or classes aided by public funds are found in nearly all the chief cities; further particulars of the work are given in the citations from current reports,

The three Australian universities have been extensively aidled by legislative appropriations and the University of South Australia by grants of land. These institutions are authorized to confer the same degrees as the wiversities in England, with the exception of degrees in divinity, and women are admitted to all their privileges.

The University of Spiner. New South Wales, opened in 1852, receives from government a yearly subsidly amounting with special aid to £12,317.

Melbourne University, Victoria, was established under a special act of the Victorian legislature, and the building was opened on October 3, 18.55. The insti. tution received in 1901-, by way of endowment, £15,000 out of the general reve

It is both an examining and a teaching body, and in 1857 received a royal charter empowering it to grant degrees in all faculties except divinity:

Affiliated to the university are three colleges-Trinity, Ormond, and Queens-in connection with the Church of England, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan churches, respectively. The school of mines at Ballarat is also alliliated to the university. From the opening of the university to the end of 1902 1,78+ students matriculated and 2.939 direct degrees were conferred. In 1902 the students who matriculated numbered 124. the direct graduates numbered 122, and there were 021 students attending lectures.

The University of Adelaide, South Australia, incorporated in 1874, is authorized to grant degrees in arts, law, music, medicine, and science. Its endowment amounts to £131,200 and 50,000 acres of land.

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