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apportioned by the township clerk to the district in which it was raised. The supervisor on delivery of the warrant for the collection of taxes to the township treasurer, shall also deliver to him a written statement of the amount of school and library taxes, the amount raised for district purposes on the taxable property of each district in the township, the amount belonging to any new district on the division of the former district, the names of all persons having judgments assessed upon the taxable property of any district, with the amount payable, and the amount of the 1-mill tax levied within the bounds of a fractional school district a part of which is situate within his township, but the returns of which are made to the clerk of another township, and the treasurer shall pay to the township treasurer of such other township the amount of the taxes so levied and certified to him for the use of such fractional school district. The township treasurer shall retain in his hands, out of the moneys collected by him, after deducting the amount of tax for township expenses, the full amount of the school taxes on the assessment roll, and hold the same subject to the warrant of the proper district officers, to the order of the school inspectors or other persons authorized to draw thereon, and give written notice to the town. ship clerk of the amount.

Any school district may by a two-thirds vote of its qualified elector's present at an annual or called meeting issue bonds to pay for a schoolhouse site and to erect or furnish school buildings as follows: Districts

Indebtedness. Of less than 30 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than.. $300 Of 30 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than..

500 Of 40 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than.

700 Of 50 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than.

1, 000 Of 75 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than.

2, 000 Of 100 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than..

3, 000 Of 125 persons 5 to 20 years and an assessed valuation of property of $150,000 or more may incur not more than..

5, 000 Of 200 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than.

8, 000 Of 300 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than.

15, 000 Of 400 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than

20, 000 Of 500 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than.

25, 000 Of 800 persons 5 to 20 years may incur not more than..

30, 000 But in no case shall the indebtedness of a district extend beyond ten years for money borrowed. And in all proceedings under these provisions the director, treasurer, and one person appointed by the district board shall constitute a board of inspection, who shall cause a poll list to be kept and a suitable ballot box to be used, which shall be kept open for two hours. When the school district shall have voted to borrow any sum of money, the district board shall issue the bonds thereof in sums of not less than $50 and at a rate of interest not greater than 8 per cent, and the district is authorized to provide for the payment of principal and interest by taxation. (See also Schools-Attendance.)

Any district may vote a tax for the transportation of pupils to and from school within the district and may use the 1-mill tax for the same purpose. Any rural school district maintaining school for five months may vote a tax to pay the transportation to and tuition in any high school designated by the district board. Any school district may by a two-thirds vote establish a library and vote a tax to sustain the same. When so established, the district is entitled to its share of all library funds apportioned to the township.



State superintendent-state high school board-County superintendentDistrict

trusteesCity, town, and village boards of education. State superintendent.-A superintendent of public instruction shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the consent of the senate, and shall hold his office for two years.

An office shall be provided for him at the seat of government,

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in which he shall file all papers, reports, and public documents transmitted to him by county superintendents, county auditors, and from other sources; and he shall keep a fair record of all matters pertaining to his office. He is required to appoint an assistant superintendent, to perform such service in the department as may be assigned to him. He shall meet the county superintendents of each judicial district, or two or more districts combined, if he shall deem it more conducive to the interests of education, at such time and place as he shall appoint, with the object of accumulating valuable facts relative to schools, and in general to listen to all communications and suggestions and enter into all discussions relative to the work of the schools. He shall annually hold in the sparsely settled counties as many State institutes as may be practicable. He shall report to the legislature through the governor biennially, which report shall contain (1) an abstract of the common school reports received by him from the several county superintendents, showing the number of organized school districts in the State, the nuniber of schools taught, and the enrollment and average attendance in the same; (2) a statement of the condition of public schools and of all other institutions of learning in the State that may report to him; (3) the amount of school moneys collected and expended each year from all sources, specifying the amounts from each source, respectively, and (4) all matters relating to his office, the public schools of the State, and the school fund, the number and character of teachers, and whatsoever else he may deem expedient to communicate. He shall prepare and distribute, through the county superintendents of schools, suitable school registers and blanks for teachers' and clerks' reports to county superintendents.

State high school board.— The State superintendent and the president of the University of Minnesota ex officio, and a superintendent or principal of any high school in the State of Minnesota, to be appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the senate, constitute a board of commissioners on graded and preparatory schools for the encouragement of higher education in this State, called the “ State high school board." The members of said board shall serve without compensation, but shall be entitled to their actual and necessary expenses.

The State high school board is authorized to appoint a suitable person to inspect high schools, who shall be called the “high school inspector ;" to visit each high school in the State and make a report thereon, and perform such other duties as may be required by the board. The salary of the high school inspector shall be fixed by the high school board, and he shall also receive necessary traveling expenses. The high school board shall also appoint a suitable person to inspect State graded schools, whose duties shall be similar to those of the high school inspector. The salary of the graded school inspector shall be fixed by the high school board, and he shall also receive necessary traveling expenses.

Said board may employ such assistant examiners as shall be found necessary, to be paid not to exceed $3 per day, or 50 cents per hour for services actually performed, and no compensation shall be paid to any person receiving a salary from any State institution.

The high school board shall have power to establish any necessary and suitable rules and regulations relating to examinations, reports, acceptances of schools, courses of study, and other proceedings in connection with high and graded schools claiming State aid : Provided, That in all graded and State high schools an optional English or business course of study shall be offered and maintained in addition to the courses of study required to be taken for admission to the State University; the board of education of any graded or State high school may add to or cut out any study or studies in the English or business course as established by said State board. The said board shall keep a careful record of all its proceedings, and shall on or before the 1st day of September in each year make a report to the State superintendent, showing in detail all receipts and disbursements, the names and number of high and graded schools receiving aid, and the number of pupils attending the classes in each, to which report it may add such recommendations as are deemed useful and proper.

County superintendent.-In each county of this State there shall be elected biennially a county superintendent of schools, vacancies to be filled by county commissioners. County superintendents may examine and license teachers and annul certificates for causes shown; shall visit and instruct the schools of their counties at least once in each term and give such advice to the teachers as may be requisite and necessary; organize and conduct at least one institute each year

for the instruction of teachers, if they deem the same expedient; encourage teachers' associations, introduce to the notice of teachers and the people the best modes of instruction, the most approved plans of building and ventilating schoolhouses, of ornamenting and adapting school grounds to the convenience and healthful exercise of children; stimulate school officers to the proper discharge of their duties; receive the reports of school district clerks and teachers and transmit an abstract of the same to the State superintendent, adding thereto a written statement on the condition and prospects of the schools under their charge, together with such other information and suggestions as they think proper to communicate. To secure uniformity and accuracy in such reports county superintendents may call meetings of district clerks annually.

The salary of the county superintendent shall be fixed by the county board of commissioners, but shall not be less than $10 for each organized district in the county. In case of physical inability to visit schools or examine teachers the county superintendent may appoint a deputy for not more than sixty days in any one year. He may also, in counties having 100 or more school districts, appoint, with the consent of the county board of commissioners, an assistant for twenty days of work in visiting schools in the first part of each term, winter and summer, who shall be paid a per diem of $3 and necessary traveling expenses. In counties having 175 or more organized districts a permanent assistant may be appointed at a salary of not more than $1,500 per annum. Every failure of the county superintendent to make the reports required by law causes him to forfeit $50 of his salary.

District board of trustees.-School districts shall be classified as common school districts, independent school districts, and special school districts. Districts are made or changed by the county commissioners after hearing of the localities concerned, but any district may contain the entire township in whicho it is situated, or a tract 6 miles square in different townships. The legal voters of school districts when lawfully assembled, not less than five being present, shall have power, by a majority vote of those present, to elect a director, clerk, and treasurer, which election shall be by ballot; to designate a site for a schoolhouse, which shall not be changed after having been designated unless at least a majority of the legal voters in the district who have resided therein for a period of at least six months prior to such vote, and two-thirds of the voters so qualified who are present and voting, vote in favor of such change (except that whenever a majority of the legal voters of any school district voting thereon shall determine to build a new schoolhouse, or to remove a schoolhouse already built, in such district, and the schoolhouse site therein shall be more than onequarter of a mile from the center of the district, then a majority of the legal voters of such district voting thereon may change the site to a more central location) ; to vote an amount of money, to be raised by a tax on the taxable property of the district, sufficient to meet the conditions on which apportionments from State school funds are made to districts, and to raise such additional amounts as the district may determine to purchase or lease a site for a schoolhouse, and to build, hire, or purchase such schoolhouse when the same is necessary; to keep in repair and provide the same with the necessary furniture and appendages; to procure fuel; to purchase or increase the library and school apparatus ; to appoint a librarian, and to make all rules necessary for the usefulness, preservation, and increase of the library.

The director, treasurer, and clerk shall form the board of trustees. They shall serve three years, one retiring each year, any vacancies to be filled by the remaining members.

The board of trustees shall have the general charge of the interests of schools and schoolhouses in their district; lease or purchase in the corporate name of the district a site for a schoolhouse designated by the legal voters of the district; build, hire, or purchase a suitable schoolhouse with the funds provided for that purpose, and when directed by the legal voters of the district may sell or exchange any such site or schoolhouse; submit an estimate of the expenses of the district for the coming year; levy a tax if the district neglects to vote it, and contract with and hire teachers.

City, toucn, and village boards of education.—Any city, town, village, township, or school district may be organized into an independent school district in the manner and with the powers hereinafter specified, but this shall not apply to any township or school district containing less than 500 inhabitants unless said school district consists in whole or in part of an incorporated city, town, or village, nor to any city, town, or village, or any part thereof, which now has any

special law regulating its schools; and the territorial limits of no independent district hereafter organized shall exceed 6 miles square.

In case a majority of the voters are in favor of creating an independent district, the district shall elect six directors, two to retire each year, who shall collectively be styled the board of education (of the city, town, village, or township), who shall elect a president, clerk, and treasurer, and may also elect a superintendent at such salary as they may fix. The superintendent shall visit the schools of the district, superintend the grading of them and the examinations for promotion, perform such other duties as the board may prescribe, and shall report to the State superintendent through the county superintendent or directly.

The board shall establish such grades of schools, alter, and discontinue the same; provide necessary rooms or buildings for schoolhouses, and grounds about the same; shall, when authorized by the district, purchase or erect one or more schoolhouses, and purchase sites; purchase, sell, and exchange school apparatus, furniture, stoves, and other appendages for schoolhouses, and furnish fuel for the same; take care of the property of the district, and procure insurance, and make ordinary repairs upon the same, or any part thereof, when deemed expedient; contract with, employ, and pay teachers who have received certificates, and discharge the same; shall defray the necessary expenses of the board, pay the compensation of the clerk, treasurer, and superintendent, and for such printing, record books, stationery, and other incidental matters as may be deemed proper; superintend and manage in all respects the schools of said district, and from time to time adopt, alter, modify, and repeal rules for their organization, government, and instruction, for the keeping of registers, for the reception of pupils resident and nonresident within the district, their suspeusion, expulsion, and transfer from one school to another; prescribe text-books and a course of study for the schools, and visit each school in the district not less than once in three months; provide for the prompt payment at maturity of the principal and interest of any indebtedness of the district by voting from time to time taxes upon the taxable property of said district sufficient to meet the same, making allowances for delinquency in paying any part of such taxes; and shall, when authorized by a vote of the district, make, execute, and deliver, for and in behalf of said district, deeds, mortgages, releases, and all other instruments relating to the real property thereof.


Appointment and dutiesCertificatesPreliminary training-Institutes.

Appointment and duties.—The board of trustees, at a meeting called for that purpose, shall hire such teachers only as have certificates of qualification, on written contracts, specifying the wages per month and time employed as agreed upon by the parties; but no contract shall be made with any teacher who is related by blood or marriage to any member of the school board, without the concurrence of all the members of the board of trustees by vote duly entered on the clerk's record of proceedings.

The teacher shall keep a register, and shall report to the county superintendent under penalty of having pay withheld.

Certificates.—The State superintendent is authorized to issue State certificates of the following grades: A first-grade certificate, valid for five years, and a second-grade certificate, valid for two years. The requirements for first and second grade certificates shall include both scholastic and professional ability, and the regulations governing the examination for such certificates shall be prescribed by the State superintendent. A complete certificate shall certify the scholastic and professional requirements, skill in teaching, and moral character. The written answers for the scholastic examination hereinafter provided for shall be read and marked under the direction of the State superintendent, and the markings for the professional requirements shall be given by the county superintendent, who shall also be the judge of skill in teaching and moral character of the applicant.

A complete first-grade certificate, certifying to scholastic requirements by the State superintendent and to professional requirements, skill in teaching, and moral character by the county superintendent in whose county the examination is held, shall be valid in any county of the State. A complete second-grade certificate for both scholastic and professional requirements, signed by the State superintendent and the county superintendent, shall be valid in the county in

which the examination is held, and may be made valid in any county by the Indorsement of the county superintendent of said county. No teacher shall be entitled to receive a certificate of any grade herein provided for who fails to give proper evidence of possessing a good moral character, and no teacher shall receive a complete first-grade or second-grade certificate who has not had successful experience in teaching for at least eight months for a first-grade and five months for a second-grade, and who shall not be at least 18 years of age; provided, that the county superintendent may issue a limited second-grade certificate, good for one year, to applicants without experience not under 17 years of age who hare passed the scholastic examination given by the State department of public instruction. It is further provided that the county superintendent may issue a third-grade certificate upon his own examination for a term of one year, such certificate to designate the district in which it shall be valid, not to be renewable without examination. No teacher shall be entitled to receive a third-grade certificate more than twice in the same county.

The certificate of a State normal school in Minnesota that the holder has completed the three years' certificate course in that school shall, when approved by the State superintendent, entitle the holder to a certificate of the first grade.

The State superintendent shall prescribe regulatio for renewing first and second grade certificates and for providing a fair review in the case of an arjeal from the decision of a county superintendent.

The State superintendent shall cause to be held at least two examinations each year in every county of the State, at such convenient places as may be designated by the county superintendent. The time for such examination shall be uniform throughout the State, and the examination shall be conducted by the county superintendent of the county in which the examination is held, or by persons appointed by him, strictly according to regulations prescribed by the department of public instruction designed to secure uniformity and fairness. An affidavit may be required of such examiner, certifying that the regulations regarding said examination have been fully observed. The examinations shall be public and the teachers desiring to take the same may dismiss their schools for that purpose for a period not exceeding two days in each year without loss of pay. Any county superintendent may, on his own examination, issue a certificate of any grade to applicants who present satisfactory proof that they were unable to be present at the public examination ; such certificates to be valid only in a district specified on their face and until the time of the next public examination.

Examinations for all certificates provided for shall be given in spelling, reading, penmanship, arithmetic, grammar, composition, geography, history of the United States, physiology, and the practical facts of hygiene. In addition to the above branches, all applicants for first-grade certificates shall be examined in elementary algebra, plane geometry, physical geography, natural philosophy, and civil government. The State superintendent may, however, designate equivalent subjects that may be taken in lieu of physical geography, natural philosophy, and plane geometry, at the option of the applicant. All subjects in which the applicant passes an examination shall be designated in the certificate. Questions shall be submitted in music and drawing to such applicants as desire to receive a standing in these subjects. The State superintendent may accept State high-school certificates and certificates from the State normal schools in all such subjects in lieu of an examination, under such conditions as he may prescribe, providing that no standing of less than 75 per cent in such highschool certificate shall be received.

Any applicant failing to pass the scholastic examination may, upon appeal to the Scte superintendent, have his papers reviewed by the instructors in the corresponding branches at the State university.

Complete first and second grade certificates under this law shall be valid in all grades below the high school in any special or independent districts, unless boards of education of such dstricts shall decide otherwise.

The State superintendent may issue certificates of qualification without examinations to persons who have taught in public schools of this State for five or more years upon their written application approved by the board of education or school trustees, together with the city superintendent or county superintendent under which said applicant shall have taught the greater part of five years next preceding the date of application.

Permanent teachers of high character and broad scholarship who have a successful experience may, upon examination by the State superintendent or hy a committee of 3 competent teachers appointed by him, receive a professional

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