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shall be taken before a judge of the criminal or police court or any justice of the peace, and if it appear that the boy is idle, vicious, and truant, he may be committed to a reformatory institution. Upon the request of the parent or guardian of any girl between 8 and 16 years of age a warrant may be issued for her arrest, and, the facts appearing against her, she may be sent to a reformatory institution for girls.
Public schools shall be maintained for at least thirty-six weeks in every school district, and no town shall receive any money from the State treasury for any district unless the school therein has been kept during the time herein required, but no school need be maintained in any district in which the average attendance of persons at the school in said district during the preceding year, ending the 31st day of August, was less than eight; and said school shall be open to all children over 4 years of age in the respective districts, without discrimination on account of race or color.
Character of instruction. In the public schools shall be taught, by teachers found duly qualified by the school visitors or other legally qualified body, reading, spelling, writing, English grammar, geography, and arithmetic, and such other studies, including training in manual arts and the principles of vocal and instrumental music, as may be prescribed by the board of school visitor
The duties of citizenship shall be taught in the public schools. The State board of education shall prepare and distribute to every school an outline of questions and suggestions relating to said subject, and said outline may be used in said schools. • In addition to the schools required by law in every town, any town may establish and maintain schools of a higher grade within its limits, and for such purpose purchase, receive, hold, and convey any property, build and repair schoolhouses, lay taxes, and make contracts and adopt regulations for the management of such schools.
Any town or school district may.establish and maintain a kindergarten school, which any child over 3 and under 7 years of age residing in such town or school district may attend.
Every town and school district having 10,000 or more inhabitants shall estabJish and maintain evening schools for the instruction of persons over 14 years of age in such branches as the proper school authorities of the town or district shall prescribe, and on petition of at least 20 persons over 14 years of age for instruction in any one study usually taught in a high school, which persons, in the opinion of the board of school visitors, town school committee, or board of education, are competent to pursue high school studies, said town or district shall provide for such instruction.
Every town in which a school has been discontinued shall furnish, whenever necessary, by transportation or otherwise, school accommodations so that every child over 7 and under 16 years of age can attend school. If any town refuses or neglects to furnish such accommodations, the parent or guardian of any child who is deprived of schooling, or any agent or officer whose duty it is to compel the observance of the laws concerning attendance at school, may, in writing, request a hearing by the town school committee, board of school visitors, or board of education, as the case may be, and said officers shall give such person a hearing within ten days after receipt of his written request therefor and shall make a finding within ten days after said hearing.
Tert-books.—Any town, at its annual meeting, may direct its school visitors, or board of education or town committee to purchase at the expense of said town the text-books and other school supplies used in the public schools of said town, and said text-books and supplies shall be loaned to the pupils of said public schools free of charge, subject to such rules and regulations as the school visitors or the board of education or town committee may prescribe.
Buildings.- No district shall be entitled to receive any money from the State or town unless it has a schoolhouse and outbuildings satisfactory to the board of school visitors.
No new schoolhouse shall be built except according to a plan approved by the board of school visitors and by the building committee of such district, nor at an expense exceeding the sum which the district may appropriate therefor.
The vote of two-thirds of those present and voting at a meeting of the district shall be necessary to fix or change the site of a schoolhouse; but if such twothirds vote can not be obtained in favor of any site, the school visitors of any town adjoining the town or either of the towns in which such district is, on
application of the district, shall, after conferring with the school visitors of the town or towns in which such district is situated, fix the site and make return to the town clerk of the town in which such site is to be, and shall receive a reasonable compensation for their services from said district.
Any school district may take land which has been fixed upon as a site, or addition to a site, of a schoolhouse for a public school, and which is necessary for such purposes and for necessary outbuildings and convenient accommodations for its schools, upon paying to the owner just compensation.
Any person willfully injuring a schoolhouse or its appartenances shall be fined $20 or imprisoned ninety days, or both. Any person who shall enter a place of instruction with criminal intent shall be imprisoned not more than four years.
No schoolhouse premises may be inclosed with barbed wire, nor, under penalty of from $25 to $100, display the flag or emblem of any foreign nation.
F'unds (permanent and special)--Taxation.
School fund of Connecticut.---The fund called the school fund shall remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated to the support and encouragement of the public or common schools throughout the State, and for the equal benefit of all the people thereof. The value and amount of the fund shall, as soon as practicable, be ascertained in such manner as the general assembly may prescribe, be published, and recordel in the comptroller's office; and no law shall ever be made authorizing said fund to be diverted to any other use than the encouragement and support of public or common schools among the several school societies as justice and equity shall require. (Constitution of Connecticut.)
The income of the school fund which, after deducting all expenses attending its management shall remain in the treasury on the 28th day of February in each year, and also $1.50 for every person between 4 and 16 years of age belonging to any school district, as ascertained from the last returns of the school visitors, shall annually, as soon as may be after said day, be divided and distributed by the comptroller among the several towns in proportion to the number of persons in each between the ages of 4 and 15 years, as ascertained from said returns; and he shall transmit the amount distributed to each town to its treasurer on the application of its school visitors or of its school committee, if such town constitute but one school distriet; but no such money shall be transmitted to any town until the comptroller shall have received from its school visitors or committee a certificate signed by them or their chairman and secretary, and substantially in the following form :
We, the school visitors of the town of - certify that the schools in said town have been kept for the period required by law during the year ending the 31st day of August last by teachers duly examined and approved, and have been visited according to law; and that all moneys drawn from the public treasury by said town for said year appropriated to schooling have been faithfully applied and expended in paying for teachers' wages, and for no other purpose whatever.. Dated at
To the COMPTROLLER.
Whenever it shall be found that the amount of income from the school fund is not sufficient to make a distribution of 75 cents for each enumerated child 4 to 10 years of age, it shall be the duty of the comptroller, upon the written request of the commissioner of the school fund, to draw upon the treasurer to an amount sufficient to make good the deficiency in the income of the school fund to meet the distribution of not less than 75 cents per capita required by law.
Toun deposit fund.--The money received from the United States in pursuance of the act of Congress of 1836 shall be or remain deposited with the several towns which have received or shall agree to receive it, on the terms hereinafter specified, in the proportion established by law; and the treasurer shall deliver it to the agents of such towns as have not received it on receiving receipts therefor signed by such agents and a certified copy of the vote of the towu to
receive its proportion of said money on the terms and conditions herein specified and appointing an agent to receive the same.
The condition on which any town shall receive its share of the said money shall be that it shall keep the money as a deposit in trust for the State, and account for the same when called for; and that until called for it shall appropriate the entire income thereof annually for the support of public schools therein.
Taration.-The school visitors and selectmen in each town shall meet as a joint board in June annually and prepare a statement of the estimated cost of maintaining the public schools in the towi, and shall immediately notify the committees of the several school districts of the amounts so fixed. They, as a joint board, shall also report the same fact to the town in annual meeting, and in October shall fix the amounts necessary to pay the teachers, for fuel, and otlier incidental expenses of the schools in the town, and shall notify the districts of the several amounts so fixed. All taxes imposed by any school district shall be levied on the real estate situated therein and the ratable personal property of those persons who belong to said district at the time of laying such tax, and upon any manufacturing or mechanical business subject to taxation. This paragraph shall not apply to towns which have consolidated their school districts the estimates of school expenses of which are prepared by the town sehool committee and reported to the town meeting.
Local school authorities of places maintaining evening schools shall certify to the comptroller the average number of evening scholars, and the comptroller shall draw his order on the State treasurer to the sum of $2.25 for each scholar certified, provided the school has had sessions and the authorities have reported progress and condition to the State board.
Every town having a valuation of less than $500,000 may annually receive from the treasurer of the State upon the order of the comptroller a sum which will enable the town to annually expend for the support of public schools $25 for each child in average attendance, as determined by the attested school registers for the school year ending July 14: Provided, That the said State grant shall be expended only for teachers' wages.
1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.
State board-County superintendent-county school commission-District
State board.—The general supervision and control of the free public schools of this State shall be vested in a State board of elucation, composed of the governor, secretary of state, president of Delaware College, State auditor, and the senior member of each county school commission-seven members in all. The governor shall be president and the auditor secretary. The board shall hold meetings quarterly, during the last week in September, December, March, and June, in the otfice of the auditor at Dover, and may hold special meetings at the call of the president or secretary. Whenever the board shall consider appeals or other matters concerning free schools for colored children, the president of the State College for Colored Students shall sit as a member of said State board instead of the president of Delaware College. Except the governor, secretary of state, and auditor, each member shall receive $5 per diem when in attendance upon meetings of the board, not to exceed $30 in any year. The board shall prepare questions for the examination of teachers, adopt a series of text-books for use throughout the State, and make contracts for rates at which the same shall be furnished to the different districts, and may make any changes in said list or compile a new list at any subsequent meeting if deemed advisable; hear and determine finally all appeals from county school commissions, teachers, applicants for certificates, county superintendents, members of school committees, and boards of education ; issue a uniform series of blanks for the reports of teachers and other school officers, and require all records kept and returns made according to such forms. The board shall make a report to each general assembly, setting forth the work done and suggesting any alterations or amendments to school laws which they may deem advisable.
County superintendent.— The general superintendence of all free public schools in each county shall be vested in a county superintendent, appointed by the governor for a term of two years, at a salary of $1,200 a year. In addition to being a person of good moral character, he must have had at least twenty months' experience as a teacher, must be a graduate of some reputable college or normal school, or else hold an unexpired certificate of the highest grade granted to teachers of the State, and must be a resident of the county for which appointed during his term of office. He shall not engage in any other profession or occupation during his term of office, nor shall any of the duties assigned him by law be performed by deputies.
He shall advise with and assist teachers in all the free schools in his county, see that improved methods of instruction and discipline are introduced, create a general interest in and give a clearer knowledge to the people of his county about schools and school systems. To this end he shall visit each school in his county at least once a year, each visit to be of at least two hours' duration; attend at each stated meeting of the county school commission of his county, and at each stated meeting of the State board of education, and make such report concerning his work and the condition of the schools as the said commission or State board shall require; execute all reasonable orders which the State board shall give him; collect and report the school statistics of his county, and generally shall do all matters and things proper and necessary for the interest and advancement of education in the free public schools of his county. In accordance with the directions of the State board, he shall compile examination papers, hold examinations, make and sign certificates for each successful applicant, and may countersign certificates issued by the other superintendents of the State. He shall hold annually a teachers' institute, which all teachers shall be required to attend. He shall devote his entire time to this work. (See also TeachersCertificates.)
The supervision of all the free public schools, including those for colored children, in each of the counties of this State, subject to the State board of education, shall be vested in a county school commission for each county. The said commission shall be composed of three members, no more than two of whom shall be of the same political party. They shall be appointed by the governor and hold office for three years, not more than two to be of the same political party.
Each county school commission shall hold meetings quarterly, and special meetings may be held upon the call of any two members. The object of the commission shall be the investigation of the school system throughout the county of its jurisdiction, the methods of instruction and discipline employed in the schools, the performance of their several duties by the various school officers and teachers, and the condition of school property. To this end each commission shall have full authority to visit all the schools in its county, including incorporated schools, and to observe and question the teachers concerning their methods of instruction and discipline, make all, needed changes in school districts, and shall examine all reports, hear complaints, and ask and receive the assistance of the county superintendent. Each member of the commission shall receive $5 for each day's attendance at its meetings, not to exceed $30 in any year, and shall be allowed mileage in visiting schools not to exceed $25 a year.
District school commissioners.-Each district shall annually elect a school commissioner to serve for three years. The commissioners shall determine the site, lease or purchase the necessary round, and build or procure a suitable house for the district, as near the center of the district as possible, and when built or procured it shall not be removed nor another procured without the direction of the school voters at a stated meeting; keep the schoolhouse in good repair, supply it withi necessary furniture and fuel, and bring actions, if necessary, for any injury to it; provide a scho for the district when and as lon their funds will enable them, and employ teachers; may make regulations for the government of the school, and by these provide for the expulsion of a scholar for obstinate misbehavior; receive and collect all money belonging to, appropriated, or resolved to be raised for the district, and apply the same justly; appoint collectors for the district, and take security by bond; do all acts requisite for effecting the premises, and acts of a majority shall be as effectual in all cases as if done by them all. The school committee shall also annually, at the stated meeting, exhibit a just account of their receipts and expenditures, and a report of all their proceedings, and must pay to their successors in office all money due from them. If for ten days they neglect to do this, they forfeit and must pay, additionally, at the rate of 5 per cent on the sum due.
For these duties the committee may receive no emolument; but for attendance before the auditor they may, on the settlement of their account, be allowed each $1 per day and 3 cents per mile of necessary traveling.
Qualifications and duties-Institutes—Preliminary training. Qualifications and duties. It shall be unlawful to employ any person to teach in the public schools unless he holds a certificate good in the county where employed.
The county superintendent shall examine, either orally or by printed or written questions, or both, all persons who apply at such times and places as he may appoint. Every applicant of good character found qualified to teach orthography, reading, writing, mental and written aritumetic, geography, botany, drawing, pedagogy, history of the United States, ('onstitution of the United States and of Delaware, English grammar, physiology and hygiene (with special refer, ence to the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics), rhetoric, algebra, geometry, history of education, psychology, zoology, civics, Latin, and natural philosophy shall be recommended to the State board for a professional certificate good for ten years. A first-grade certificate shall be issued by the superintendent to an applicant who shall have attained a grade of 90 in all the subjects in the foregoing list down to and including temperance physiology, which shall be good for five years. Those attaining an average of 75 in same subjects shall receive a second-grade certificate good for two years. If certiticate be refused, appeal may be taken to the State board.
At the end of the term every teacher shall make out a report as per blanks furnished by State board and send same to the county commission.
Institutes.-Each county superintendent shall hold a teachers' institute three days each year, and every teacher of the county must attend. At these institutes each superintendent shall give all the information in his power, as well as other instructions such as he may deem advisable, and shall cause a general interchange of views among teachers as to the wants of the schools. For paying the expenses of county institutes an annual appropriation of $150 shall be made from the school fund.
Preliminary training.–To encourage persons to attend normal schools and prepare for the work of teaching, the State appropriates $1,000 annually for each county, to be distributed among 12 successful applicants, each to receive $12 per week, or $80 per year. They are exempt from examinations after graduating, but must bond themselves to teach two years in the State.
Attendance-Character of instruction—Tert-books. Attendance.-The State board has designated several schools in each county, to be known as graded schools, to which pupils from single districts may go after having completed the sixth grade. The said graded schools receive from the State the sum of $15 for each such pupil per year. There are separate schools for colored persons.
Character of instruction.--The studies required in the public schools are those in which teachers (which see) are examined for a second-grade certificate. All public schools receiving aid from the State shall give instruction in physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants, and narcotics, instruction to be oral when the pupils can not read.
Tert-books.—The school commissioners or trustees of each school district in the State shall furnish the necessary text-books free for the use of all the pupils enrolled in the free schools of the State in the manner hereinafter provided.
The school commissioners or trustees shall order from the publisher or pubJishers the books which have been adopted by the State board of education for use in the free schools of the State, at the net contract prices at which the publishers have agreed to supply the same, as follows: There shall be a blank order book prepared by the State treasurer for the use of the school commissioners, which shall conta in duplicate order blanks, with a printed list of the books which have been adopted by the State board of education, and the net contract prices at which the publishers agree to furnish the same.