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school and arrange with other districts for the instruction of pupils residing within their district, and may arrange for the transportation of such pupils to and from, or for their board at a suitable place near, such schools. Transportation or board herein referred to may be paid for out of the common school fund, or, when so authorized by the school meeting, a tax may be levied for such purpose.

Course's of study.-In first-class districts the course of study is prescribed by the district school board, who may include therein one modern language upon petition of 100 qualified electors of the district. Districts of the second and third class shall use the course prescribed by the State board of education. In every school shall be given suitable instruction in physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics. (For other branches of study specified by law see Teachers—Certificates. See also High schools.)

Te.rt-books.--In January every four years a the governor shall appoint, from different sections of the State, a board of five text-book commissioners, who shall meet at the State capitol the second Monday in July every six years a (and other times at the call of the chairman or the governor), continue in session not more than fifteen days, and adopt text-books covering all branches specified in the courses of study prepared by the State board of education, which books shall be used in the public schools of the State for six years. Four members shall constitute a quorum ; at least three votes shall be necessary for the choice of any text-book ; sessions shall be public, all votes viva voce, and the vote of each member shall be recorded in the board minutes. Commissioners shall receive $100 for attendance at each meeting, with 10 cents for each mile traveled going and coming.

In February every six years u the State superintendent shall mail circulars to all the leading text-book publishers containing data necessary to the submittal of bids. When text-books have been adopted by said commissioners, they shall report the same, giving title of each book, date of copyright, and prices (exchange, introductory, and retail) to the State board of education, who shall execute a contract in triplicate, requiring each publisher whose book or books shall have been adopted to maintain at least one depository in each county (at places designated by State board of education), where books shall be soid or exchanged at prices named in bids, and contracts shall be secured by bond in such sum and with two such sureties as may be approved by said State board of education.

In August every six years a the State superintendent shall issue a circular giving data concerning books adopted by said text-book board, and send same to each county superintendent in sufficient quantities that every school officer shall have a copy.

In any district where a high school is maintained, the board of school directors shall, in July every six years,a adopt text-books for any branch of study added by them to the branches specified in the State high school course, but no book shall be substituted, directly or indirectly, for one specified in said State

The same provisions regarding voting, contracts, etc., specified in connection with the State board apply similarly to said district boards.

Buildings and grounds.- Whenever in the judgment of the district school board it is desirable or necessary, or whenever petitioned so to do by one-third of the voters of the district, said board shall call a meeting of the district to vote upon the question of the selection, purchase, exchange, or sale of a schoolhouse site, or the erection, removal, or sale of a schoolhouse. If a majority of the voters present at such meeting shall select a site, or shall be in favor of the purchase, exchange, or sale of the schoolhouse, as the case may be, the board shall take action accordingly; but it shall require al concurrence of two-thirds of those present and voting at such meeting to order the removal of a schoolhouse, and such house so removed can not again be removed within three years.

It shall be the duty of the school board to clear the school grounds of brush or other obstructions to a good view of the premises; provide suitable and convenient water-closets, at least two for each school, and keep sune in a clean and wholesome condition; and failure to comply with these provisions shall be sufficient ground for removal from office and for withholding from such district any part of the county school-tax fund, anel the said board have power, without a vote of the district, to levy a tax to cover any expense incurred for such purposes,

course.

& Beginning 1901.

The board shall prosecute any person who shall willfully write, make marks, or draw obscene pictures on any schoolhouse or outbuilding, or otherwise deface or damage any school building or furniture; and such offense shall be punished by a fine of from $5 to $20. When authorized by the district the board may permit a schoolhouse, when not occupied for school purposes, to be used under careful restrictions for any other proper purpose, giving equal privileges to all religious denominations or political parties, provided that stationary furniture shall not be moved, nor shall the district be put to any expense for fuel or otherwise because of such use. No dancing shall be permitted in any schoolroom.

In order that the children may assist in adorning the school grounds with trees, and to encourage the planting and protection of trees and shrubs and the preservation of forests, the afternoon of the second Friday in April each year shall be observed as Arbor Day, for which the State superintendent shall prepare and prescribe a course of exercises and instruction.

Kindergartens.--School boards of first or second class districts, when authorized by such districts, may establish and maintain kindergartens as part of the common school system, which shall be free to children over 4 years of age.

High schools. There are two kinds of high schools—district high schools and county high schools. Upon petition of one-third of the voters of any district, or whenever the school board think proper, the question shall be submitted to the voters of the district whether a high school shall be established and at the place specified; and if a majority of all votes cast shall be in favor of same, it shall be the duty of said board to establish such high school, provide for its maintenance, and select suitable teachers for its various grades. The board may use any part of the county or State school funds, or any funds raised by taxation of the district, for such purpose: Provided, That none of the funds of any district shall be so used unless said district shall also maintain at least eight months' instruction each year in the lower grades. High schools shall be free to all pupils who shall have passed the eighth-grade final examination.

The county court, upon petition of 100 or more qualified electors, taxpayers of the county, must submit the question, at a general or special election, of establishing a county high school; and if said vote shall be affirmative, the court shall within thirty days locate such school in some suitable and convenient place in the county. When said court shall have provided a lot and building, they shall cause same to be deeded to the county high school board, which shall consist of the county judge, the two commissioners, treasurer, and superintendent. Said court or board may rent suitable rooms for said school, or said board may contract with the board of directors of any school district in the county which may maintain a high school grade to teach all county high school pupils at such charge for tuition as may be agreed upon. The county court shall levy a tax to cover cost of establishment and maintenance of said high school or to pay said tuition. More than one high school may be established by the high school board if so ordered by the voters.

The course of study for high schools shall embrace four years, two of which shall be given to required work; it shall be uniform througliout the State, the course being prescribed by the State superintendent. The course of study for the two years of optional work shall be prescribed by the board controlling the district or county high school, after consultation with the State superintendent; all or part of such two years may be devoted to industrial training. Where industrial training is made a part of the course, it may be interspersed with the required studies throughout the four-year course.

All teachers in high schools shall be graduates of one of the State normal schools, or of some institution of collegiate or university grade, or shall hold a State certificate or diploma.

Manual training.-(See Iligh schools.)

Normal schools.The following-named are designated as State normal schools : The Oregon Normal School, at Monmouth, Polk County; the Southern Oregon State Normal School, at Ashland, Jackson County ; the Eastern Normal School, at Weston, Umatilla ('ounty ; the Wasco Independent Academy, at The Dalles, Wasco County; and the Central Oregon Normal School, at Drain, Douglas County. The schools at Monmouth, Ashland, and Drain are each under the control of a board of twelve regents, consisting of the State board of education ex officio and nine members appointed by the governor for six years. The school at Weston is under the control of seven regents appointed by the governor for six years, and that at The Dalles is controlled by a board of trustees. Boards arrange courses of study in conjunction with State superintend

ED 1904 M-30

ent, and confer diplomas upon persons recommended for graduation by the faculty. (See also Teachers-State certificates and diplomas.) In connection with normal schools may be established inodel schools for practice in teaching, and all students may have the privilege of training in the same.

4. FISANCES.

Common school fund-County tar-District tar-Apportionment and disburse

ment-Bonds.

Common school fund.The proceeds of all the lands which have been or hereafter may be grante: to this State for educational purposes (excepting the lands heretofore granted to aid in the establishment of a university) ; all the moneys and clear proceeds of all property which may accrue to the State by escheat or forfeiture; all moneys which may be paid as exemption from military duty; all the proceeds of all gifts, devises, and bequests made by any person to the State for common school purposes; the proceeds of all property granted to the State when the purposes of such grant shall not be stated; all the proceeds of the 500,000 acres of land to which the State is entitled by the provisions of an act of Congress entitled "An act to appropriate the proceeals of the sales of the public lands, and to grant preemption rights,” approvel September 4, 1841: and also the 5 per cent of the net proceeds of the sales of the public lands to which this State shall become entitled on her admission into the Union (if Congress shall consent to such appropriation of the grants last mentioned) shall be set apart as a separate and irreducible fund, to be called the common school fund, the interest of which, together with all revenues derived from the school land mentioned in this section, shall be exclusively applied to the support and maintenance of common schools in each school district, and the purchase of suitable libraries and apparatus therefor.

The governor, secretary of state, and State treasurer shall constitute a board of commissioners for the sale of school and university lands and for the investment of funds arising therefrom. [State constitution.] (See also Bonds.)

County school tar.—The county courts of the sereral counties are required to levy, at the same time they lery other taxes, a tax upon all taxable property in their respective counties for school purposes, which shall aggregate not less than $6 per capita for the children in each county from 4 to 20 years of age, as shown by the last preceding school census.

Fines collected for violations of school law shall lie applied to the support of the common schools.

District school tar.--District meetings shall hare power to lery a tax upon all real and personal property in their district, not to exceed 5 per cent of the taxable values of the district, and make any necessary appropriation for the support and benefit of schools; but no tax shall be levied at any special meeting unless the call for such meeting stated such purpose.

Apportionment and disbursement. The county superintendent shall, on the first Monday in October, and at such other times ils he may deem advisable, make an apportionment of the entire school fund then in the county treasury.

The county tax fund shall be apportioned in the following manner: In October he shall apportion $50 to each district that has reported to him as required by law (see Organization-District school clerks) and $) for each teacher employed by such district who during the year preceding attended a county iustitute or State teachers' association not less than sixteen hours. The remainder of such fund (and any amount to be a portioned at any time other than in October) shall be apportioned according to the number of children resident in each district between the ages of 4 and 20 years as shown by the clerk's last annual report.

On the first Monday in October annually he shall apportion the common or irreducible school fund among the several districts according to population between the ages of 4 and 20 years.

Districts shall not be entitled to their proportion of the school fund unless they shall report to the county superintendent by the second Monday in July each year and shall have had a school taught in their district at least three months. Every member of a school board or district clerk who shall willfully sign a false report with the intent of causing the county superintendent to apportion a larger share than the district's just proportion of school money shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and such district shall also forfeit for each such offense the sum of $25 of its proportion of the school fund. In all districts at

least 85 per cent of the amount received from the county and the irreducible school fund shall be applied on teachers' salaries. (See also Organization-District boards, regarding fuel, furniture, etc.)

Bonds.Upon petition of 10 voters of any school district the school board shall order an election, giving twenty days' notice, to determine whether a bonded debt shall be incurred. If a majority of the votes cast shall be favorable thereto, the board shall issue coupon bonds of the district, interest not to exceed legal rate, payable semiannually, such bonds redeemable at the pleasure of the district after ten years but due and payable twenty years from date. In no case shall the aggregate bonded debt exceed 5 per cent of the taxable values of the school district. The county treasurer shall sell such bonds at the best price obtainable, not less than par, and hold the proceeds subject to the order of the said district board. But before offering for sale notice of such issue shall be given the State land board (see Common school fund), who shall have the preferential right to purchase same, and any surplus of the irreducible school fund or any other fund held by said State land board shall be invested as far as possible in the bonds and warrants issued by the various school districts within the State.

The directors of such district must levy annually a tax sufficient to pay the interest accruing on said bonds as it becomes due, and er years shall also lery an amount not less than one-tenth of such unpaid bonds for a sinking fund to meet the payment of such bonds at maturity.

PENNSYLVANIA.

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State superintendent and deputyCounty superintendent-Directors and con

trollers--Local superintendents.

State superintendent.-A superintendent of public instruction shall be appointed by the governor every fourth year, by and with the advice and consent of two-thirds of all the senate, and shall be removed by the governor for misbehavior. Ile shall decide without appeal or costs all controversies or disputes that may arise or exist among the directors or controllers of any district, or between collectors or treasurers; give advice, explanations, construction, or information to the district otlicers and citizens relative to the common school law, the duties of common school oflicers, the rights and duties of parents, guardians, and pupils, and the management of the schools, and all other questions calculated to promote the cause of education; sign orders on the State treasurer for payment of State money to the school districts; prepare blank forms for the annual district reports, with suitable instructions, and forward them; prepare an annual report containing a full account of the condition of the public schools, the expenditures for them, estimates for the year ensuing, the number of pupils, the cost of teaching each, the number of districts, plans for the improvement of the system, and all such matters relating to the common schools and to the duties of his office as he may deem expedient to communicate; provide a seal for the authentication of official documents. Ile shall appoint one of his clerks general deputy, who may perform all his duties in his absence, and remove any county superintendent for neglect of duty.

County superintendents. The school directors of the several districts in each county shall meet in convention at the county seat every three years and select one person of literary and scientific attainments (college diploma, State or local certificate), and of three years' experience in the art of teaching, and of good moral character, as county superintendent for three succeeding school years. His salary shall be $10 for each of the first 100 schools within his jurisdiction, $5 for each school above 100 and not over 200, and $2 each for each school above 200, but in no case to be less than $1.000 nor more than $2,000. School directors may increase the county superintendent's salary from the school fund of the county, and in counties having over 290 schools or 1,200 square miles of territory or a school term exceeding seven and one-half months the salary paid shall not be less than $1,500. The county superintendent may not teach in the public schools uinless he does so without compensation. He shall take oatlı to perforin his duties to the best of his ability; visit as often as practicable the several schools of his county, noting the character of instruction and the

methods, and giving directions upon these subjects in order to bring the teaching up to the grade intended and the grades into ordination and the schools into uniformity; see that the branches required by law are taught by legally competent teachers, examine all candidates for teaching, grant certificates to qualified persons and revoke the same for cause; annually report to the State superintendent in extenso upon the educational condition of his county, forward the reports of the several school districts thereof, and hold teachers' institutes annually.

Directors and controllers.--Every township, borough, and city of this Commonwealth, or which shall hereafter be erected, shall be a school district. School districts which are composed of cities and boroughs divided into wards for school purposes shall be constituted as follows: Each ward shall retain its school property and elect a separate board of directors, who shall have the erection and repair of schoolhouses, the purchase of sites, and the levying, assessing, collecting, and disbursing of all taxes laid for the above purposes ; but other powers and duties which are exercised by district school directors shall be in the hands of a board of controllers, composed of the directors of the several wards; provided that whenever the ward boards of directors shall voluntarily grant the property of their wards to the board of controllers the city or borough shall constitute a single school district, but the number of directors shall thereafter be three for each ward.

School directors shall be elected annually in other districts as follows: At the same time and place that elections are held for supervisors in wards, cities, or boroughs, two qualified citizens shall be elected school directors in each district, whose term of office shall be three years, vacancies to be filled by the board. No school director may be also a constable, pathmaster, commissioner of roads, or auditor. Failure on the part of a member to attend two consecutive meetings and the failure of all the members of the board of directors or controllers to levy a tax to keep the schools in operation or to provide schoolhouses, vacates the delinquent member's seat in the first case, and vacates the seats of every member in the second. The board elects a president, secretary, and treasurer, and holds a meeting at least once in every three months.

Directors of a township, or of two or more townships jointly, may establish high schools, which, maintaining the course prescribed by the State superintendent, shall be entitled to an appropriation from the State of $400 for a twoyears' course beyond the common branches, $600 for a three-years' course, and $800 for a four-years' course,

The district board of directors and the municipal board of controllers have the following duties and powers: To establish a suflicient number of schools, employ teachers, direct what branches shall be taught and books used, expel all incorrigible children, purchase and issue text-books, and other necessary supplies, and report the amount expended for such supplies, grade the schools, pay expenses of the schools by drafts on the district treasurer, and report and publish annually a statement of the financial operations of the district in not less than ten written or printed handbills posted in the most public places of the district, and also to make a statement to the auditor.

The board of controllers of school districts which are composed of cities or boroughs divided into wards for school purposes, or boroughs not so divided, but having a population of 5,000 or more, shall possess the following additional powers and have the following duties : They may establish high schools, and shall admit to them all under 21 years of age properly prepared to enter upon the course of study, and, in general, shall exercise supervision over them, appointing the teachers and establishing the course of study, purchasing land and erecting buildings, and maintaining them for not less than ten months in the year.

Cities of under 100,000 inhabitants are constituteil one school district, each ward to elect two members of the board of controllers for four-year terms, one going out biennially.

The county superintendent shall annually call all the directors together, at some time when the county teachers' institute is not in session, for the consideration of questions pertaining to school administration. Each director attending receives 3 cents per mile for traveling expenses, and to defray the expenses of the convention the county pays a dollar for each director in attendance, the maximum amount being $100.

City, borough, and township superintenılents.--School directors in any city, borough or township having a population of over 5,000 may elect one person of literary and scientific acquirements, and skill and experience in the art of teaching, as city or borough superintendent for the three succeeding school

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