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from the county superintendent. In case a certificate is revoked or refused, an appeal may be made to the State board.

The teacher shall, at the close of every termi (four months at longest), fill in the statistical summary in the register, and in ungraded schools file the register with the secretary of the district; but in graded schools the register aforesaid shall be filed with the principal or superintendent of the district, in which case the principal or superintendent shall make an abstract of the summaries of all such registers upon blanks prepared by the State superintendent and file the same with the secretary. The teacher, principal, or superintendent who is in charge of the last term of school shall file with the secretary a summary of the statistics for the year; and until these registers, summaries, and abstracts have been filed it shall be unlawful for the officers of any distriet to draw a warrant for the last month's salary of any teacher, principal, or superintendent whose duty it is to make out such statements.

Preliminary training.--The purpose of the State normal school shall be to impart instruction in the science and art of teaching, with the aid of a suitable practice department, and in such branches of knowledge as shall qualify teachers for their profession. The school shall be under the control of a board of six trustees (appointed with the concurrence of the senate, two to retire annually) and the State superintendent. The normal school is an integral part of the public school system and shall stand upon the same basis as to apportionment of State school funds as union high schools, and shall be subject to the supervision of the State board of education, under which the board of trustees shall exercise their control. The school shall be open to all persons resident in this State who are 16 years of age, without charge for tuition. The school is authorized to grant diplomas to such students as shall have completed the full course of instruction, shall have been recommended by the faculty, and shall have passed a final examination upon the branches embraced in the prescribed course before a board consisting of the State superintendent of schools, a county superintendent, and the principal of the school. This diploma licenses the receiver to teach in any of the public schools of the State. The trustees shall receive $5 per diem and traveling expenses, and shall report annually to the State board concerning the attendance, the curriculum, and the finances of the school.

Institutes.--The State is divided for the present into 13 normal institute districts. A normal institute for the instruction of teachers and those desiring to teach may be held annually for a term of not less than two weeks in each normal institute district. The county superintendents of each institute district shall annually select not more than three of their number as an executive committee, who, with the advice and consent of the State superintendent and the president of the State normal school, shall determine the time and place of holding the normal institute, and shall select a conductor and instructor for the same. Το defray the expense of such institute the executive committee shall require the payment of $1 registration fee for each person attending, and each county superintendent shall add 5 per cent to the standing in examination of teachers who shall so attend. A fee of $1 shall be paid for each applicant at a county teachers' examination, or for each renewal or indorsement of a teacher's certificate, and shall be sent to the State superintendent, who shall once a year apportion equally among the 13 normal institute districts all moneys thus forwarded.

When a normal institute of not fewer than two weeks is held the number and names of the persons in attendance shall be certified to the county commissioners, who shall allow $2 for every person certified, and there shall be paid the sum of $50 to institutes having at least 20 persons in attendance who have paid registration fees.

No one shall be paid from the fund arising from fees and county appropriations as conductors or instructors muless holding a certificate of qualification for such work from the State board of education on recommendation of the State board of examiners, provided that a member of the State normal school faculty shall be ex officio a conductor of normal institutes.

3. SCHOOLS.

Attendance-Character of instruction-Tert-books-Buildings. Attendance. Every public school, except high schools, shall be open for the admission of all children from 6 to 21 years of age residing in the district for at least four school months in each year. A school day shall not exceed six hours.

Every parent or guardian of a child between 8 and 14 years of age shall send such child to a public, private, or parochial school for not less than twenty weeks each year, not less than ten of which shall be consecutive; but if two physicians residing within the district shall certify that the child's bodily or mental condition does not admit of its attendance at school, he shall be exempted during such period of disability; or if in the opinion of the county superintendent he is being instructed at honie by a qualified person, he shall not be required to attend school.

No child under 14 years shall be employed by any person or corporation during the school term unless the parent or guardian has fully complied with the foregoing provisions. Anyone employing a child contrary to the law shall be fined not less than $25 nor more than $100.

Every minor between 14 and 16 shall attend school one-half of each day, or receive private instruction, until he obtains a certificate from the county superintendent that he can read at sight and write legibly. Every employer shall exact the school attendance or instruction herein required as a condition of employment, under penalty of $25 to $100 fine.

School boards in first and second class districts must appoint one or more truant officers and fix their compensation. The truant officer has police power, and must examine into any case of truancy within his district, and shall notify the parent or guardian of the truant child and request that the child be required to attend some school within five days; upon failure of parent or guardian to comply, the truant officer shall make complaint against such parent or guardian in the county court, who upon conviction shall be fined not less than $5 nor more than $20, and upon failure to pay such fine may be imprisoned from ten to thirty days.

That upon the trial of any offense as charged herein, before any court of competent jurisdiction, it shall be determined that such prosecution was malicious, then the costs in such shall be adjudged against the complainant and collected as fines in other cases.

Two weeks' attendance at half time or night school shall be considered within the meaning of this article eg valent to an attendance of one week at a day school.

Character of instruction.The public schools shall be taught in the English language, and the school boards shall have taught in such schools orthography, history, and Constitution of the United States, physiology, laws of health, the elements of the natural sciences, the effect of alcoholic drinks and narcotics, and such other branches of learning and other languages as may be deemed expedient. On the demand of the parents or guardians of 20 or more children of school age, the board of directors may procure efficient instructors and introduce the German or Spanish language as a medium of instruction.

The school board of districts of the first and second classes shall have the power to establish a separate high school whenever they shall deem it expedient, and shall determine the qualifications for admission to such school, and shall exercise all the powers with reference to such high school which are accorded to them in relation to schools of the lower grade. Two or more adjoining districts may elect a high-school committee and establish and maintain a high school.

Kindergartens may be established by the school boards of any district for children 3 to 6, but tliis shall not change the law as to the taking of the school census or the apportionment of State and county school funds.

Text-books.-The district school board shall determine the kind of text-books to be used, provided that only one kind of text-book of the same grade or branch of study shall be used in the same department of a school, and that after the adoption of any book it shall not be changed in four years unless the price thereof shall be unwarrantably advanced or the mechanical quality lowered or the supply stopped. The board shall also provide books for indigent children on the written statement of the teachers that the parents of such children are not able to purchase them, and shall furnish free text-books for the use of all pupils when authorized to do so by a majority vote of the district. The board shall also require that pupils be furnished with proper books as a condition of membership in school.

Buildings.—The property of the school district is under the control of the district school board, which may acquire or sell the same when directed by a vote of the district to do so. The national flag shall be displayed upon each schoolhouse.

4. FINANCES.

Funds (permanent or special)-State tax-County tax-District tax. Funds (permanent or special).—The public school fund of the State shall consist of the proceeds of such lands as have heretofore been or may hereafter be gr ted to the State by the General Government for educational purposes; all estates that may escheat to the State; also all other grants, gifts, or devises that may be made to this State for educational purposes.

The public school fund of the State shall forever remain inviolate and intact. The interest thereon only shall be expended in the maintenance of the schools of the State, and shall be distributed among the several counties and school districts of the State in such manner as may be prescribed by law. No part of this fund, principal or interest, shall ever be transferred to any other fund or used or appropriated except as herein provided. The State treasurer shall be the custodian of this fund, and the same shall be securely and profitably invested as may be by law directed. The State shall make good all losses thereof that may in any manner occur.

The State superintendent shall semiannually apportion the public school income fund among the several counties of the State from which reports have been received, according to the school population.

All fines, penalties, and forfeitures provided by school laws may be recovered by action of debt, in the name of the people of the State of Colorado, for the use of the proper school district or county, and shall, when they accrue, belong to the respective districts or counties in which the same may have been incurred; and the county treasurers, for their counties, are hereby authorized to receive and cause to be placed to the proper credit such forfeitures. Except as otherwise provided by law, all sums of money derived from fines imposed for violation of orders of injunction, mandamus, and other like writs, or for contempt of court, shall be paid into the school fund of the county wherein the contempt or such violation was committed; and the clear proceeds of all fines collected within the several counties of the State for breach of the penal laws, and all funds arising from the sale of lost goods and estrays shall be paid over in cash by the person collecting the same, within twenty days after the collection, to the county treasurer of the county in which the same have accrued, and shall be by him credited to the general county school fund. (For the distribution of the county fund, see Taxation, below.)

State tar.-There shall be assessed and levied annually upon all the taxable property in the State taxes for the support and maintenance of certain State educational institutions, as follows: Two-fifths of 1 mill on each dollar of the assessed valuation of the taxable property of the State for the use of the State University, to be known as the State University fund; one-sixth of 1 mill on each dollar of the assessed valuation of the taxable property of the State for the use of the agricultural college, to be known as the agricultural college fund; one-sixth of 1 mill on each dollar of the assessed valuation of the taxable property of the State for the use of the State school of mines, to be known as the school of mines fund; one-sixth of 1 mill on each dollar of the assessed valuation of the taxable property of the State for the use of the State normal school, to be known as the normal school fund; one-sixth of 1 mill on each dollar of the assessed valuation of the taxable property of the State for the use of the institute for the mute and blind, to be known as the mute and blind fund. Such taxes shall be levied and collected at the same time and in the same manner provided by law for assessments and collection of other State taxes.

County tar.—The county commissioners shall, at the time of levying the tax for county purposes, cause to be levied a tax for the support of schools within the county of not less than 2 mills on the dollar of the assessed value of all taxable property, real and personal, within the county, which tax shall be collected by the county treasurer at the same time and in the same manner as State and county taxes are collected, except that it shall be receivable only in cash. It is hereby made the duty of the county superintendent of schools to certify to the board of county commissioners at this time the amount of money needed per capita to enable each school district in the county to maintain a public school four months in each year, as required by law. In making his estimate the county superintendent shall not take into consideration districts whose school population is less than 15, as shown by the school census preceding the time of making the levy. We shall use as a basis for making his estimate the sum of $40 per month for the teacher's salary. All other expenses of the school must

be provided for by the board of directors by special tax. It is hereby made the duty of the county commissioners to increase the minimum rate of 2 mills to what shall be required for the purpose as stated above; but if any school district shall fail to certify a special tax for other expenses of the district necessary to maintaining a public school each year four months, the county commissioners shall cause the same to be levied.

The county superintendent shall apportion the funds aforesaid among the dis. tricts entitled to the same according to the number of persons of school age as shown by the census lists and reports of the several districts for the school year immediately preceding.

District tar.-The district meeting of third-class districts may order a special tax, not to exceed 15 mills, such as the voters deem sufficient for any of the following purposes : To pay teachers' wages; to hire or purchase property and keep the same in repair; and in districts of the first and second classes a spe cial tax without limit may be rotel by the board of directors.

On the petition of 20 legal voters of any school district, the question of issuIng bonds for the purpose of erecting and furnishing school buildings or pur. chasing ground, or for funding floating debts, shall be submitted to the voters; but in no case shall the aggregate bonded debt exceed 3} per cent of the assessed value of the property of the district.

(ONNECTICUT. .

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State board of education-Secretary of the State boarl-Agents of the State

board-Toun school visitors-Acting school visitor or superintendent-District committee-Board of educationTown school committee-Town high school committee_Truant officers.

State board of education.--There shall be a State board of education, composed of the governor, lieutenant-governor, its secretary, and four persons to be appointed by the general assembly for four years. Three members shall constitute a quorum at the meetings of the board. The term of one member shall expire every year. Vacancies not filled by the general assembly shall be filled by the governor and lieutenant-governor for the umexpired term of office.

The board shall have general supervision and control of the educational interests of the State; may direct what books shall be used in all its schools, but shall not direct any book to be changed oftener than once in five years; shall prescribe the form of registers to be kept in said schools and the form of blanks and inquiries for the returns to be made by the various school boards and committees; shall keep itself informed as to and ascertain the condition and progress of the public schools in the State, and shall seek to improve the methods and promote the efficiency of teaching therein, by holding, at various convenient places in the State, meetings of teachers and school officers, for the purpose of instructing in the best modes of administering, governing, and teaching public schools, and by such other means as they shall deem appropriate; but the expenses incurred in such meetings shall not exceed the sum of $3,000 in any year. It shall, on or before the Monday after the first Wednesday in January in each year, submit to the governor a report containing a printed abstract of said returns, a detailedl statement of the doings of the board, and an account of the condition of the public schools, of the amount and quality of instruction therein, and such other information as will apprise the general assembly of the true condition, progress, and needs of public education; but not more than 6,000 copies of the report shall be printed.

The board shall appoint a secretary and shall have the power to appoint agents to secure the due observance of the laws relating to the instruction of children, and to grant, upon public examination, a certificate to teach.

It shall have power to expend the sums of money necessary to execute the powers conferred upon it, and shall semiannually file with the comptroller a certified account of all State moners receivel or disbursed by it. All orders for drawing State money shall be signed by the secretary and countersigned by a committee of the board. It shall maintain and have general superintendence of the normal schools.

Secretary of the State board of education.--The State board of education shall

appoint a secretary who sball, under its direction and control, perform such serpices in the execution of its duties and powers as the board may prescribe, and who shall be paid such salary as the board may determine. The board may also engage such clerks as are necessary to assist the secretary in performing his duties.

Agent of the State board of education.--The board shall have power to appoint an agent to secure the due observance of the laws relating to the instruction of children, and such agent siiall make written report of his work to the secretary semiannually.

The State board of education may appoint agents, under its supervision and control, for terms of not more than one year, who shall enforce the law regarding the employment of children under 13 years of age. These agents shall be paid not to exceed $5 per day for time actually employed and necessary expenses, and their accounts shall be approved by the board and audited by the comptroller. The agents so appointed may be directed by the board to enforce the provisions of the law requiring the attendance of children in school and to perform any duties necessary or proper for the due execution of the duties and powers of the board.

School visitors of towns.-There shall be in every town a board of school visitors, composed of three, six, or nine members, as such town may determine, divided into three equal classes. The first class shall hold office until the next annual town meeting, the second class until the second annual town meeting, and the third class. until the third annual town meeting following and until others are elected in their places: Prorided, That when said board is composed of only three members they shall not be so divided into classes and shall be elected for three years. Should any vacancy occur, the remaining members of the board may fill it till the next annual town meeting, when all vacancies shall be filled in the manner prescribed in the succeeding section, and the ballots shall distinctly specify the vacancy to be filled.

School visitors shall be chosen by ballot. If the number to be chosen be two, four, six, or eight, no person shall vote for more than half of such number. If the number to be chosen be three, no person shall vote for more than two; if five, not more than three; if seven, not more than four; if nine, not more than five. That number of persons sufficient to fill the board who have the highest number of votes shall be elected. In case of a tie, that person whose name stands first or highest on the greatest number of ballots shall be elected.

Each board of school visitors shall annually choose from themselves a chairman and a secretary. They shall prescribe rules for the management, studies, classification, and discipline of the public schools, and, subject to the control of the State board of education, the text-books to be used; shall, as a board, or by a committee by them appointed, examine all persons desiring to teach in the public schools, and give to those with whose moral character and ability to teach they are satisfied, if found qualified to teach reading, writing, arithmetic, and grammar thoroughly, the influence of alcohol and narcotics upon the human system, and the rudiments of geography and history, and, if required by the board, of drawing, a certificate either authorizing the holder to teach in any district in the town so long is desired, without further examination, unless specially ordered, or to teach in any such district during the ensuing term only, or to teach only in a district therein named during such term; and if a person is examined in and found qualified to teach other branches besides those required in all cases, such branches shall be named in his certificate. They shall revoke the certificates of such teachers as shall at any time be found incompetent to teach or to manage a school or fail to conform to the requirements of the board ; shall, if the town so direct, employ the teachers for all its public schools, after consulting with the several district committees ; shall make proper rules for the arrangement, use, and safe-keeping of the district and high school libraries provided in part by the State, and approve the books selected therefor; shall fill vacancies in district offices, fix sites and approve plans for schoolhouses, and superintend any high or graded public school and evening schools. Town school committees shall annually appoint one or more persons who shall, in October of each year, ascertain the name and age of every person over 4 and under 16 years of age who shall belong to such town on the first Monday of said month, and the place, year, and month when such person last attended school, together with the names of the parents, guardians, or employers of such person and return the same to the town school committee on or before the 20th of October. Unless these returns are duly made no money may be obtained by the school visitors from the State treasury. At the close of each

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