Imagens das páginas
PDF
ePub

fifth of the voters; to employ a competent and discreet person or persons to superintend the schools and to fix the salary of such persons (each superintendent may be required to act as principal or teacher in the schools) ; to lay off and divide the district into subdistricts, to alter and consolidate the same; to

visit all the public schools as often as once a month, to inquire into the progress I of scholars and the government of the schools to prescribe the method aná

course of discipline and instruction; to expel grossly disobedient or misbehaving pupils, and no action shall lie against them for such expulsion; to dismiss unqualified teachers; to provide fuel and other like necessities as may be required; to appoint a secretary ; to annually prepare and publish in some newspaper or in pamphlet form a report of the number of pupils instructed in the year preceding and the several branches of study pursued by them, of the number of persons between the ages of 12 and 21 unable to read and write, and of the receipts and expenditures of each school, specifying the source of such receipts and the objects of such expenditures. They shall appoint truant officers to enforce compulsory-attendance act. They shall see that a national flag is provided for the school, to be used upon appropriate occasions. They may establish kindergartens upon the vote of the district, and classes for deaf and crippled children upon permission of the State superintendent.

In cities having a population exceeding 100,000 inhabitants the board of education shall consist of 21 members, to be appointed by the mayor, by and with the advice and consent of the common council, one-third to retire annually. Any person having resided in a city more than five years next preceding his appointment shall be eligible to membership of such board. The board shall have charge and control of the public schools, and with the concurrence of the city council may erect or purchase buildings, buy or lease sites, issue bonds for providing sites or buildings or to pay bonds, and to borrow money. The board has power to establish, maintain, and support schools, examine, license, employ, pay, and dismiss teachers; may establish parental schools; may form classes for deaf and for crippled children on permission of State superintendent; may create teachers' and employees' pension and retirement funds; has entire superintendence and control of all schools in such cities, with power to enact and enforce all necessary rules for the government and maintenance of the schools.

2. TEACHERS.

Appointinent, qualifications, and duties--Preliminary trainingMeetings. Appointment, qualifications, and duties.—No teacher shall be authorized to teach a public school who is not of good moral character, at least 18 years of age if a man, or 17 years if a woman, and who does not possess a certificate of qualifications. The district board of directors or city or village board of education shall employ teachers and fix their pay.

The State superintendent is authorized to grant State certificates which shall be of two grades, the higher of which shall be for life and the lower for five years. Both grades shall only be given after public examination (of which due notice shall be given) in such branches and upon such terms and by such examiners as the State superintendent and the principals of the State (normal) universities may prescribe. Such certificates are revocable for cause.

It shall be the duty of the county superintendent to grant certificates to such persons as may upon due examination be found qualified. They shall be of two grades; those of the first grade shall be valid in the county for two years, and shall certify that the holder is of good moral character, and is qualified to teach orthography, reading (in English), penmanship, arithmetic, English grammar, modern geography, the history of the United States, and effects of alcohol and na tics. The county superintendent may renew such certificates at their expiration, and may at any time revoke them for cause. For the purpose of examining teachers, the county superintendent shall hold meetings at least quarterly, and oftener if necessary. Ile shall require a fee of $1 from every applicant, and for each certificate renewed he shall also charge $1, which fees shall go to the institute fund.

It shall be the duty of every public school teacher to see that the school property of the district is not unnecessarily damaged or destroyed, and no teacher shall be paid any part of the school funds unless he shall have kept and furnished the schedules or statements required by law, and shall have satisfactorily accounted for all books, apparatus, and other property belonging to the district. Each teacher shall keep correctly daily registers, which shall exhibit the name,

age, and attendance of each pupil, the day of the month and the year, which register shall be handed to the clerk of the board under penalty of loss of pay.

Preliminary training.-There shall be established the Illinois Normal University, the Southern Illinois Normal University, the Eastern Illinois Normal School, the Northern Illinois Normal School, and the Western Illinois Normal School, with the object of qualifying teachers for the common schools of the State by imparting instruction in the art of teaching and all branches of study which pertain to a common school education, in the elements of the natural sciences, including agricultural chemistry, animal and vegetable physiology, in the fundamental laws of the United States and of the State in regard to the rights and duties of citizens, and such other studies as the governing body of each institution may prescribe. Each county shall be entitled to have two pupils instructed gratuitously in each school, and each representative district shall be entitled in each school to a number of pupils equal to the number of representatives in the district, the pupils to be selected from applicants passing the best. examination. The Illinois State Normal University is managed and controlled by the “ State board of education;" the Southern Illinois Normal University, the Eastern Normal School, the Northern Normal School, and the Western Normal School by boards of trustees not exceeding five each in number. No member of the State board of education or of the board of trustees shall receive any compensation other than his necessary traveling expenses.

In each county adopting township organization the board of supervisors, and in other counties the county court (if authorized by vote of the people), may establish a county normal school for the purpose of fitting teachers for the common schools, which shall be under the county board of education. Two or more counties may unite in establishing a normal school.

Meetings. The county superintendent shall hold annually a teachers' institute, continuing in session not fewer than five days, for the instruction of teache ers and those who may desire to teach, and with the concurrence of the State superintendent procure such assistance as may be necessary to conduct the institute at such time as the schools of the county are generally closed. Two or more counties may hold a joint institute. Instruction shall be free to those who hold certificates good in the county. The time, not exceeding three days in any one term or five days in any one school year, during term time, actually spent by a teacher of any public school in this State in attendance upon a teachers' institute held under the direction of the county superintendent of schools shall be considered time lawfully expended by such teacher, and no deduction of wages shall be made in the teacher's pay,

3. SCHOOLS.

For every

Attendance--Character of instructionTert-books-Buildings. Attendance.--Every person having control of any child between the ages of 7 and 14 years shall annually cause such child to attend for the entire time during which the school attended is in session, which period shall not be less than one liundred and ten days of actual teaching, some public or private day school: Provided, That this act shall not apply to any child that has been or is being otherwise instructed for a like period of time in the elementary branches of education or whose physical or mental condition renders its attendance impracticable, or who is excused for good reasons for temporary absence by the principal or teacher in charge of the school which said child attends, willful neglect of such duty as prescribed above the offender shall be fined from $5 to $20 and costs of suit.

The board of education in cities, towns, villages, and school districts and the board of school directors in school districts shall, at the time of the appointment or election of teachers, appoint one or more truant officers, whose duty it shall be to report all violations of this act to such board of education or board of directors and to enter complaint against and prosecute all persons who shall appear guilty of such violation.

Truant officers so appointed shall be entitled to such compensation as may be fixed by the board and shall be paid out of the distributable school fund. Any fine or penalty mentioned above may be sued for and recovered before any court of record or justice of the peace of the proper county. Any person having control of a child who, with intent to evade the provisions of this law regarding compulsory attendance, shall make a willfully false statement concerning the

ED 1904 M-20

age of such child or the time such child has attended school shall forfeit from $3 to $20 for the use of the public schools.

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to employ or hire any child under 14 years of age during any portion of any month when the pub. lic schools are in session, or before the hour of 7 o'clock in the morning or after 6 o'clock in the evening or for more than eight hours a day. Every person, firm, or corporation employing minors under 16 and over 14 years of age shall keep register, wall lists, age and school certificates of said minors, open to inspection; said minors must be able to read at sight and to write legibly simple sentences, or be in regular attendance at a public evening school. Age and school certificates shall be certified to by the superintendent or principal of the school. Any person, firm, or corporation violating the provisions of this act shall be fined not less than $ā nor more than $100 and shall stand committed until fine and costs are paid, and any father, guardian, or person having control of any child under the age of 16 years who permits such child to be employed in violation of this act shall, for each offense, be fined not less than $.] nor more than $25, and shall stand committed until fine and costs are paid. The district directors shall have power to assign pupils to the several schools in the district, to admit nonresidents, to fix rates of tuition, to provide that children under 12 years of age shall not be confined in school more than four hours daily, to establish and keep in operation for at least one hundred and ten days of actual teaching in each year, without reduction by reason of closing schools on legal holidays or for any other cause and longer if praeticable, a sufficient number of free schools for the accommodation of all children in the district 6 to 21 years of age, and shall secure for all such children the right and opportunity to an equal education in such free schools. It shall be the duty of boards of education in cities and villages to support free schools not fewer than six nor more than ten months.

Character of instruction.--Every public school established shall be for instruction in the branches of education prescribed in the qualifications for teachers and in such other branches, including vocal music and drawing, as the directors, or the voters of the district at the annual election of directors, may prescribe. If the majority of the voters in a township shall vote to establish a township high school, a township board (high school) shall be elected, consisting of five members, which shall enjoy the powers and discharge the duties of directors for such district.

Tert-books.—The directors shall direct what branches of study shall be taught and what text-books shall be used in the public schools, and shall strictly enforce uniformity of text-books therein, but shall not permit text-books to be changed oftener than once in four years. The directors shall have power to purchase at the expense of the district a suficient number of the text-books used to supply children whose parents are not able to buy them. The text-books bought for such purpose shall be loaned only, and the directors shall require the teacher to see that they are properly cared for and returned at the end of each school term.

Buildings.-District directors shall have the control and supervision of all schoolhouses in their district, and may grant the temporary use of them, when not occupied by schools, for religious meetings and Sunday schools, for evening schools and literary societies, and for such other meetings as the directors may deem proper; but they shall not purchase or locate a schoolhouse site, or purchase, build, or move a schoolhouse unless directed by vote of the people.

4. FINANCES.

Funds (permanent or special)-Taration.

Funds (permanent and special).–The common school fund of this State shall consist of the proceeds of a 2-mill tax, to be levied upon each dollar's valuation of the property of the State annually until otherwise provided by law. the interest on what is known as the school fund proper being 3 per cent upon the proceeds of the sales of the public lands in the State, one-sixth part excepted, and the interest on what is known as the surplus revenue distributed hy act of Congress and made a part of the common school fund by the legislature March 4, 1837.

The State shall pay the interest mentioned in the preceding paragraph at the rate of 6 per cent per annum, to be paid into and become a part of the school fund,

On the first Monday in January in each and every year next after the taking of the census of the State by Federal or State authority, the auditor of public accounts shall ascertain the number of children in each county under 21 years of age, and shall thereupon make a dividend to each county of the sum of the tax and the interest due on the school fund proper and surplus revenue in proportion to the number of children in each county under 21 years of age, and issue his warrant to the superintendent of each county.

All bonds, notes, mortgages, moneys, and effects heretofore accrued or which may hereafter accrue from the sale of the sixteenth section of the common school lands of any township or county, or from the sale of real estate or other property taken on any judgment, or for any debt due to the principal of any township or county fund, and all other funds of every description which have been or may hereafter be carried to and made a part of the principal of any township or county fund by any law, shall forever constitute the principal of the township or county fund, and no part thereof shall ever be distributed or expended for any purpose whatever, but shall be loaned and held to use, rent, or profit, as provided by law. But the interest, rents, issues, and profits arising and accruing from the principal of the township or county fund shall be distributed by the county superintendent on a basis of the number of children under 21 years, if the several townships and parts of townships have kept school in accordance with the law,

All fines, penalties, and forfeitures imposed or incurred in any of the courts of record or before any justice of the peace of the State, except fines, forfeitures, and penalties incurred or imposed in incorporated towns or cities for the violation of the by-laws or ordinances thereof, shall be, when collected, paid to the county superintendent of schools, who shall annually distribute such fines, peualties, or forfeitures in the same manner as the common school funds of the State are distributed.

Taration.--For the purpose of establishing and supporting free schools for not fewer than six nor more than nine months in each year and defraying all the expenses of every description of the same, the directors of each district and the authorities of each village or city are authorized to levy a tax annually upon the taxable property of the district, village, or city, not to exceed 24 per cent for educational and 21 per cent for building purposes. [Note the 2-mill State tax forming a part of the common school fund.] All money raised by taxation for 'school purposes or received from the State common school fund or other sources for school purposes shall be held by the township treasurer as a special fund for school purposes, subject to the order of the board of education upon warrants signed by the president and secretary thereof.

For the purpose of building schoolhouses or purchasing school sites or repairing and improving the same the directors of any school district, when authorized by a majority of the voters at an election called for the purpose, may borrow money, issuing bonds signed by not fewer than two members of the board of directors, in sums of not less than $100, at a rate not exceeding 7 per cent per annum, provided that the sum borrowed in any one year shall not exceed 5 per cent, including existing indebtedness, of the taxable property of the district.

INDIANA.

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State board of education (and tert-book commissioners)-State superintend

ents-County board-County superintendent-Tounship, touon, and city trustees, director, and superintendent-Advisory board-City boards-Truant officers.

State board of education.-(See Teachers-Appointment, qualifications, etc.; also Schools-Text-books.)

State superintendent.There shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State at a general election a State superintendent of public instruction, who shall hold his office for two years. His salary shall be $3,000, $1,000 for office expenses, and $600 for traveling expenses annually. He shall be charged with the administration of the system and a general superintendence of the business relating to the common schools, and of the funds and revenues set apart for their support. He shall be provided with a suitable office at the seat of goveri

ment, where the records of his office shall be kept, and at which he shall give a reasonable attendance to the business and duties of the position. He shall render an opinion, in writing, to any school officer asking the same, touching the construction of the school law. He may employ one deputy, salary $1,500; one clerk at $1,200, and one stenographer at $720. Ile shall make a biennial report to the governor, indicating in general terms the enumeration of the children of the State for common school purposes, the additions to the permanent school fund and the amount of school revenue collected during the year, and the amounts apportioned and distributed to the schools. At each regular session of the general assembly he shall make a brief exhibit of his labors, the results of his experience and observation as to the operation of said system, and suggest the remedy for observed imperfections; of the amount of the permanent school funds and their placement, revenue given by them and arising from other sources, and the estimated value of all other property ; of the condition of affairs, with the condition at previous periodis, and of such matters as he thinks of interest to the general assembly.

He shall visit each county in the State at least once during his term of office, and examine the auditor's books and records relative to the school funds and revenues, with a view to their security, meet with such othcers as may attend his appointment, counseling with teachers and lecturing upon educational topics. To enable him to defray his traveling expenses he shall be allowed $600 annually. He may require county auditors, superintendents, treasurers, district trustees, clerks, and treasurers to furnish copies of all reports made by them and such other information as he may desire. He may prepare and transmit the forms used in making reports, and shall publish the school laws.

County board.The county superintendent, the trustees of the townships, and the chairman of the school trustees of each town and city of the county shall constitute the county board of education, which shall meet semiannually at the office of the county superintendent. The board shall consider the general wants and needs of the schools and school property of which they have charge and all matters relating to the purchase of schoolbooks, furniture, maps, etc. The change of text-books, except in cities, and the care and management of township libraries shall be determined by the board, and each township shall conform as nearly as practicable to its action.

County superintendent.--The township trustees of the several townships of each county shall meet at the oflice of the county auditor every four years and appoint a county superintendent, who shall be a citizen of such county, shall execute a bond in the amount of $5,000, and shall be removable for cause. He shall examine at least once a month from January to August, inclusive, all applicants for license to teach, and shall license successful competitors, which licenses he may for cause revoke. lle shall have general superintendence of the schools of the county ; attend each township institute at least once in each year, conducting its exercises; visit each school of the county at least once each year; encourage teachers' institutes and associations, and labor in every practical way to elevate the character of instruction and the condition of the schools; decide questions arising under the school laws, but either party may appeal to the State superintendent. He shall be the intermediary between the State superintendent and the local school authorities (cities having a superintendent may be removed from his jurisdiction, however), and in general shall carry out the orders of the State superintendent. He shall, in case of failure of any trustees to do it, cause an enumeration of the children in any township, town, or city; shall make an annual report to the State superintendent of the enumeration of the children of the county, with the same particular discrimination required of the trustees ; shall annually furnish the statistical information which the trustees are required to report to them in such form as may be prescribed by the State superintendent, together with such additional information, embodied in a written report, relative to the conditions of the schools. Schoolhouses, and the general progress of education in the county as the State superintendent may require. Failure to make the report of enumeration of children by June 15 causes the county to lose $25 in the next apportionment of school revenue, and failure to make the other reports required causes the county to lose $10; both forfeits to be collected from the delinquent superintendent in proceedings before a justice of the peace. He shall cast the apportionment of school revenues from the lists of enumerations and reports of tr:ansfers of the several townships, towns, and cities, and report it to the county auditor. He shall receive $4 per diem for every day actually employed in discharge of his duties, but the board of commissioners may determine the number of days, though they shall not be

« AnteriorContinuar »