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tion of $1,000 is set aside from the school fund. No more than two such associations shall be formed in any county, and the expenses of no more than two conventions of any such association shall be defrayed by the State. Teachers may suspend their schools not more than two days in any year to attend their county convention, also two days to attend a State teachers' convention approved by the State superintendeut, without forfeiture of pay.

Normal schools (of which there are three in the State) shall be devoted to the training of teachers, including the common English branches in thorough reviews, specially selected higher branches, and the art of school management. Principals of normals keep a register (see Teachers-Duties), returning the same to the State superintendent by December 1 for his annual report. The course of study occupies two years; trustees may arrange a three or four years' course for students so desiring; terms of admission are arranged by the State superintendent, subject to the approval of the governor and council. Applicants must be at least 16 years of age if women, 17 if men, and must obligate themselves to teach in the State at least one year-two years if they receive a diploma. Tuition is without charge; incidental fee, $1.50 per student. Said schools are under the direction of a board of seven trustees, consisting of the governor and State superintendent ex officio, with five others appointed (for three years) by the governor and confirmed by the council. These five receive each 10 cents per mile actually traveled and $2 a day when employed.

Certificates.—(See Organization-Superintending school committees.)

3. SCHOOLS.

Attendance--StudiesText-book8-High schoolsManual-training schools

Normal schools--Buildings and grounds.

All schools of a town shall have an equal aggregate length of term, not less than twenty weeks per year. Superintending school committees may suspend schools having too few scholars; an average attendance of 8 is the minimum allowed by law for any school, unless maintained by special vote of the town. Adjoining towns may maintain union schools for parts of both towns, contributing to their support in proportion to the attendance from each, which schools shall be under the management of the school committee of the town wherein the building is located. Plantations have the same powers and liabilities as towns for electing school officers and for collecting and expending school funds. Cities and towns may establish evening schools for teaching the elementary branches only, to which shall be admitted persons of any age.

Attendance.—Children between 7 and 14 are required to attend public day school during the session. Necessary absence may be excused by the superintendent or school committee or by teachers under the authority of either. Instruction for a like time in an approved private school may be accepted as the equivalent, and children whose physical or mental condition makes attendance inexpedient may be excluded by the school committee. Persons having control of children are subject to a fine of $25 or thirty days' imprisonment for every neglect of duty in securing children's attendance at school. When more convenient, children may attend in adjoining towns, the school committee of the town in which they reside compensating the other town therefor, or else such children shall pay as tuition the average expense per scholar of the school they attend. A child found truant may be arrested by a truant officer and taken to school; if absent six consecutive days without sufficient excuse, he may, after due proceedings, be committed to the State reform school, or in the case of a girl, to the State industrial school for girls, or to any truant school. Persons encouraging truancy are subject to a fine of $20 or thirty days imprisonment. When children reside such distance as in the judgment of the school committee, renders it necessary, the superintendent must procure their conveyance to school or else pay their board at a suitable place near by. In unorganized townships similar authority is vested in the State superintendent.

Studies.—The studies to be taught are prescribed by the State superintendent the town committees having the right to add others. Studies specified by law (candidates for teachers' certificates to be examined in) are: Reading, spelling, English, grammar, geography, history, arithmetic, bookkeeping, civics, physiology, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics, and the elements of the natural sciences, especially as applied to agriculture. Cities or towns may make provision for free instruction in industrial or

mechanical drawing to persons over 15 years of age, either in day or evening schools. (See also High schools.)

Tert-books, free-School books, apparatus and appliances, including those for bigh schools, shall be provided at the expense of the town, under regulations made by the school committee for their distribution and care. The value of any such book or appliance lost, destroyed, or unnecessarily injured by a pupil whose parent or guardian does not, after due notification, make satisfaction therefor, is reported to the assessors and included in the next collection of town taxes. Text-books are uniform for all schools in the same town, and are selected and contracted for by the school committee, not to be changed within five years unless by a vote of the town.

High schools.- Not exceeding two free high schools in any town may be established (1) by any town, (2) by two or more acijoining towns uniting, (3) by any section of a town organizing a high school precinct, or (4) by sections of adjoining towns uniting to organize a high school precinct. Supervision of (1) is vested in the town school committee; (2) and (4) in a joint board composed of the towns' school committees; (3) in the town committee or State superintendent, as the precinct may elect. The State pays one-half the aniount expended for instruction, not exceeding $250 a year. Course of study: The ordinary English academic studies, especially the natural sciences in their application to mechanics, manufactures, and agriculture; ancient or modern languages or music not to be taught unless by direction of the school committee having supervision. Precinct high schools are open to scholar's from without the precinct but within the town or towns in which the precinct is situated on payment of tuition equal to the cost of maintenance per scholar; and whenever a larger number can be accommodated without detriment, town or precinct high sehools may admit scholars from without the town or towns interested upon payment of a like tuition. Instead of establishing a high school, a town may contract with the trustees of an academy within said town for the tuition of scholars in a like approved course of study, receiving in such case the same State aid.

Manual-training schools.-Cities and towns may also raise and appropriate money for the support of manual-training schools, which shall admit such persons (between 6 and 21) and give such courses of instruction as the local school board may determine.

Normal schools.----(See Teachers.)

Buildings and grounds. The location for the erection or removal of schoolhouses and requisite buildings and for playgrounds shall be designated by vote of the town. When, after such designation, the owner refuses to sell, or asks an unreasonable price, or resides outside the State and has no authorized attorney or agent therein, not exceeding 3 acres may be acquired through appraisement proceedings; likewise additional ground desired for enlargement or extension of any location so designated, unless within 50 feet of a dwelling. If a minor defaces walls, benches, desks, or otherwise injures or destroys school property, the town may recover double the amount of damage in an action for debt against the parent or guardian. Defacement of walls, etc., by obscene pictures or language is punishable by a fine of $10 on complaint made within one year. Willful disturbance or interruption of a school incurs a penalty of $2 to $20.

4. FINANCES.

Funds (permanent and special)—Taxation.

Funds (permanent and special).-All moneys received from sales of lands appropriated for the support of schools and from notes taken therefor, and any other moneys appropriated for the same purpose, constitute the permanent school fund, which shall be kept in a separate account by the State treasurer, and may be put at interest as the legislature directs. Six per cent of such fund, with all money received from the tax on banks, and one-half the annual tax paid by savings banks, is appropriated annually to the support of common schools, being distributed among towns in proportion to the number of children between the ages of 4 and 21. This apportionment is made immediately after July 1.. The proportion due towns failing to make returns is based on the last apportionment, after deducting the number of children set off to other towns in a year, and onetenth of the remainder. Each town is immediately notified of its proportion, which is not paid until its return is made to the State superintendent and all State taxes against such town are paid.

Taration.-A tax of 1 mill on $1 is annually assessed on all property in the State for the support of common schools, and distributed January 1 by the State treasurer to the towns, cities, and plantations on the basis of the previous year's returns; any of said fund not so apportioned or expended during the year is added to the permanent school fund. Each town shall annually raise and expend for schools not less than 80 cents per capita, exclusive of the income of any corporate school fund, or of any State grant, or of any donation or bequest, or of any forfeiture accruing to the use of schools, under penalty of forfeiting from two to four times the amount of its deficiency. Each town assessor shall, on or before May 1, report under oath to the State superintendent the following items: The amount voted by the town for common schools at the preceding annual meeting; amount of school money payable to the town by the State during the year preceding; the amount actually expended for common schools; the amount of school moneys unexpended ; such other items (per blanks furnished by the State superintendent) as shall secure a complete statement of school revenues and expenditures. At the instance of the governor and council, the treasurer may withhold payments to towns suspected of evading the law, until satisfactory evidence is furnished to the contrary. (See also SchoolsHigh schools, Manual training schools, Text-books.)

MARYLAND.

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State board-State superintendent-County board-County examiner-District

school trustees-Baltimore.

State board.--The governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint at every regular session of the general assembly four persons (one a resident of the Eastern Shore) who, with the governor, principal of the State normal school, and State superintendent ex officio, shall constitute the State board of education. They shall meet on the last Wednesday in February, May, August, and November, and at such other times as occasion may require; their office shall be at the State normal school, Baltimore; they shall receive no compensation beyond actual expenses not to exceed $1,000 per annum, including neressary clerical assistance. They shall have general supervision of public school interests, act as advisers of county boards, and issue circular letters to teachers and commissioners from time to time on school administration topics. Other duties are: To see that school laws are effective, instituting legal proceedings if need be, under the direction of the attorney-general; enact by-laws not at variance with law for the administration of the public school system, which, wheli published, shall have the force of law; suspend or remove any county examiner or teacher found inefficient, incompetent, or guilty of moral delinquency such as unfits him for his office; interpret the law and decide controversies that may arise thereunder; issue uniform series of blanks for use of teachers and county boards, according to which forms all accounts shall be kept and returns made; examine candidates for the office of county examiner when so requested by county boards, and give certificates of qualification; grant professional certificates to teachers of long experience and established reputation, which shall be valid until revoked for cause. The State board are ex officio trustees of the State normal school. By January 15 annually they shall make report to the governor setting forth school conditions in the State, a statement of the apportionment of moneys for support of schools, an abstract of reports received from county school commissioners, together with such suggestions for the advancement of school interests as the State board may deem expedient; which report the governor shall cause to be printed and distributed.

State superintendent.The governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint a superintendent of public instruction for the State for a term of four years, and may remove him for cause upon approval of two-thirds of State board. The superintendent is ex officio a member of the State board. His salary is fixed by said board, not to exceed $3,000 per annum and $500 for traveling expenses. It shall be his duty to inform himself and the State board as to the condition of the schools of the State, diffuse information as to best methods of instruction, present to the State board the reports of county boards, examine their expenditures and comment upon the same, remove county examiners for

cause after a hearing upon approval of two-thirds of State board, hold teachers' institutes in each county five days each year, print and distribute annually a teachers' manual of institute work, a programme for the proper observance of arbor day, proceedings of State teachers' association, and such other matter as will promote public education.

County board.--The governor, with the advice and consent of the senate if in session, shall appoint a board of county school commissioners in each county (none to be teachers employed as such). In the counties of Baltimore, Carroll, Frederick, Dorchester, and Washington such board shall consist of six persons ; in other counties three. Two in counties named and one in other counties to be appointed every two years, to hold office six years; two in counties named and one in other counties to be appointed from the political party which cast next to the highest vote in the last preceding election for governor. The governor may remove for cause after an opportunity for a hearing. Each vacancy shall be filled from same political party as was the last preceding occupant. The commissioners shall elect a county examiner (which see) not a member of the board, who shall act also as its secretary and treasurer. In counties of more than 85 schools board may appoint an assistant examiner and fix his salary. The board shall meet at least once in every school term. Each commissioner shall receive $4 a day while employed, not to exceed $100 in any year. The board is a body corporate, in which is vested county school property, and each commissioner (and examiners and assistants) has authority to administer oaths relative to school matters. The commissioners shall have general supervision and control of schools, build, repair, and furnish schoolhouses, purchase and distribute text-books, divide county into suitable districts (none less than 4 miles square unless thinly settled), making each best accommodate population therein, considering most suitable sites for schoolhouses and the general features of the country; publish in November annually a statement of receipts and disbursements, including text-book account, and inclose copy of same in board's annual report (by October 1) to State board covering all matters affecting the educational interests of the county. (See also Schools-Buildings.)

County examiner.—Shall visit each school at least three times a year, or twice a year in counties having more than 50 schools, and each high school at least once each term; observe methods of teachers and give them such practical suggestions as circumstances prompt; attend public examinations (see SchoolsStudies) when possible ; report quarterly in detail to the county board the result of his observations. As secretary and treasurer of county board (see preceding paragraph) he is custodian of the county's school funds, and shall carefully keep all moneys and vouchers relating thereto, for the faithful performance of which he shall give bond in a sum to be determined by the board. He shall be present at all board meetings, may debate questions before them, but not vote, shall keep minutes, conduct correspondence, file and keep all letters and papers pertaining to board's business, and shall prepare for board's approval their annual report to State board of education. By January 15 each year he shall notify the comptroller how many months the schools of his county have been kept open.

(See Schools—Scholastic periods ; Finances-State tax.) He shall devote his whole time to public-school business, and receive such compensation as county board may direct. (See also Teachers-Certificates.)

District school trustees.—The board of county school commissioners annually on May 1 or at their first meeting thereafter shall appoint three persons in each district as school trustees, who shall have the care of schoolhouses, lands, furniture, apparatus, and other school property; make repairs, same to be paid for out of county school tax, amount to be expended having been first determined by the county board; employ teachers, subject to confirmation by the county board ; exercise general supervision over schools of their district, visiting them frequently, and providing for ten months' instruction a year if possible; suspend or expel pupils for cause, from which action appeal may be taken to county board; see that every schoolhouse is provided with suitable outhouses. The county board may remove the trustees for neglect of duty. If found impossible to secure competent persons in any district to act as trustees, their duties shall devolve upon the county board.

Baltimore.—The mayor and city council of Baltimore shall have power to establish in said city a system of free public schools, and may delegate supervisory powers to a board of school commissioners, Said commissioners bear a general relation to the provisions of law similar to that of county school commissioners.

2. TEACHERS.

Certificates---Appointment and duties-Institutes-AssociationsTraining

Pensions.

Certificates.-No person shall be employed as teacher unless he holds a certificate from the county examiner or State board or a diploma from the State normal school. The county examiner shall examine candidates, in the presence of at least one member of the county or district board, and issue certificates (sanctioned by county board) to those found qualified, setting forth the branches that they are qualified to teach. No certificate shall be issued to any man under 19 or woman under 18 years of age, nor to any without satisfactory evidence of the moral character of the applicant. Applicants for second-grade certificates shall be examined in orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, history, English grammar [history and constitutions of Maryland and of the United States, physiology, algebra to quadratics, one book of plane geometry (Wentworth or equivalent), theory and practice of teaching, and the laws and by-laws of the Maryland public school system); 4 for first grade are added (general history, plane geometry, and algebra complete,]a bookkeeping and natural philosophy. Probationary certificates shall be issued good for six months; but when the examiner shall satisfy himself of such teacher's fitness to govern a school and ability to impart instruction in the various branches he may issue a certificate which shall continue in force for five years. County school commissioners may annul certificates for cause after due notice and opportunity for hearing, from whose action appeal may be taken to State board. Any person who has taught seven years (five of which in Maryland) and holds a first-grade certificate or the diploma of a respectable college or State normal school may apply to the State board for a life certificate, which, however, if granted, may be annulled by said board for cause. Examiners shall not, under penalty of dismissal, charge fees for conducting examinations.

Appointment and duties.—Teachers shall be appointed by the board of district school trustees, subject to confirmation by the county school commissioners. The trustees may remove, at any time they think proper, after thirty days' notice in writing, but shall furnish in writing, when requested by such teacher, the reasons for dismissal, and the teacher may appeal to the county board. Teachers shall make to the county board quarterly reports of attendance, textbooks used, branches taught, and other statistics required, and shall not be entitled to pay until such report shall be so made. County school commissioners fix teachers' salaries.

Institutes.Teachers' institutes shall be held in each county five days each year; place to be determined by the president of the county board, the time by the principal of the State normal, the county examiner to notify teachers of time and place. Institutes designed as temporary normal schools shall be presided over by the principal or one of the professors of the State normal, assisted by the county examiner and any member of the county board who may choose to be present.

Associations.-District, county, and State teachers' associations are recommended as important means of elevating the standard of public education by mutual conference, interchange of views, and suggestions as to systems of teaching and discipline. The county examiner shall aid in the organization of such associations, encourage attendance, secure competent lecturers, and impart such information as will stimulate teachers in their work and better fit them for their duties. Teachers' associations may occupy schoolhouses. The Maryland State Teachers' Association is an incorporated body, with power to organize and direct reading circles; to members completing the course of study covering one, two, or three years certificates are issued setting forth the respective facts; to such members as shall satisfactorily complete the full four-year course the association may grant the honorary degree of master of the science of teaching; to teachers of learning, merit, and acknowledged professional skill the association may, with the advice and consent of the State board of education, grant the honorary degree of doctor of pedagogy.

Training.—(See Schools-Normal.)

Pensions.- Whenever any person has taught twenty-five years in the public or normal schools of the State, has a record without reproach, has reached the

« Added by the State board under the law providing " But the State board of education may add further requirements

whenever the same may seem necessary."

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