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tions of school laws shall be paid to the treasurer of the county wherein the suit is brought for the support of the common schools.

Bonds.--For the purpose of providing school sites and houses, the boards of directors shall have power to issue the bonds of the district in an amount not to exceed, with all outstanding indebtedness, 4 per cent of its taxable property as shown by the last assessment; and for the purpose of extending the time of payment of the school district indebtedness, they shall have power to issue bonds in a sum not to exceed its outstanding indebtedness, including bonded indebtedness; but no bonds shall be issued until, at an election called for that purpose, two-thirds of the qualified electors (women may vote) shall have so declared by ballot; and such election shall not be called except upon petition of at least one-third of such electors in the district. Bonded indebtedness shall not be created in any district wlierein reside less than 8 children between 6 and 21 years of age. Bonds shall be issued in denominations of not less than $100 nor more than $500, bearing interest not to exceed 7 per cent, payable semiannually.

OREGON

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State superintendent-State board of education-Siate and county voards of

examiners -- County superintendents - School districts District boards School clerks-District voundary bowd.

State superintendent.-A superintendent of public instruction shall be elected every four years, entering upon his duties the second Monday in January following his election; shall receive a salary of $3,000 a year (and not exceeding $900 traveling expenses), and be provided with an office at the State capitol. He shall exercise a general superintendence over the county and district school officers and the public schools of the State; visit, as far as practicable, every county annually in the interest of education; visit as often as practicable the principal schools of the State for the purpose of inspection and supervision; gather statistics relative to the conditions of schools, buildings, grounds, appurtenances, apparatus, libraries, conduct and standing of pupils, methods of instruction and discipline, number of pupils, teachers, salaries, courses of study, and such other data as he may deem advisable for the advancement of education and for the information of the legislature; assist in the organization and development of institute work in each county, attending county institutes within the State and educational meetings out of the State when practicable; prepare and distribute to county superintendents a uniform series of blanks, registers, forms, rules, and regulations, such as he may deem necessary for the administration of the school law's, and the secretary of state shall cause the same to be printed; act as secretary of the State board of education; annotate and compile all school laws ordered published by State board; decide questions or appeals arising under the State school laws or the rules and regulations of the State board, but he may submit the saune to State board for decision or to the attorney-general for his opinion; cause to be held once a year a State teachers' association, at such time and place as will best promote the interests of education. Whenever he may deem it expedient he may issue printed letters to school officers on any subject relative to the duties of teachers, directors, pupils, parents, or guardians, the management of schools, or any other question of general or special educational interest. Biennially be shall report to the legislature, covering the following items: (1) General condition of the public schools; (2) amount of school money apportioned among the counties, and sources whence such was derived; (3) amounts raised by county and district taxes, and amounts paid for teachers' salaries, buildings, furniture, etc. ; (4) text-books authorized in accordance with law; (5) rules and regulations of State board; (6) number and grade of schools in each county: (7) the number of persons in the State between the ages of 4 and 20, number attending public schools, number attending private schools, and number not attending any school; (8) any other relevant information that he may think of use to the public.

State board of education.—The governor, secretary of state, and superintendent of public instruction shall constitute the State board of education, which shall meet at the capitol on the first Monday in January and July of each year.

They shall authorize such series of text-books as shall be adopted by the textbook commission; prepare a course of study for schools in districts of the second and third classes, which shall be printed by the secretary of state and distributed by the State superintendent; order other necessary printing done by State printer; prescribe rules and regulations for the government of schools; grant State certificates and diplomas to candidates passing examinations before the State board. (See Teachers—State certificates.) The proceedings of each session of the State board shall be printed for general distribution, including the names of applicants receiving certificates.

State and county boards of examincis.-(See Teachers-County and State certificates.)

County superintendents.--Elected for four years, vacancies filled by county court; must have taught nine school months in the State and hold a first-grade or State certificate or State diploma. Salary of superintendent is specified for each county, from $300 to $1,500 a year. Must furnish bond in such sum as county court may direct. He shall be ex officio secretary of the district boundary board (consisting of the county court, or commissioners where the latter are a separate body), which board may make changes in district boundaries when petitioned to do so.

On the first Monday in October, and at such other times during the year as he may deem advisable, he shall apportion the entire school fund in the county treasury. (See Finances-Apportionment.) He shall visit each school in his county at least once a year and seek to aid teachers toward the best methods of teaching and government, and shall secure the proper classification of pupils, enforcement of course of study, and the care and protection of school property; study to awaken among parents and children a deeper interest in the public schools; notify board of directors of any defect in schoolhouses or surroundings; and by the fourth Monday in July shall report to the State superintendent an abstract of the reports received from the several districts, adding thereto such suggestions as he may deem important, and shall make special report concerning important matters relative to the schools of his county wlienever necessary or when required by the State superintendent. Ile shall keep a record of all persons under contract to teach in his county, with data relating to such contracts; advise and consult with boards with reference to the construction of schoolhouses and improvement of grounds; organize and hold at least three local institutes and educational meetings at such times and places in the county as he may deem most expedient, securing as far as practicable the attendance and cooperation of teachers, school oflicers, and parents ; hold annually a county teachers' institute three days or longer for the instruction of teachers and those desiring to teach (at which attendance of teachers is compulsory) ; examine into correctness of reports of district clerks (which see) and correct same when necessary; report to State superintendent the post-office address of every , deaf-mute or blind person in the county between the ages of 5 and 25; examine and decide appeals from district officers and teachers, subject to appeal to State superintendent.

School districts.- Each county shall be divided into convenient school districts, classified as follows: Districts having 1,000 or more children of school age (6 to 21 ) shall be known as districts of the first class; more than 200 and less than 1,000, second class; less than 200, third class. Boundaries may be changed by the boundary board (see County Superintendent) and new districts established on petition of three legal voters of proposed new district; but no district shall be organized unless it contains at least 10 children of school age, and none shall continue unless it has at least 6 of school age. The legal school voters of every district shall meet on the third Monday in June every year, which shall be known as the annual school meeting, and shall hold special meetings whenever required; the director oldest in service shall be chairman, and the meeting shall have power to levy a tax upon all real and personal property in the district, and make all necessary appropriations for the support and benefit of public schools. Women may rote on school questions and be elected to all educational offices within the State. Districts shall maintain a school at least three months a year or else forfeit their share of the next annual apportionment of school funds. (See Finances-Apportionment.)

District boards.--Districts of the first class sball elect five directors, other districts three. One director shall be elected each year on the day of the annual school meeting, to serve five years in first-class districts, three years in other districts. Of the directors present at a meeting, the one oliest in service shall be chairman. Vacancies in the oflice of director shall be filled by the remaining directors. It shall be the duty of the board to visit and inspect their

schools; to furnish fuel (ready for use), janitor, blackboards, chalk, erasers, brooms, stoves, window curtains, reference and library books, and other apparatus, not to exceed 15 per cent of the county school-tax fund and the irreducible school fund apportioned to the district; to audit all the claims against the district. They may exclude any refractory pupil from school for the current term. When authorized by a majority vote of the school meeting, they shall purchase, lease, or build schoolhouses, buy or lease land for school purposes, furnish schoolhouses with furniture, lights, and apparatus, and, when so authorized for such purpose, may levy and collect a tax or contract a debt not exceeding 5 per cent of the taxable values of the district, or may issue or sell bonds (see Finances-Bonds); also, may sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of property belonging to the district. The board shall employ teachers, and make such rules and regulations for the government of teachers and pupils as are required and consistent with those of State board; shall require parents or guardians to provide pupils with books prescribed by law, but shall loan textbooks to indigent pupils when so directed by vote of the district. The board shall have entire control of public schools in their district. Any duty imposed upon them must be performed at a regular or special meeting and be made a matter of record. Consent to a measure by individual members when not in session is not an act of the board and is not binding upon the district.

District school clerks.-At the regular annual meeting each school district shall elect a school clerk, who shall give such bond and receive such compensation as the board may determine, provided that clerks of third-class districts shall not receive exceeding $25. The clerk shall act as secretary of board and district meetings, keep records and accounts of the board, send list of district officers to county superintendent after annual school meeting, giving length of term and post-office address of each director. During the last week in February the district school clerk shall make an enumeration of children in his district between 4 and 20 years old, make an annual report to his district and forward certified copy of same to county superintendent by July 10, including scholastic census, daily attendance at all schools in district, and a list of children deaf or blind to such degree as to be unable to acquire an education in the common schools. Clerks of districts which lie in two or more counties shall report to cach county superintendent data pertaining to his county.

District boundary board.—(See County superintendent- School districts.)

2. TEACHERS.

Certificates, county-State certificates and diplomas-DutiesContractsInsti

tutes.

Certificates, county.-Beginning the second Wednesday of February and August and continuing three days the county board of examiners (superintendent and two others appointed by him) shall hold public examinations of applicants for teachers' county certificates, using questions prepared by State board, place to be designated by county superintendent. Every applicant shall furnish evidence of good moral character and he examined in orthography, reading, writing, mental and written arithmetic, English grammar, geography, United States history, theory of teaching, physiology and hygiene, civil government, and Oregon school law. (1) First-grade certificates, which are good in the county for three years, shall be granted to those who are 18 years of age and have taught twelve school months with success, whose general average on examination is not less than 90 per cent and not less than 70 per cent in any branch. Whenever an applicant receives on two successive examinations 90 per cent on any subject, at the next examination he shall be excused on such subjects and credited with the standing so earned. Superintendents of other counties may indorse first-grade certificates and register the same, and thus validate the same for their counties. (2) For second-grade certificates applicant must be 18 years old, have three months' successful experience teaching, and make a general average grade of 80 per cent (in no branch less than 60), certificate valid two years. No person shall receive more than one second-grade certificate in any one county unless he be ineligible to a first-grade für want of twelve months' teaching experience. (3) For a third-grade certificate applicants shall have attained the age of 18 and an average of To on examination; not less than 60 in any branch. Certificate is valid for one year and is not issued twice to the same person unless he lack the three months' experience in teaching requisite for a second-grade certificate. (4) A primary certificate, authorizing the holder to teach in the primary

grades not beyond third, or in a graded school as assistant, good for three years, may be issued to applicants orer 18 who shall make an average of 85 (not less than 70 in any branch) upon examination in reading, writing, orthography, arithmetic, physiology, art of questioning, theory and practice of teaching, and methods. (5) A temporary permit may be issued by the county superintendent • when necessary, valid only in county where issued until the next regular examination. No applicant having failed at the last regular examination shall receive a temporary permit, and no one shall receive such permit more than twice. Fees for certificates (county certificate, any grade, $2; temporary permit, $2.50; indorsement and register of first grade in another county, $1 ) become part of the county institute fund. Certificates may be revoked for immorality, incompetency, or gross neglect of duty after the accused has been heard.

State certificates and diplomas.--The State board of education shall appoint not less than four nor more than nine professional teachers to assist in State examinations, who shall be known as the State board of examiners and shall receive $5 a day while employed in such capacity. State examinations shall be conducted under rules and regulations prescribed by State board of education. A State certificate is valid for five years, applicants for which must have had thirty months of approved experience in teaching, nine of which in the schools of Oregon, and shall make a general average of 85, not less than 70 in any branch, upon examination in the subjects required for county certificates (which see), with the addition of algebra, bookkeeping, composition, physical geography, physics, and psychology. For a State diploma, which is good for life, an applicant shall have had sixty montlis of successful teaching, fifteen of which in Oregon, and shall pass examination at the same grades as for State certificate, and same subjects, with the addition of botany, plane geometry, general history, and English literature. If an applicant for a State certificate or diploma fail on one or more subjects, he need not be reexamined in those subjects wherein he was successful, provided he shall satisfactorily pass the remaining subjects at the two following examinations. Examination fee for State certificate, $4; diploma, $6. State board of education may grant State certificates or diplomas without examination to persons presenting authenticated papers from other States which were secured by passing equivalent examinations, and said board may grant a permit for one year to persons who hold papers of the required grade but lack the necessary teaching experience in Oregon for a State certificate. The following may be accepted in lieu of the thirty months' teaching experience required for a State certificate : (1) Diplomas from the regular State normal schools, or (?) from any normal school in the State, or (3) from any chartered institution of collegiate or university grade in the State, where the courses of (2) and (3) shall be approved by the State board of education as equivalent to those of (1): Prorided, That the required examination shall not be waired, and no State certificate shall be issued to anyone under 21 years of age. Holders of certificates granted under these provisions may become candidates for State diplomas after they shall have taught thirty months with approved success. (See also Schools, Higl, Normal.)

Duties.-To maintain order in school and conduct himself before his pupils so as to command their respect; labor during school hours to advance them in their studies, to create in their minds a desire for knowledge, principle, morality, politeness, cleanliness, and the preservation of health; give all pupils suitable instruction in physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics; keep a school register showing name, sex, daily attendance, and classification of pupils, the point in State course of study where each class beginn and closed, and other data required by State board of education ; require pupils to take proper exercise, encouraging healthful play at recess, and shall give vigilant attention to the temperature and ventilation of schoolroom, eing to it that doors and windows are open at each intermission for the purpose of changing the air of the room; may allow pupils under 8 such recesses as that the time in school shall not exceed three and a half hours a day; shall give two exercises in free gymnastics and suitable voice and breathing exercises daily.

Contracts.-The school board shall hire teachers and shall make contracts specifying wages, number of months to be taught, and the time of beginning, as agreed upon, and shall file such contracts in the office of the district clerk and send a copy to the county clerk. No teacher shall be employed who is related by blood or marriage within the third degree to any member of the board without the concurrence of all members of board and such vote duly recorded by the clerk. Board shall dismiss teachers only for good cause shown, which shall be

recorded by the clerk, and teacher shall have the right of appeal to county superintendent and thence to State superintendent.

Institutes.- The State superintendent shall cause to be held once a year a State teachers' association, at such time and place as in his judgment will best promote the general interests of education. Each county superintendent shall hold a teachers' institute not less than three days each year for the instruction of teachers and those desiring to teach ; 'may revoke the certificate, reduce the grade, or refuse to grant a certificate to any teacher refusing to attend same without cause; shall give each teacher a certificate showing what sessions he attended, by virtue of which certificate teacher shall be entitled to pay for not more than three days during which his school was closed that he might attend institute. (See also Certificates, county.)

Training.-(See Schools, normal.)

3. SCHOOLS.

Scholastic day and month-Attendance-Employment of children-Transporta

tion of pupilsCourses of studyT'ert-booksBuildings and grounds-kindergartens---High school8-Janual training-- Normal schools.

Scholastic day and month.-School shall commence at 9 a. m. and close at 4 p. m., with one hour for recreation at noon, but the school board may order a less number of school hours. Twenty school days make a school month.

Attendance.-Schools are free to all within the district under 21 and over 6 years of age or over 4 where there are kindergartens. Attendance shall be compulsory upon those under 14 during the whole of the school term in the city or town where they reside, unless they be prevented by bodily or mental disability, or unless taught in a private school or at home in similar branches, or have already acquired knowledge of the branches in question; and attendance shall be compulsory upon anyone under 15 wlio is not employed in any lawful work. Deaf-mutes between 8 and 16 are required to attend a suitable institution six months each year for five years. School boards may require vaccination of pupils as a condition precedent to attendance and shall decide low far revaccination shall be required if a case of smallpox has occurred in the vicinity, and may prohibit the attendance of any teacher or pupil for such time as they may determine to prevent the spread of contagious disease.

Employment of children.—No child under 14 shall be employed in any factory, store, workshop, in or about any mine, er in the telegraph, telephone, or public messenger service; nor in any work whatever for compensation during school bours. No child under 16 shall be employed at any work before 6 a. m. nor after 7 n. m., nor longer than ten hours in any day, nor more than six days in any week, and every such child under 16 shall be entitled to not less than thirty minutes for mealtime at noon. No person shall employ, while a school is maintained in the town or city, any minor under 16 who can not read at sight and write legibly simple English sentences, and no parent, guardian, or custodian shall permit any such minor under his control to be so employed. Any parent or guardian violating the provisions of this law shall be liable to a fine of from $5 to $25, and any person or corporation who as employer shall violate the same shall be liable to a fine of from $10 to $25 for the first offense, $25 to $50 for the second, and for the third and each succeeding offense shall be liable to imprisonment from ten to thirty days. The board of inspectors of chill labor in the State of Oregon shall consist of five persons, at least three of whom shall be women, appointed by the governor, one member to retire each year. It shall be unlawful for anyone to employ a child under 16 without first securing from parent or guardian an affidavit stating name, date and place of birth, and the school attended by such child. Employers shall keep a register containing such data, and the said atlida vits shall, upon demand, be shown to the said board of inspection. If any such child may seem physically unable to perform the labor at which he is employed, said inspectors may demand a certificate of physical fitness from some regularly licensed physician, in default of which he shall not be so employed.

Transportation of pupils.-When authorized by a majority rote at any legally called school meeting, the school board shall furnish transportation to and from school for all pupils living more than 2 miles therefrom, and may at their discretion provide for transportation of pupils living nearer than 2 miles, or, instead, may pay the board of any pupil at a suitable place near the school. When authorized by the school meeting, the said board may suspend the district

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