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State certificate, which shall authorize the holder to teach in any public school in the State without further examination; but no life certificate shall be in force after its holder shall permit a space of three years to lapse without following some educational pursuit, unless said certificate be indorsed by the State superintendent. Graduates of colleges and universities of good standing who have received a certificate of the first grade in this State and who shall have taught in any public school in the State with ability and success for at least one year shall be entitled to a professional certificate from the State superintendent without further examination. The branches required for a professional State certificate shall be the following: Written arithmetic, United States history, reading and elocution, English grammar, common and physical geography with map drawings, mathematical geography and projection, school economy, physiology, algebra, natural philosophy, chemistry, composition and rhetoric, bookkeeping, plane and solid geometry, plane trigonometry, geology, zoology, botany, English literature, general history, political economy, intellectual philosophy, moral philosophy, logic, astronomy, civil government and school laws, history of education, and the theory and art of teaching. There shall be two grades of professional State certificates. All of the subjects above mentioned shall be required for first grade, and 21 of the subjects enumerated shall be required for second grade, the optional subjects to be arranged by the State superintendent or the examining board. But the State superintendent shall be authorized to issue yearly permits to deserving teachers of successful experience, who lack not more than three subjects, and by the employment of such teachers State aid shall not be withheld.

The teachers' university certificate issued by the University of Minnesota to graduates of the department of pedagogy shall be valid as a certificate of the first grade to teach in the public schools of the State for a period of two years. At the expiration of two years of actual teaching the certificate of such graduate may be indorsed by the president of the university and the State superintendent upon satisfactory evidence that such service has been successful, and such indorsement shall make said certificate a permanent certificate of qualification.

The diploma from either the elementary or advanced course of study of the State Normal School shall be valid as a certificate of qualification of the first grade to teach in the public schools of the State for a period covering the time of the student's pledge of service, namely, two years from date of graduation. At the expiration of two years of actual teaching service the diploma of such graduate may be indorsed by the president of the normal school from which it was issued, and by the State superintendent, upon satisfactory evidence that such service has been successful and satisfactory to the supervising school authorities under whom it was rendered. Such indorsement shall make the diploma of the elementary course a valid certificate for five years from its date, and the diploma of the advanced course a permanent certificate of qualification.

A county or city superintendent may suspend any certificate for good cause shown, subject to appeal to the State superintendent.

Preliminary training.The governor shall nominate, and with the consent of the Senate appoint 8 normal school directors, not more than one residing in the same county, who, together with the State superintendent, shall constitute the State normal school board. The board shall have the general supervision, management, and control of the State normal schools, appoint all professors and teachers, and fix their salaries, but in no case shall the salary of any principal exceed $3,000 per annum.

The State normal school board shall prescribe the courses of study in the normal schools, the conditions of admission, and prepare and confer suitable diplomas upon persons completing the full course of study in the normal department. Such board shall adopt any rules and regulations deemed necessary to the highest efficiency of the schools. It shall be the duty of the board, as a whole or through a committee of their own number, to visit and thoroughly inspect the grounds, buildings, modes of instruction, and the discipline and management of each school at least once during each term. They shall report to the governor, on or before the 1st day of December in each year, through their president, the condition of each school, its receipts and disbursements, its wants and prospects, together with such recommendations for its improvement as they may deem proper and necessary.

The president of each normal school shall annually make a written report to the State superintendent. Such report shall set forth the general statistics of the school, and also a statement of the total number of graduates of such school

who are then engaged in teaching, so far as inay be known, with their names, and the name of the district and county in which they are teaching.

The State normal school board shall have power to organize, in connection with each normal school, such model schools as they may deem expedient for the illustration of the best methods of teaching and government: Provided, That no more than one teacher shall be employed in either of the model schools, except at the school at Winona, where, so long as provision is made in the normal school for the education of soldiers' orphans, the board may employ one additional teacher.

There shall be no charge for tuition or for incidental expenses to the students if any normal school who shall have filed with the principal thereof a declaration of intention to engage in the work of teaching in the public schools of this State for not less than two years after his or her connection with said school shall cease. The board may fix such rates of tuition for pupils in the model schools and for students not intending to teach as in their judgment may be equitable and just.

The board shall appoint one teacher for each normal school especially qualified to give instruction in teachers' institutes.

Institutes.--The State superintendent shall annually hold in the sparsely settled counties as many State teachers' institutes as he shall find practicable, each to continue in session one week at least. He shall give due notice thereof to all teachers and persons proposing to become such, and invite their attendance. He shall attend and have charge of each institute; invite the aid and cooperation of the superintendent of schools for the county ; employ suitable instructors and lecturers to give instruction and addresses to aid the teachers in qualifying themselves for a more successful discharge of their duties. The average expense of such institutes shall not exceed $100 a week.

He shall annually, in so many and thickly settled localities as he may deem advisable, organize and, with the aid of others selected by himself, conduct norinal-training schools for the benefit of teachers who desire such training but are unable to attend a full course at the State normal schools. Such schools shall be without charge for attendance and entirely practical, their object being to impart normal methods of teaching and conducting schools, particularly common schools. They shall continue at least four and not more than six weeks at each place, and the average cost shall not exceed $100 for each week of the session of a school of 60 persons.

During the time of holding a teachers' institute in any county of this State, it is hereby made the duty of all teachers and persons desiring a teacher's certificate to attend such institute, or present to the county superintendent satisfactory reasons for not so attending, before receiving such certificate, and any school that may be in session in such county shall be closed for one week upon the requirement of the county superintendent, and the teacher shall be allowed to make up the time lost.

3. SCHOOLS.

Attendance-Character of instructionTert-booksBuildings.

Attendance.-All schools supported wholly or in part by State school funds shall be styled “The Public Schools,” and admission to them sball be free to all persons between the ages of 5 and 21 years residing in the district. In independent districts schools shall be kept open from twenty to forty-four weeks. No district can receive aid from the State which does not keep school open for five months.

Boards of trustees and boards of education may suspend or expel pupils for insubordination, immorality, or being infectiously diseased.

The board of trustees of any common school district, or the board of education of any independent or special district, may, by a vote of a majority of all the members of said board, at any regular meeting, exclude from the public school in the district all children under 6 years of age; and when such action has been once taken, it shall not be changed before the beginning of the next school year.

Every parent, guardian, or other person in the State having control of any child between the ages of 8 and 16 years shall be required to send such child to a public school, or private school taught by a competent instructor, for a period of at least twelve weeks in each year, at least six weeks of which time shall be consecutive, unless such child is excused from such attendance by the board of the school district or the board of education of the city or independent school

district in which such parent, guardian, or person having control resides, upon its being shown to their satisfaction that such parent or guardian was not able, by reason of poverty, to clothe such child properly, or that such child's bodily or mental condition has been such as to prevent his attendance at school or application to study for the period required, or that such child is taught at home in such branches of study as are usually taught in the public schools and subject to the same examination as other pupils of the district or city in which the child resides, or that he has already acquired the ordinary branches required by law, or that there is no school taught within 2 miles by the nearest traveled road.

Any parent, guardian, or other person failing to comply with the provisions of this act shall, upon conviction, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not less than $10 nor more than $25 for the first ofi'ense, nor less than $25 nor more than $50 for the second and every subsequent offense.

It shall be the duty of any school director or president of the board of education to inquire into all cases of neglect of this duty, and ascertain from the persons neglecting the reasons, if any, therefor, and forthwith to proceed to secure the prosecution of any offense occurring under this act; and any director or president neglecting to secure such prosecution for such offense within ten days after a written notice has been served on him by any taxpayer in said district or city, unless the person so complained of shall be excused by the district or city board or board of education, for reasons hereinbefore stated, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and liable to a fine of not less than $20 nor more than $50. If upon the trial of any offense as charged herein, it shall be Tetermined that such prosecution was malicious, then the cost in such case shall be adjudged against the complainant and collected as fines in other cases.

Character of instruction.—(For subjects upon which teachers are examined, see Teachers—Certificate.) All instruction given and books used shall be in the English language, but teachers that are able to speak a language that is the vernacular of a pupil may use that language to aid in the teaching of English words, and may also give instruction in that language for one hour or less a day, provided the trustees have unanimously agreed to these innovations. In independent districts the board of education prescribes the course of study and grades the schools.

All school oflicers may introduce as part of daily exercises of each school in their jurisdiction instruction in the elements of social and moral science, includ. ing industry, order, economy, patience, cleanliness, honesty, self-reflection, etc.

Tert-books.--The board of trustees or board of education of each school district is empowered to adopt and contract for text-books for the schools under their charge; they may purchase and loan same free to pupils or sell same at cost. No adoption or contract shall be for a period less than three nor more than five years, during which time the text-books so adopted or contracted for shall not be changed. At an annual meeting after due notice, or whenever 5 or more legal voters of a common school district shall petition the board to do so, a special meeting may be called, and the question of providing free text-books shall be submitted to the voters ; if a majority vote be in favor of free textbooks, the board shall provide for same, payment to be made from the school funds of the district.

Publishers desiring to furnish text-books shall file with the State superintendent sample copies of their books and price lists at which they will be offered to trustees, certified copies of which lists shall be furnished by the State superintendent to the clerk of each common school district in the State.

Buildings.- The board of trustees shall have the general charge of the schoolhouses in their district, shall lease or purchase a site, may permit the schoolhouse to be used when not interfering with school purposes, the users giving bond for $100 and paying a reasonable rent, provided the legal voters accede to the lise.

No district shall in any one year levy a tax exceeding 10 mills on the dollar for the purpose of building a schooolhouse.

In independent school districts, whenever the board of education shall deem it necessary to purchase or erect a schoolhouse or houses or to purchase sites for the same, it shall call a meeting of the voters of the district and act according to their decision.

4. FINANCES.

Funds (permanent or special)-Ta.ration.

Funds (permanent or special).-The proceeds of such lands as are or may hereafter be granted by the l'nited States for the use of schools within each

township in this State shall remain a perpetual school fund to the State, and no portion of said lands shall be sold otherwise than at public sale. The principal of all funds arising from sales or other disposition of lands or other property granted or intrusted to this State for educational purposes shall forever be preserved inviolate and undiminished ; and the income arising from the lease or sale of said school land shall be distributed to the different townships throughout the State, in proportion to the nuinber of scholars between the ages of 5 and 21 years who have been in attendance forty days in the public schools which have had at least five months of term within the year by a qualified teacher and made the reports required by law.

Any public graded school in any city or incorporated village, or township organized into a district under the so-called towuship system, which school shall give preparatory instruction (see Organization, State high-school board) and shall admit students of either sex from any part of the State without charge for tuition, shall be entitled to receive the sum of $400 annually.

Taration.-For the purpose of maintaining public schools, a tax of 1 mill, to be known as State school tax fund, shall be annually levied upon the taxable property of the State, which shall be added to the general school fund, and they together shall be known as the current school fund, and apportioned as above provided.

The county commissioners shall also levy an annual tax of 1 mill, to be known as the local mill tax, on the amount of the assessment made by the assessors of each township, which shall be paid into the county treasury for the support of the public schools, to be apportioned by the county auditor, who shall distribute to each school district or portion thereof the amount of tax collected in said district or portion of district in his said county : Provided, That if in any case county commissioners shall neglect, refuse, or fail to make such levy as herein provided for, the county auditor shall nevertheless extend the same upon the assessment rolls of the year the same as if such levy had been so made by the said county commissioners. As a further provision for the support of schools, there shall be set apart by the county treasurer of each county the proceeds of all fines for breach of any penal law in this State not otherwise appropriated by law, and all moneys arising from the issuing of liquor licenses and from unclaimed moneys arising from the sale of estrays. And the county auditor shall open an account with each district or portion of district in his county, and keep an accurate account of all moneys received by or due to each of said districts, and all such matters as are necessary to show the condition of accounts between each of said districts and the county treasury, and for this purpose he shall examine any and all of the books in the office of the county treasurer.

There shall be levied annually for school district purposes, in addition to the general tax of 1 mill, such sum as may be voted at any legal meeting of the qualified voters of the district, the rate of which shall not exceed 15 mills, for the support of the school (provided it will support the schools for the legal term), or 1 per cent for the erection of a schoolhouse.

MISSISSIPPI.

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State board of education-State superintendent-State board of craminers

County superintendent-County school board; school districts-District trustee8-Separate school districts.

State board of education.-The State board of education consists of the secretary of state, attorney-general, and State superintendent, and shall have charge of the management and investinent of school funds, and shall regulate all matters arising in the practical administration of the school system not otherwise provided for. The State superintendent and one other shall constitute a quorum. Meetings shall be held at the seat of government at such time as the board shall determine, and one member may call a meeting at any time. The board shall appoint county superintendents (which see) in certain counties, and clecide finally appeals from State or county superintendents, except those pertaining to examinations. (See State board of examiners.) They may suspend for neglect of duty county superintendents appointed by them, and for continued

neglect of duty, drunkenness, incompetency, or official misconduct may remove such a superintendent after ten days' notice and an opportunity to make defense. Said board shall audit all claims against the common school fund and the expenditures of the State superintendent's office. They may adopt a course of study to be pursued in the schools, and may designate a day to be observed as Arbor Day.

State superintendent.--The State superintendent of public education shall be elected at the same time and in the same manner as the governor, to hold office four years. He shall keep his office in the capitol, and give $5,000 bond. IIe shall have general supervision of the public free schools, and may prescribe such rules and regulations for the efficient organization and conduct of the same as he may deem necessary. He shall preside over all the meetings of the State board of education; solicit reports from all educational institutions of the State, public and private; apportion semiannually the State common school fund to the several counties and separate school districts, according to the number of educable children enumerated, and shall furnish a copy of said apportionment to the State auditor and treasurer, to each county superintendent and treasurer, and to the treasurer of each separate school district; and shall not act as agent of any publisher or bookseller, nor receive any gift or reward for recommending any ook, furniture, or school apparatus, under penalty of removal from office and forfeiture of all moneys due him from the State. He shall appoint the State board of examiners (which see), and shall be ex officio a trustee in the State University, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, the Industrial Institute and College, the State Normal School, and the Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College. He shall keep a complete record of his official acts and those of the State board of education. Biennially, by January 10 of each year in which the legislature meets, he shall have printed a report showing the receipts and disbursements of the common school fund; number of school districts, schools, teachers, pupils, attendance of pupils, and studies pursued by them; financial condition of the schools, their receipts and expenditures, value of schoolhouses and other property, cost of tuition, and salaries of teachers ; the educational and financial condition of the normal and higher institutions connected with the State school system, and, as far as can be ascertained, of private schools, academies, and colleges, together with such other information and recommendations relating to educational interests as he may deem important. He shall have the school laws printed, together with fornis for conducting school business, the rules and regulations adopted by the State board of education, questions for the examination of teachers, and such other matters of public interest that may be deemed worthy, and shall distribute same to county superintendents and other school officers interested. He shall hold conferences with the county superintendents of each judicial district, or of several judicial districts combined, at such time and place as he shall appoint; advise county superintendents on all matters regarding the welfare of the public schools; and shall render decisions on questions and controversies arising out of the interpretation of the school laws, after having submitted the statement of facts to the attorney-general for counsel.

State board of eraminers.The State board of examiners shall consist of three first-grade teachers of scholarly attainments and successful experience, appointed by the State superintendent, no two of whom shall be from one (ongressional district. They shall aid the State superintendent in preparing all examination questions for the teachers of the State, grade papers of applicants for professional and State licenses, and hear and decide all appeals from teachers or county superintendents regarding examinations. Each applicant or candidate for county superintendent shall be examined by said board in his own county, under regulations passed by the State board of education. Each member of said State board of examiners shall serve four years, unless removed by the State superintendent for cause. As compensation they shall receive $5 from each applicant for a professional license, $5 from each applicant or candidate for county superintendent, and 50 cents from each applicant for State license. (See also Teachers—Certificates.)

County superintendent.-In each of the counties of Adams, Hinds, Sunflower, and Washington a county superintendent of education shall be appointed by the State board of education, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, and in each of the other counties a county superintendent shall be elected by the people. His term of office shall be four years, and to be eligible he must be 21 years of age, a qualified elector, a resident of the State four years and of the county two years, and shall have passed an examination in first-grade subjets

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